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1.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 32: 122-34, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302920

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health amongst the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Consenso , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dieta , Peixes , Embalagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Espanha
2.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 969-88, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365001

RESUMO

Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Mercúrio/genética , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/patologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacocinética , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Estado Nutricional , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Alimentos Marinhos , Caracteres Sexuais , Toxicocinética
3.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365002

RESUMO

The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/epidemiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Gravidez , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 969-988, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132303

RESUMO

El mercurio es un tóxico ambiental que causa numerosos efectos adversos en la salud humana y en los ecosistemas naturales. Los factores que determinan la aparición de efectos adversos y su severidad son entre otros: la forma química del mercurio (elemental, inorgánico, orgánico), la dosis, la edad, la duración de la exposición, la vía de exposición y los factores ambientales, nutricionales y genéticos. En el ciclo acuático del mercurio, una vez que se ha depositado, se transforma en metilmercurio por la acción de determinadas bacterias sulfato reductoras y se bioacumula en los organismos acuáticos incorporándose a la cadena trófica de alimentos. El contenido de metilmercurio es mayor en las especies depredadoras de mayor tamaño y que viven más años como el emperador, pez espada, tiburón, atún o marlín. El metilmercurio se halla unido a las proteínas del pescado por lo que no se elimina mediante la limpieza ni el cocinado del mismo. El feto en desarrollo y los niños pequeños son los más vulnerables a los efectos neurotóxicos del metilmercurio procedente de la ingesta de pescado contaminado. El metilmercurio se absorbe en el tracto gastrointestinal y atraviesa la barrera hematoencefálica y la placenta. Algunos componentes de la dieta como los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, el selenio, la fibra, los compuestos tiol, algunos fitoquímicos y otros nutrientes pueden modificar la bioaccesibilidad del mercurio y su toxicidad. Además de los factores ambientales, los factores genéticos pueden influir en la toxicidad del mercurio y explicar parte de la vulnerabilidad individual (AU)


Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/síntese química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/uso terapêutico , Farmacocinética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacologia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/instrumentação , Selênio , Selênio
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132304

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, se ha referido que la ingesta excesiva de metilmercurio procedente del pescado contaminado produce toxicidad neurológica en los niños afectando a la función cognitiva, la memoria, la función visual-motora y al lenguaje. Después de las intoxicaciones de Minamata e Iraq, se realizaron grandes estudios epidemiológicos en Nueva Zelanda, las islas Féroe y las islas Seychelles y se establecieron recomendaciones internacionales sobre el consumo de pescado y marisco en las mujeres embarazadas y niños pequeños. En España, el proyecto Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) ha estudiado los efectos del medio ambiente y de la dieta sobre el desarrollo fetal e infantil en diversas zonas geográficas de España. Los estudios realizados nacionales e internacionales muestran que la concentración de mercurio depende principalmente del consumo de pescado, aunque existe una variabilidad entre los países que podría explicarse no solo por la cantidad de pescado consumida, sino también por el tipo o especies de pescados que se consumen, así como por otro tipo de factores. Aunque los efectos perjudiciales del metilmercurio mejor documentados son los que se producen sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso en el feto y en el recién nacido, cada vez hay más estudios que indican que también puede afectar a la función cognitiva, reproducción y especialmente al riesgo cardiovascular en la población adulta. Sin embargo, son necesarios más estudios para confirmarlo y establecer la existencia de una relación causal (AU)


The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles andinternational recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Animais , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio , Alimentos Marinhos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alimentação
6.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(1): 16-31, 2014 Nov 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561095

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta king into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Criança , Consenso , Dieta Mediterrânea , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
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