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1.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Neuropsiquiatr ; 39(135): 133-155, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-3983

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: La esquizofrenia se caracteriza por una distorsión del pensamiento, las percepciones, las emociones, el lenguaje, la conciencia de sí mismo y la conducta. Afecta a más de 21 millones de personas en todo el mundo y es una de las 10 enfermedades más incapacitantes según la Organización Mundial de la Salud; sin embargo, existe escasa evidencia sobre el déficit lingüístico con el que cursa la enfermedad. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio transversal y cuasi-experimental donde se analizan los datos de diferentes pruebas lingüísticas de las áreas de semántica y fonología en una muestra compuesta por 96 sujetos, de los cuales 48 (50%) tienen esquizofrenia y componen el grupo experimental y otros 48 (50%) no tienen ninguna enfermedad mental y componen el grupo control. Según la clasificación de Crow, el 56,2% de los participantes con esquizofrenia (27 sujetos) presentaba sintomatología positiva y el 43,8% (21 sujetos) presentaba sintomatología negativa. Resultados: Se observa un patrón de déficit según la sintomatología, así como una afectación de las áreas lingüísticas evaluadas (semántica y fonología). Conclusiones: La esquizofrenia cursa con déficit lingüístico en la semántica y en la fonología, siendo necesario evaluar dichas áreas lingüísticas para poder intervenir logopédica y multidisciplinarmente sobre ellas


Background and objective: Schizophrenia is characterized by a distortion of thin-king, perceptions, emotions, language, self-awareness, and behaviour. It affects more than 21 million people worldwide and is one of the 10 most disabling diseases according to the World Health Organization. However, there is little evidence of language deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Method: This is a cross-sectional and quasi-experimental study in which the data of the evaluation of different linguistic tests in the areas of semantics and phonology are analysed. The sample consisted of 96 subjects, 48 of whom (50%) had schizophrenia and made up the experimental group and other 48 (50%) had no mental illness and made up the control group. According to the classification of Crow, 56.2% (27 subjects) presented with positive symptomatology and 43.8% (21 subjects) presented with negative symptoms. Results: A deficit pattern according to the symptomatology was observed, as well as an affectation of all the areas examined in the study (semantics and phonology). Conclusions: Schizophrenia involves a linguistic deficit in semantics and phonology. It is necessary to assess these linguistic areas in order to intervene from a multidisciplinary approach, including speech therapy

3.
J Med Imaging Radiat Sci ; 49(1): 118, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479279

Assuntos
Próstata , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Br J Radiol ; 90(1078): 20170173, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749168

RESUMO

Daily clinical practice is an important source of stress and emotional exhaustion. In the health field, patients could experience a significant number of emotional reactions. There are high levels of anxiety in patients referred for medical imaging, and these levels are even higher in patients undergoing complicated diagnostic procedures. All this shows the need to understand that anxiety must be diagnosed and treated. This situation forces radiologist to develop emotional and social skills to resolve difficulties that may arise in the communicative act. In the patient-radiologist interaction, many elements have been analysed, being communication and communicative skills one of the most important elements. The objective is to present an emotional management tool, the U-technique. It consists of four movements: sympathize, empathize, feel the antidote emotion and spread the antidote emotion in order that the health professionals recognize their emotional state in each moment of the relationship with the patient.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Emoções , Autocuidado/métodos , Empatia , Humanos , Serviço Hospitalar de Radiologia
9.
Rev. clín. med. fam ; 9(2): 83-90, jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-155702

RESUMO

Objetivo: Estudiar el grado de conocimiento sobre la estimulación prenatal y los beneficios que se obtienen de esta en mujeres embarazadas de dos Centros de Salud de Talavera de la Reina (Toledo). Diseño del estudio: Estudio observacional transversal. Emplazamiento: Centros de Salud urbanos de Talavera de la Reina, Toledo. (C.S. La Solana y C.S. La Algodonera). Participantes: 26 mujeres gestantes (edad media de 30,92 años y 7,23 meses de gestación). Mediciones principales: Mediante muestreo consecutivo se seleccionaron gestantes del programa de preparación al parto que respondieron un cuestionario elaborado 'ad hoc' acerca del conocimiento y beneficios de la estimulación prenatal o intrauterina. También se recogieron variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: El 53,8 % (IC 95 %: 33,3-73,4) de las mujeres gestantes no había escuchado hablar de la estimulación prenatal ni conoce de la importancia de esta. Un 96,2 % (IC 95 %: 80,3-99,9) de las madres gestantes no sabe de la existencia de ningún centro especializado o centro de salud en el que se realice esta práctica. Al 76,9 % (IC 95 %: 56,3-91) de las mujeres gestantes no le han explicado lo que es la estimulación prenatal ni los beneficios, sin embargo el 96,2 % (IC 95 %: 80,3-99,9) de embarazadas cree que la estimulación prenatal ofrece beneficios a su futuro hijo/a. Conclusiones: Existe un alto porcentaje de mujeres que desconoce lo que es la estimulación prenatal, su importancia y los centros donde esta se realiza, así como una falta de información por parte de las matronas sobre la estimulación prenatal y sus beneficios (AU)


Objective: Study the level of knowledge about prenatal stimulation and its benefits of pregnant women in two primary health care centres in Talavera de la Reina (Toledo). Study Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Location: Primary health care urban centres in Talavera de la Reina, Toledo (CHC La Solana and CHC La Algodonera). Participants: 26 pregnant women with an average age of 30.92. Gestational age was 7.23 months. Main measurements: Consecutive sampling of pregnant women attending the preparation for childbirth program, who answered a questionnaire prepared 'ad hoc' about knowledge and benefits of prenatal or intrauterine stimulation. Socio-demographic variables were also collected. Results: 53.8% (CI 95%: 33.3-73.4) of pregnant women had not heard about prenatal stimulation and do not know its importance. 96.2% (CI 95%: 80.3-99.9) of pregnant mothers do not know any specialized centre or health care centre in which this practice is carried out. 76.9% (CI 95%: 56.3-91) of pregnant women have not been told about prenatal stimulation or its benefits. However, 96.2% (CI 95%: 80.3-99.9) of pregnant women believe that prenatal stimulation offers benefits to their unborn children. Conclusions: There is a high percentage of women who are ignorant of what prenatal stimulation is, its importance and the centres where it is carried out, as well as a lack of explanation of prenatal stimulation and its benefits by midwives (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Conhecimento , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Pré-Natal/métodos , Educação Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Idade Gestacional , Tocologia/educação , Tocologia/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/métodos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Aging Ment Health ; 20(10): 1063-9, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26134094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Higher well-being in older adults compared to young adults is a well-known phenomenon. However, the variables associated with this effect are still uncertain. Negative repetitive thinking (rumination) is a transdiagnostic variable related to psychopathology. It is strongly associated with depression and a lack of specificity in autobiographical retrieval. This research explores age differences in the association of rumination with mood, autobiographical memories and working memory. METHOD: Two groups of participants (older adults versus young adults), recruited through a public announcement, were compared in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Older adults ruminated less than young participants. Rumination was positively associated with depression scores but not with working memory scores in both samples. More importantly, the interaction between brooding rumination and negative autobiographical memories was the only significant variable to explain the variance of mood scores in young participants. However, in older participants, the interaction between brooding and positive autobiographical memories significantly explained the variance of mood scores. Digit span forward and the interaction of brooding by negative autobiographical memories also significantly explained mood scores in older adults. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a different interaction between brooding rumination and the valence of autobiographical memories may be a relevant variable associated with mood differences by age.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Pensamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
An. psicol ; 29(1): 83-89, ene.-abr. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-109321

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio es describir las propiedades psicométricas de una nueva escala multidimensional para evaluar las actitudes sobre el VIH/SIDA en adolescentes, la Escala de Actitudes hacia el VIH/SIDA (HIV-AS). Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio con el fin de obtener la estructura factorial del instrumento, que fue puesta a prueba con un análisis factorial confirmatorio. Se analizó la invarianza factorial en función del sexo y la edad mediante ecuaciones estructurales multigrupo. Se examinó la fiabilidad, validez convergente y discriminante. Los análisis se realizaron con una muestra formada por 1216 adolescentes españoles. El cuestionario quedó compuesto por 12 ítems distribuidos en cuatro factores: 1) Actitud hacia las conductas de protección cuando existen obstáculos, 2) Actitud hacia la prueba de detección del VIH, 3) Actitud hacia el uso de preservativo, y 4) Actitud hacia las personas con VIH/SIDA. El cuestiona-rio HIV-AS muestra una alta validez y fiabilidad, y una estructura de cuatro factores equivalente en los tres grupos de edad analizados. Se considera que la escala puede ser empleada de forma parsimoniosa para evaluar aspectos relevantes de las actitudes hacia el VIH/SIDA en adolescentes (AU)


This paper aims to describe the psychometric properties of a new brief multidimensional scale to measure HIV/AIDS related attitudes for adolescents, the HIV Attitudes Scale (HIV-AS). Exploratory analysis aimed to find the theory-driven structure and to develop an empirically de-rived factor structure for HIV-AS, which was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis. Factorial invariance was studied across gender and age, and multigroup structural equation approach was used in order to compare the groups. Reliability, convergent and discriminant validity were examined. The analyses were based on a sample of 1216 Spanish adolescents. The instrument consists of 12 items distributed across four major factors: 1) Attitudes towards safe sex when there are obstacles, 2) Attitudes towards the HIV test, 3) Attitudes towards condom use, and 4) Attitudes towards people living with the AIDS. The HIV-AS shows good validity and internal re-liability and equivalent four-factor structure across gender and the three age groups studied. It can be consider as a capable and parsimonious self-report scale for assessing major aspects of HIV/AIDS-related attitudes for adolescents (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/tendências , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Psicometria/organização & administração , Psicometria/normas , HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 15(2): 145-157, jun. 2003. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-31158

RESUMO

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar si existe relación entre determinadas variables de personalidad (búsqueda de sensaciones, autoconcepto y asertividad) y el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis. La muestra está formada por 243 sujetos de 1º ESO correspondientes a 4 colegios de Toledo. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la intensa relación que tiene la búsqueda de sensaciones con el consumo de drogas. En cuanto al autoconcepto indican que, aunque el autoconcepto general tiene poca relación con esta conducta, el autoconcepto familiar y académico sí parecen tener un efecto protector respecto al consumo de drogas. Ello subraya la importancia preventiva del ámbito familiar y la necesidad de trabajar sobre la mejora del autoconcepto académico, más que sobre el puro rendimiento escolar, ya que este último ha mostrado escasa relación con el consumo de drogas. En cuanto al autoconcepto social tiene también poca relación con el consumo de sustancias, lo cual parece desaconsejar que los programas de prevención se centren en el desarrollo de habilidades sociales generales, y es consistente con la débil relación encontrada entre la asertividad y el consumo de drogas. El autoconcepto emocional, en contra de lo esperado, muestra una relación directa con el consumo de las sustancias estudiadas (AU)


The purpose of the present work is to analyse if there is a relationship between certain personality variables (sensationseeking, self-concept and assertiveness) and tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use. The sample consisted of 243, 12 year old students of 4 schools in Toledo. The results indicated the strong relationship between sensation-seeking and drug use. As far as the selfconcept, the results indicated that, although general self-concept has little relation with behaviour, the family and academic self-concept do seem to have a protector effect in drug-use. This underlines the preventive importance of the family environment and the necessity of working to improve academic self-concept, rather than the purely academic performance, as the latter has shown little relation with drug-use. As far as the social-concept is concerned, there is also little relation with substances use, which seems to advise against basing prevention programmes on the development of general social skills, and is consistent with the weak relationship found between assertiveness and drug-use. Emotional self-concept, contrary to what we expected, indicates a direct relation with the use of the substances studied (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Sensação , Sensação/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Assertividade , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Autoimagem , Baixo Rendimento Escolar
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