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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14368, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591461

RESUMO

Last advances in the treatment of pediatric tumors has led to an increase of survival rates of children affected by primitive neuroectodermal tumors, however, still a significant amount of the patients do not overcome the disease. In addition, the survivors might suffer from severe side effects caused by the current standard treatments. Oncolytic virotherapy has emerged in the last years as a promising alternative for the treatment of solid tumors. In this work, we study the anti-tumor effect mediated by the oncolytic adenovirus VCN-01 in CNS-PNET models. VCN-01 is able to infect and replicate in PNET cell cultures, leading to a cytotoxicity and immunogenic cell death. In vivo, VCN-01 increased significantly the median survival of mice and led to long-term survivors in two orthotopic models of PNETs. In summary, these results underscore the therapeutic effect of VCN-01 for rare pediatric cancers such as PNETs, and warrants further exploration on the use of this virus to treat them.

2.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 64, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036068

RESUMO

Pediatric high grade gliomas (pHGG), including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), are aggressive tumors with a dismal outcome. Radiotherapy (RT) is part of the standard of care of these tumors; however, radiotherapy only leads to a transient clinical improvement. Delta-24-RGD is a genetically engineered tumor-selective adenovirus that has shown safety and clinical efficacy in adults with recurrent gliomas. In this work, we evaluated the feasibility, safety and therapeutic efficacy of Delta-24-RGD in combination with radiotherapy in pHGGs and DIPGs models. Our results showed that the combination of Delta-24-RGD with radiotherapy was feasible and resulted in a synergistic anti-glioma effect in vitro and in vivo in pHGG and DIPG models. Interestingly, Delta-24-RGD treatment led to the downregulation of relevant DNA damage repair proteins, further sensitizing tumors cells to the effect of radiotherapy. Additionally, Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy treatment significantly increased the trafficking of immune cells (CD3, CD4+ and CD8+) to the tumor niche compared with single treatments. In summary, administration of the Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy combination to pHGG and DIPG models is safe and significantly increases the overall survival of mice bearing these tumors. Our data offer a rationale for the combination Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy as a therapeutic option for children with these tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: Delta-24-RGD/radiotherapy administration is safe and significantly increases the survival of treated mice. These positive data underscore the urge to translate this approach to the clinical treatment of children with pHGG and DIPGs.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2235, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138805

RESUMO

Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive pediatric brain tumors in desperate need of a curative treatment. Oncolytic virotherapy is emerging as a solid therapeutic approach. Delta-24-RGD is a replication competent adenovirus engineered to replicate in tumor cells with an aberrant RB pathway. This virus has proven to be safe and effective in adult gliomas. Here we report that the administration of Delta-24-RGD is safe in mice and results in a significant increase in survival in immunodeficient and immunocompetent models of pHGG and DIPGs. Our results show that the Delta-24-RGD antiglioma effect is mediated by the oncolytic effect and the immune response elicited against the tumor. Altogether, our data highlight the potential of this virus as treatment for patients with these tumors. Of clinical significance, these data have led to the start of a phase I/II clinical trial at our institution for newly diagnosed DIPG (NCT03178032).


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/terapia , Glioma/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Vírus Oncolíticos , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Gradação de Tumores , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1193, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults that produces aberrant osteoid. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of 2-deoxy-2-[18F-] fluoro-D-glucose ([18F] FDG) and sodium [18F] Fluoride (Na [18F] F) PET scans in orthotopic murine models of osteosarcoma to describe the metabolic pattern of the tumors, to detect and diagnose tumors and to evaluate the efficacy of a new treatment based in oncolytic adenoviruses. METHODS: Orthotopic osteosarcoma murine models were created by the injection of 143B and 531MII cell lines. [18F]FDG and Na [18F] F PET scans were performed 30 days (143B) and 90 days (531MII) post-injection. The antitumor effect of two doses (107 and 108 pfu) of the oncolytic adenovirus VCN-01 was evaluated in 531 MII model by [18F] FDG PET studies. [18F] FDG uptake was quantified by SUVmax and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG) indexes. For Na [18F] F, the ratio tumor SUVmax/hip SUVmax was calculated. PET findings were confirmed by histopathological techniques. RESULTS: The metabolic pattern of tumors was different between both orthotopic models. All tumors showed [18F] FDG uptake, with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The [18F] FDG uptake was significantly higher for the 143B model (p < 0.001). Sensitivity for Na [18F] F was around 70% in both models, with a specificity of 100%. 531MII tumors showed a heterogeneous Na [18F] F uptake, significantly higher than 143B tumors (p < 0.01). Importantly, [18F] FDG and Na [18F] F uptake corresponded to highly cellular or osteoid-rich tumors in the histopathological analysis, respectively. [18F] FDG data confirmed that the oncolytic treatment of 531MII tumors produced a significant reduction in growth even with the 107 pfu dose. CONCLUSIONS: PET studies demonstrated that the different osteosarcoma xenograft models developed tumors with diverse metabolic patterns that can be described by multitracer PET studies. Since not all tumors produced abundant osteoid, [18F] FDG demonstrated a better sensitivity for tumor detection and was able to quantitatively monitor in vivo response to the oncolytic adenovirus VCN-01.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
5.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(8): e1450711, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221041

RESUMO

In spite of the success of PD-1 blocking antibodies in the clinic their benefits are still restricted to a small fraction of patients. Immune-desert tumors and/or the highly immunosuppressive tumor milieu might hamper the success of PD-1/PD-L1 blocking therapies into a broader range of cancer patients. Although still under debate, there is a cumulative body of evidence that indicates B tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are a good prognostic marker in most types of cancer, especially in those that form ectopic lymphoid tissue structures. Taking this into account, we reason that the adoptive transfer of activated B lymphoblasts (ABL) in the tumor could be a feasible therapeutic approach to shift the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment into an immune-permissive one. In this work we show the antitumor effect of ABL therapy in two different tumor models: colon carcinoma (CT26) and melanoma (B16/F10). The ABL transfer in the most relevant non-immunogenic B16/F10 melanoma model depicts synergism with anti-PD-1 antibody therapy. Furthermore, systemic antitumor immunity was detected in mice treated with PD-1 antibody/ABL combination which was able to reach distal metastatic lesions.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(6)2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857493

RESUMO

With the progress of immunotherapy in cancer, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have attracted more and more attention during the past decade. Due to their cancer-selective and immunogenic properties, OVs are considered ideal candidates to be combined with immunotherapy to increase both specificity and efficacy in cancer treatment. OVs preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, resulting in in situ autovaccination leading to adaptive anti-virus and anti-tumor immunity. The main challenge in OV approaches is how to redirect the host immunity from anti-virus to anti-tumor and optimize the clinical outcome of cancer patients. Here, we summarize the conceptual updates on oncolytic virotherapy and immunotherapy in cancer, and the development of strategies to enhance the virus-mediated anti-tumor immune response, including: (1) arm OVs with cytokines to modulate innate and adaptive immunity; (2) combining OVs with immune checkpoint inhibitors to release T cell inhibition; (3) combining OVs with immune co-stimulators to enhance T cell activation. Future studies need to be enforced on developing strategies to augment the systemic effect on metastasized tumors.

7.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(7): 930-941, 2018 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373718

RESUMO

Background: Glioblastoma, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is genetically heterogeneous. Alternative splicing (AS) plays a key role in numerous pathologies, including cancer. The objectives of our study were to determine whether aberrant AS could play a role in the malignant phenotype of glioma and to understand the mechanism underlying its aberrant regulation. Methods: We obtained surgical samples from patients with glioblastoma who underwent 5-aminolevulinic fluorescence-guided surgery. Biopsies were taken from the tumor center as well as from adjacent normal-appearing tissue. We used a global splicing array to identify candidate genes aberrantly spliced in these glioblastoma samples. Mechanistic and functional studies were performed to elucidate the role of our top candidate splice variant, BAF45d, in glioblastoma. Results: BAF45d is part of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable complex and plays a key role in the development of the CNS. The BAF45d/6A isoform is present in 85% of over 200 glioma samples that have been analyzed and contributes to the malignant glioma phenotype through the maintenance of an undifferentiated cellular state. We demonstrate that BAF45d splicing is mediated by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) and that BAF45d regulates PTBP1, uncovering a reciprocal interplay between RNA splicing regulation and transcription. Conclusions: Our data indicate that AS is a mechanism that contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma. Understanding the consequences of this biological process will uncover new therapeutic targets for this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
J Bone Oncol ; 9: 41-47, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226089

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer among those with non-hematological origin and affects mainly pediatric patients. In the last 50 years, refinements in surgical procedures, as well as the introduction of aggressive neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapeutic cocktails, have increased to nearly 70% the survival rate of these patients. Despite the initial therapeutic progress the fight against osteosarcoma has not substantially improved during the last three decades, and almost 30% of the patients do not respond or recur after the standard treatment. For this group there is an urgent need to implement new therapeutic approaches. Oncolytic adenoviruses are conditionally replicative viruses engineered to selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells, while remaining quiescent in healthy cells. In the last years there have been multiple preclinical and clinical studies using these viruses as therapeutic agents in the treatment of a broad range of cancers, including osteosarcoma. In this review, we summarize some of the most relevant published literature about the use of oncolytic adenoviruses to treat human osteosarcoma tumors in subcutaneous, orthotopic and metastatic mouse models. In conclusion, up to date the preclinical studies with oncolytic adenoviruses have demonstrated that are safe and efficacious against local and metastatic osteosarcoma. Knowledge arising from phase I/II clinical trials with oncolytic adenoviruses in other tumors have shown the potential of viruses to awake the patient´s own immune system generating a response against the tumor. Generating osteosarcoma immune-competent adenoviruses friendly models will allow to better understand this potential. Future clinical trials with oncolytic adenoviruses for osteosarcoma tumors are warranted.

9.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0170501, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this work we set to develop and to validate a new in vivo frameless orthotopic Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) model based in the implantation of a guide-screw system. METHODS: It consisted of a guide-screw also called bolt, a Hamilton syringe with a 26-gauge needle and an insulin-like 15-gauge needle. The guide screw is 2.6 mm in length and harbors a 0.5 mm central hole which accepts the needle of the Hamilton syringe avoiding a theoretical displacement during insertion. The guide-screw is fixed on the mouse skull according to the coordinates: 1mm right to and 0.8 mm posterior to lambda. To reach the pons the Hamilton syringe is adjusted to a 6.5 mm depth using a cuff that serves as a stopper. This system allows delivering not only cells but also any kind of intratumoral chemotherapy, antibodies or gene/viral therapies. RESULTS: The guide-screw was successfully implanted in 10 immunodeficient mice and the animals were inoculated with DIPG human cell lines during the same anesthetic period. All the mice developed severe neurologic symptoms and had a median overall survival of 95 days ranging the time of death from 81 to 116 days. Histopathological analysis confirmed tumor into the pons in all animals confirming the validity of this model. CONCLUSION: Here we presented a reproducible and frameless DIPG model that allows for rapid evaluation of tumorigenicity and efficacy of chemotherapeutic or gene therapy products delivered intratumorally to the pons.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glioma/etiologia , Transplante de Neoplasias/métodos , Animais , Tronco Encefálico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Agulhas , Neoplasias Experimentais
10.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0163155, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27669421

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with poor survival despite multimodal treatments. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are cells functionally defined by their self-renewal potential and the ability to reconstitute the original tumor upon orthotopic implantation. They have been postulated to be the culprit of glioma chemo- and radio-resistance ultimately leading to relapse. Understanding the molecular circuits governing the GSC compartment is essential. SOX2, a critical transcription regulator of embryonic and neural stem cell function, is deregulated in GSCs however; the precise molecular pathways regulated by this gene in GSCs remain poorly understood. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide analysis of SOX2-regulated transcripts in GSCs, using a microarray. We identified a total of 2048 differentially expressed coding transcripts and 261 non-coding transcripts. Cell adhesion and cell-cell signaling are among the most enriched terms using Gene Ontology (GO) classification. The pathways altered after SOX2 down-modulation includes multiple cellular processes such as amino-acid metabolism and intercellular signaling cascades. We also defined and classified the set of non-coding transcripts differentially expressed regulated by SOX2 in GSCs, and validated two of them. CONCLUSIONS: We present a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome controlled by SOX2 in GSCs, gaining insights in the understanding of the potential roles of SOX2 in glioblastoma.

12.
Neuro Oncol ; 18(8): 1109-19, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from protein misfolding imbalance and has been postulated as a therapeutic strategy. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response which leads to a complex cellular response, including the upregulation of aberrant protein degradation in the ER, with the goal of resolving that stress. O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG), and Rad51 are DNA damage repair proteins that mediate resistance to temozolomide in glioblastoma. In this work we sought to evaluate whether ER stress-inducing drugs were able to downmodulate DNA damage repair proteins and become candidates to combine with temozolomide. METHODS: MTT assays were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the treatments. The expression of proteins was evaluated using western blot and immunofluorescence. In vivo studies were performed using 2 orthotopic glioblastoma models in nude mice to evaluate the efficacy of the treatments. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Treatment of glioblastoma cells with ER stress-inducing drugs leads to downregulation of MGMT, MPG, and Rad51. Inhibition of ER stress through pharmacological treatment resulted in rescue of MGMT, MPG, and Rad51 protein levels. Moreover, treatment of glioblastoma cells with salinomycin, an ER stress-inducing drug, and temozolomide resulted in enhanced DNA damage and a synergistic antitumor effect in vitro. Of importance, treatment with salinomycin/temozolomide resulted in a significant antiglioma effect in 2 aggressive orthotopic intracranial brain tumor models. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a strong rationale for combining temozolomide with ER stress-inducing drugs as an alternative therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Piranos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Glicosilases/metabolismo , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/administração & dosagem , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Camundongos , Piranos/farmacologia , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Temozolomida , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0147211, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26808201

RESUMO

Despite the recent advances in the development of antitumor therapies, the prognosis for patients with malignant gliomas remains dismal. Therapy with tumor-selective viruses is emerging as a treatment option for this devastating disease. In this study we characterize the anti-glioma effect of VCN-01, an improved hyaluronidase-armed pRB-pathway-selective oncolytic adenovirus that has proven safe and effective in the treatment of several solid tumors. VCN-01 displayed a significant cytotoxic effect on glioma cells in vitro. In vivo, in two different orthotopic glioma models, a single intra-tumoral administration of VCN-01 increased overall survival significantly and led to long-term survivors free of disease.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/fisiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioma/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos/fisiologia , Proteínas E1A de Adenovirus/genética , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , Genes Sintéticos , Genes Virais , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Injeções Intralesionais , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Replicação Viral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(9): 2217-25, 2016 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603261

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Despite aggressive chemotherapy, more than 30% of patients do not respond and develop bone or lung metastasis. Oncolytic adenoviruses engineered to specifically destroy cancer cells are a feasible option for osteosarcoma treatment. VCN-01 is a replication-competent adenovirus specifically engineered to replicate in tumors with a defective RB pathway, presents an enhanced infectivity through a modified fiber and an improved distribution through the expression of a soluble hyaluronidase. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether the use of VCN-01 would be an effective therapeutic strategy for pediatric osteosarcoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used osteosarcoma cell lines established from patients with metastatic disease (531MII, 678R, 588M, and 595M) and a commercial cell line (143B). MTT assays were carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of VCN-01. Hexon assays were used to evaluate the replication of the virus. Western blot analysis was performed to assess the expression levels of viral proteins and autophagic markers. The antitumor effect of VCN-01 was evaluated in orthotopic and metastatic osteosarcoma murine animal models. RESULTS: This study found that VCN-01, a new generation genetically modified oncolytic adenovirus, administered locally or systemically, had a potent antisarcoma effect in vitro and in vivo in mouse models of intratibial and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Moreover, VCN-01 administration showed a safe toxicity profile. CONCLUSIONS: These results uncover VCN-01 as a promising strategy for osteosarcoma, setting the bases to propel a phase I/II trial for kids with this disease. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2217-25. ©2015 AACR.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/virologia , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Osteossarcoma/virologia , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Terapia Genética/métodos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Pediatria , Replicação Viral/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
15.
J Bone Miner Res ; 29(10): 2287-96, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24737304

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The presence of metastases and the lack of response to conventional treatment are the major adverse prognostic factors. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new treatment strategies that overcome both of these problems. Our purpose was to elucidate whether the use of the oncolytic adenovirus Δ24-RGD alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy would be effective, in vitro and in vivo, against osteosarcoma. Our results showed that Δ24-RGD exerted a potent antitumor effect against osteosarcoma cell lines that was increased by the addition of cisplatin. Δ24-RGD osteosarcoma treatment resulted in autophagy in vitro that was further enhanced when combined with cisplatin. Of importance, administration of Δ24-RGD and/or cisplatin, in novel orthotopic and two lung metastatic models in vivo resulted in a significant reduction of tumor burden meanwhile maintaining a safe toxicity profile. Together, our data underscore the potential of Δ24-RGD to become a realistic therapeutic option for primary and metastatic pediatric osteosarcoma. Moreover, this study warrants a future clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Δ24-RGD for this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Vírus Oncolíticos/fisiologia , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Adolescente , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos Nus , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Osteossarcoma/ultraestrutura , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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