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1.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208076, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629602

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the burden of out-of-pocket household expenditures and time spent on care by families responsible for children with Down Syndrome (DS). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed after surveying families of children with DS. The children all received medical care at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gomez (HIMFG), a National Institute of Health. Data were collected on out-of-pocket household expenditures for the medical care of these children. The percentage of such expenditure was calculated in relation to available household expenditure (after subtracting the cost of food/housing), and the percentage of households with catastrophic expenditure. Finally, the time spent on the care of the child was assessed. RESULTS: The socioeconomic analysis showed that 67% of the households with children with DS who received medical care in the HIMFG were within the lower four deciles (I-IV) of expenses, indicating a limited ability to pay for medical services. Yearly out-of-pocket expenditures for a child with DS represented 27% of the available household expenditure, which is equivalent to $464 for the United States dollars (USD). On average, 33% of families with DS children had catastrophic expenses, and 46% of the families had to borrow money to pay for medical expenses. The percentage of catastrophic expenditure was greater for a household with children aged five or older compared with households with younger children. The regression analysis revealed that the age of the child is the most significant factor determining the time spent on care. CONCLUSIONS: Some Mexican families of children with DS incur substantial out-of-pocket expenditures, which constitute an economic burden for families of children who received medical care at the HIMFG.

2.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 15(1): 242, 2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resilience to face disease is a process of positive adaptation despite the loss of health. It involves developing vitality and skills to overcome the negative effects of adversity, risks, and vulnerability caused by disease. In Mexico, the Mexican Resilience Measurement Scale (RESI-M) has been validated with a general population and has a five-factor structure. However, this scale does not allow evaluation of resilience in specific subpopulations, such as caregivers. METHOD: This study investigated the psychometric properties of RESI-M in 446 family caregivers of children with chronic diseases. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed, internal consistency values were calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and mean comparisons were determined using t-tests. RESULTS: The expected five-factor model showed an adequate fit with the data based on a maximum likelihood test. The internal consistency for each factor ranged from .76 to .93, and the global internal consistency was .95. No average difference in RESI-M and its factors was found between women and men. CONCLUSION: The RESI-M showed internal consistency and its model of five correlated factors was valid among family caregivers of children with chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , México , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Salud pública Méx ; 56(6): 612-618, nov.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-733339

RESUMO

Objective. To estimate direct medical costs (DMC) associated with treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in newborns (NB) in two specialized public hospitals in Mexico. Materials and methods. The perspective used was health care payer. We estimated DMC associated with RDS management. The pattern of resource use was established by reviewing clinical records. Microcosting and bootstrap techniques were used to obtain the DMC. Estimated costs were reported in 2011 US dollars. Results. Average DMC per RDS event was 14 226 USD. The most significant items that account for this cost were hospitalization (38%), laboratory and diagnostic exams (18%), incubator time (10%), surfactant therapy (7%), and mechanical ventilation (7%). Conclusion. Average DMC in NB with RDS fluctuated in relation to gestational age weight at birth and clinical complications presented by patients during their hospitalization.


Objetivo. Determinar los costos médicos directos (CMD) asociados con el tratamiento del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR) en recién nacidos pretérmino en dos hospitales públicos de alta especialidad de México. Material y métodos. Se utilizó la perspectiva del pagador de servicios de salud. El uso de recursos se estimó mediante la revisión de expedientes clínicos. Se empleó la técnica de microcosteo y de bootstrap para la obtención de los CMD. Los costos fueron reportados en dólares estadounidenses de 2011. Resultados. El CMD por evento de SDR promedio fue de 14 226 dólares distribuidos entre los costos de hospitalización (38%), laboratorio y exámenes de diagnóstico (18%), tiempo en incubación (10%), terapia con surfactantes (7%) y ventilación mecánica (7%). Conclusión. Los CMD promedio en recién nacidos pretérmino con SDR están relacionados con la edad gestacional, el peso al nacer y las complicaciones clínicas que presentan los pacientes durante su hospitalización.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/normas , Fósforo/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Guias como Assunto , Cooperação Internacional , Molibdênio/química , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 71(5): 271-276, Sep.-Dec. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-744077

RESUMO

Background: Medical Insurance Siglo XXI (MISXXI) in Mexico provides funds for the medical and preventive care of children from households lacking any health insurance, thus seeking to reduce impoverishing due to health problems. This paper analyzes mortality of children <2 years of age affiliated with this program and out-of-pocket expenses attributable to this event. Methods: An in-home survey addressed to determine the health conditions of children affiliated with MISXXI was carried out in all Mexican states. If the infant had died, information was collected with emphasis on diagnosis (death certificate), medical attention and out-of-pocket expenses. Diagnoses were classified in agreement with ICD-10. Results: Of 9181 children, 74 died by the time during which the survey was gathered; 51% of children died before 28 days. Deaths were attributable to short gestation, low birth weight, asphyxia, or sepsis. In newborns who died before 7 days of age, 95.7% received medical care; however, among those who died between 7 and 28 days, only 58% received medical care. During the neonatal period, medical care was predominantly given in the Ministry of Health facilities. During the post-neonatal period, almost all children received medical care, predominantly in private facilities, a reason for households incurring in out-of-pocket expenditures. Conclusions: Mortality of infants who are beneficiaries of MISXXI mainly occurs during the neonatal period; however, households incurred in out-of-pocket expenditures, especially in the post-neonatal period. It seems convenient to boost the access of users to benefits provided by this medical insurance.

5.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 71(5): 271-276, 2014 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical Insurance Siglo XXI (MISXXI) in Mexico provides funds for the medical and preventive care of children from households lacking any health insurance, thus seeking to reduce impoverishing due to health problems. This paper analyzes mortality of children <2 years of age affiliated with this program and out-of-pocket expenses attributable to this event. METHODS: An in-home survey addressed to determine the health conditions of children affiliated with MISXXI was carried out in all Mexican states. If the infant had died, information was collected with emphasis on diagnosis (death certificate), medical attention and out-of-pocket expenses. Diagnoses were classified in agreement with ICD-10. RESULTS: Of 9181 children, 74 died by the time during which the survey was gathered; 51% of children died before 28 days. Deaths were attributable to short gestation, low birth weight, asphyxia, or sepsis. In newborns who died before 7 days of age, 95.7% received medical care; however, among those who died between 7 and 28 days, only 58% received medical care. During the neonatal period, medical care was predominantly given in the Ministry of Health facilities. During the post-neonatal period, almost all children received medical care, predominantly in private facilities, a reason for households incurring in out-of-pocket expenditures. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality of infants who are beneficiaries of MISXXI mainly occurs during the neonatal period; however, households incurred in out-of-pocket expenditures, especially in the post-neonatal period. It seems convenient to boost the access of users to benefits provided by this medical insurance.

6.
Salud Publica Mex ; 56(6): 612-8, 2014 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25604412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate direct medical costs (DMC) associated with treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in newborns (NB) in two specialized public hospitals in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The perspective used was health care payer. We estimated DMC associated with RDS management. The pattern of resource use was established by reviewing clinical records. Microcosting and bootstrap techniques were used to obtain the DMC. Estimated costs were reported in 2011 US dollars. RESULTS: Average DMC per RDS event was 14 226 USD. The most significant items that account for this cost were hospitalization (38%), laboratory and diagnostic exams (18%), incubator time (10%), surfactant therapy (7%), and mechanical ventilation (7%). CONCLUSION: Average DMC in NB with RDS fluctuated in relation to gestational age weight at birth and clinical complications presented by patients during their hospitalization.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos/economia , Doenças do Prematuro/economia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Seguro Saúde , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Masculino , México , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 2(3): 368-374, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Mexico, health authorities have raised reach the total of people living with HIV/ AIDS who need treatment have access to it, with the proper use of the best ARV therapies. Evaluate health spending would mean the management of patients with HIV/AIDS with the first-line therapy of abacavir/lamivudine with respect to tenofovir/emtricitabine and lamivudine-zidovudine. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to seek evidence from clinical studies that demonstrated similar efficacy of ARV treatment between abacavir-lamivudine medications compared with other options. To calculate the incremental cost between these treatments, there was a Budget Impact Analysis and a pharmacoeconomic model was constructed to estimate the economic benefits by increasing its market share. RESULTS: Increased market penetration of abacavir/lamivudine represent a save of $ 44.8 million for the National Health System in Mexico during the years 2012-2017, without compromising the quality and effectiveness of treatment. Furthermore, this increase in market share with abacavir-lamivudine, the National Health System could get an additional benefit to deal on average 5.197 with HIV patients by 5 years with ARV therapies in Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: The use of abacavir/lamivudine in ARV treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS is a cost saving for the Mexican health System, which leads to a potential reduction in resources of US$44.8 million in treatment costs in the five projected years.

8.
Gac Med Mex ; 148(6): 552-7, 2012 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23254714

RESUMO

Access to health services is a social basic determinant of health in Mexico unlike what happens in developed countries. The demand for health services is focused on primary care, but the design meets only the supply of hospital care services. So it generates a dissonance between the needs and the effective design of health services. In addition, the term affiliation refers to population contributing or in the recruitment process, that has been counted as members of these social security institutions (SS) and Popular Insurance (SP). In the case of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) three of four contributors are in contact with health services; while in the SP, this indicator does not exist. Moreover, the access gap between health services is found in the health care packages so that members of the SS and SP do not have same type of coverage. The question is: which model of health care system want the Mexicans? Primary care represents the first choice for increasing the health systems performance, as well as to fulfill their function of social protection: universal access and coverage based on needs, regardless whether it is a public or private health insurance. A central aspect for development of this component is the definition of the first contact with the health system through the creation of a primary health care team, led by a general practitioner as the responsible of a multidisciplinary health team. The process addresses the concepts of primary care nursing, consumption of inputs (mainly medical drugs), maintenance and general services. Adopting a comprehensive strategy that will benefit all Mexicans equally and without discrimination, this primary care system could be financed with a total operating cost of approximately $ 22,809 million by year.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , México
9.
Salud Publica Mex ; 54 Suppl 1: S73-81, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22965446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of surfactant rescue treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who are covered by the Medical Insurance for a New Generation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cost-effectiveness evaluation was conducted from the third-payer perspective. Comparisons were made between the use of bovine surfactant (BS) therapy and without BS therapy. A decision tree model with a lifetime horizon was used where the measurements of effectiveness were life years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). A 5% discount rate was considered for costs and health outcomes. All costs are expressed in Mexican pesos 2009. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were MXN$136,670 per LYG and MXN$125,250 per QALY. CONCLUSION: Surfactant therapy was confirmed as a cost-effective strategy in accordance with World Health Organization criteria of three per capita gross domestic product (GDP) per QALY in premature infants with RDS in Mexico.


Assuntos
Surfactantes Pulmonares/economia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , México
10.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 69(2): 111-115, mar.-abr. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-700989

RESUMO

Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent etiologic agent causing lower respiratory tract infection in children <2 years of age. Between 0.5 and 3% of patients will require hospitalization. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct medical cost of treating children <2 years old with suspicion of RSV at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods. Direct medical costs were estimated from an institutional perspective. Medical records were reviewed from patients <2 years of age who attended emergency services in second-level hospitals including subjects who required hospitalization. Estimated costs were obtained with the microcosting technique using the institutional costs from IMSS (year 2010). Costs were reported in USD (year 2011). Results. When analyzing total medical costs, outpatient management yielded a cost of $230.0 ± $10.30 U.S. dollars (USD), whereas hospitalized patients exhibited an average cost of $8,313.20 ± $595.30 USD. The main components of outpatient management costs were emergency visits, specialist consultations and diagnostic testing (41.6%, 32.7% and 10.7% of the total cost, respectively). In the case of hospitalized patients, intensive care unit cost (89.3%) and overall hospitalization cost (6.5%) represented 95.7% of the total cost. Conclusions. RSV is a disease that represents a significant economic burden for health care institutions, although most patients are treated on an outpatient basis.

11.
Salud pública Méx ; 54(1): 47-59, enero-feb. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-611849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the prophylaxis of palivizumab, for the reduction of complications associated to the respiratory syncytial virus in preterm patients in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision tree was developed in preterm groups [<29 and 29-32 weeks of gestational age (wGA)], by using epidemiological and cost local data; the effectiveness was obtained with a systematic review. Patients were evaluated according to their life expectancy. Mexican Health System perspective was used. Effectiveness measures employed were LYG and QALYs. The costs are reported in USD 2009. RESULTS: ICERs per LYG resulted on values of USD $25,029 and USD $29,637 for <29 wGA and 29-32 wGA respectively, whereas ICERs per QALYs obtained in the model accounted for USD $17,532 and USD $20,760. CONCLUSIONS: Palivizumab prophylaxis for preterm newborn patients ≤32 weeks of age resulted in a cost-effective alternative.


OBJETIVO: El estudio evaluó la razón costo-efectividad incremental (RCEI) de profilaxis con palivizumab para reducción de complicaciones asociadas al virus sincicial respiratorio en prematuros en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se empleó un árbol de decisiones en los grupos pretérmino [<29 y 29-32 semanas de edad gestacional (SEG)], empleando datos epidemiológicos y costos locales; la eficacia se obtuvo con una revisión sistemática, evaluando a los pacientes de acuerdo con su esperanza de vida. Se empleó la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Las medidas de eficacia fueron AVG y AVAC. Los costos son reportados en dólares de 2009. RESULTADOS: Las RCEI por AVG resultaron de USD $25 029 y USD $29 637 para <29 y 29-32 SEG, mientras que las RCEI por AVAC fueron de USD $17 532 y USD $20 760. CONCLUSIONES: La profilaxis con palivizumab en pacientes recién nacidos pretérmino ≤32 semanas de edad resultó ser una alternativa costo-efectiva.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/economia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , México
12.
Salud Publica Mex ; 54(1): 47-59, 2012 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22286828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the prophylaxis of palivizumab, for the reduction of complications associated to the respiratory syncytial virus in preterm patients in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision tree was developed in preterm groups [<29 and 29-32 weeks of gestational age (wGA)], by using epidemiological and cost local data; the effectiveness was obtained with a systematic review. Patients were evaluated according to their life expectancy. Mexican Health System perspective was used. Effectiveness measures employed were LYG and QALYs. The costs are reported in USD 2009. RESULTS: ICERs per LYG resulted on values of USD $25,029 and USD $29,637 for <29 wGA and 29-32 wGA respectively, whereas ICERs per QALYs obtained in the model accounted for USD $17,532 and USD $20,760. CONCLUSIONS: Palivizumab prophylaxis for preterm newborn patients ≤32 weeks of age resulted in a cost-effective alternative.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/economia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , México , Palivizumab
13.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 18(2): 420-5, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21114796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Mexico, hypertension is among the top five causes for visits to primary care clinics; its complications are among the main causes of emergency and hospital care. The present study reports the effectiveness of a continuing medical education (CME) intervention to improve appropriate care for hypertension, on blood pressure control of hypertensive patients in primary care clinics. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was carried out using data of hypertensive patients treated by family doctors who participated in the CME intervention. The evaluation was designed as a pre-/post-intervention study with control group in six primary care clinics. The effect of the CME intervention was analysed using multiple logistic regression modelling in which the dependent variable was uncontrolled blood pressure in the post-intervention patient measurement. RESULTS: After the CME intervention, the net reduction of uncontrolled blood pressure between stages in the intervention group was 10.3%. The model results were that being treated by a family doctor who participated in the CME intervention reduced by 53% the probability of lack of control of blood pressure; receiving dietary recommendations reduced 57% the probability of uncontrolled blood pressure. Having uncontrolled blood pressure at the baseline stage increased the probability of lack of control in 166%, and per each unit of increase in body mass index the lack of control increased 7%. CONCLUSIONS: CME intervention improved the medical decision-making process to manage hypertension, thus increasing the probability of hypertensive patients to have blood pressure under control.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comorbidade , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
14.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 1(2): 211-217, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Therapies for end-stage renal disease improve quality of life, and survival. In Mexico, clinicians often must choose between different therapies without the availability of comparative outcomes evaluation. The present study evaluates the comparative cost-utility of sirolimus (SIR) versus tacrolimus (TAC) for the primary prevention of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients in Mexico. METHODS: We used modeling techniques to estimate the cost-effectiveness of SIR versus TAC to prevent graft rejection in patients with end-stage renal disease in the Mexican setting. The model estimates the cost of quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) per patient. We applied a 20-year horizon (1-year Markov cycles). Cost-effectiveness was expressed in terms of cost per QALY. All costs are presented in 2011 US dollars. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The total cost for the SIR treatment arm over the 20-year duration of the model is estimated to be $136,778. This compares with $142,624 for the TAC treatment arm, resulting in an incremental cost of SIR compared with that of TAC of-$5,846. Over 20 years, SIR was estimated to have 8.18 QALYs compared with 7.33 QALYs for TAC. The resulting incremental utility of SIR compared with that of TAC is 0.84 QALY gained. SIR is estimated to be both less costly and more effective than TAC, indicating that it is the dominant strategy. Notably, results suggest that SIR has a 78% probability of being dominant over the TAC strategy and a 100% probability of having an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at or below $10,064 (1 GDP) per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses suggest that in the Mexican setting, the use of SIR in place of TAC for the prevention of graft rejection in this population is likely to be cost saving.

15.
Salud pública Méx ; 54(supl.1): s73-s81, 2012. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-647990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of surfactant rescue treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who are covered by the Medical Insurance for a New Generation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cost-effectiveness evaluation was conducted from the third-payer perspective. Comparisons were made between the use of bovine surfactant (BS) therapy and without BS therapy. A decision tree model with a lifetime horizon was used where the measurements of effectiveness were life years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). A 5% discount rate was considered for costs and health outcomes. All costs are expressed in Mexican pesos 2009. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were MXN$136670 per LYG and MXN$125250 per QALY. CONCLUSION: Surfactant therapy was confirmed as a cost-effective strategy in accordance with World Health Organization criteria of three per capita gross domestic product (GDP) per QALY in premature infants with RDS in Mexico.


OBJETIVO: Estimar la razón de costo efectividad incremental del tratamiento de surfactante de rescate en pacientes pretérmino con Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria (SDR) cubiertos por el Seguro Médico para una Nueva Generación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Evaluación de costo-efectividad desde la perspectiva del tercer pagador. Los comparadores fueron la terapia de surfactante bovino y la alternativa de no emplear ésta. Se utilizó un árbol de decisión que consideró la esperanza de vida como horizonte temporal y las medidas de efectividad fueron los años de vida ganados (AVG) y los años de vida ajustados por calidad de vida ( AVAC).Resultados en pesos mexicanos del 2009. RESULTADOS: Las RCEI por AVG y AVAC fueron de MXN$136670 y MXN$125250. CONCLUSIÓN: La razón de costo por AVG y AVAC para la terapia de surfactantes en pacientes prematuros con SDR en México fue menor a tres veces el PIB per cápita, por lo que es una estrategia costo-efectiva según los criterios de la OMS.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Surfactantes Pulmonares/economia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , México
16.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 29(12): 2171-9, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21134917

RESUMO

This study analyzes the potential economic benefits of identifying and treating patients with so-called prediabetes and prehypertension through the Mexican prevention program known by its Spanish acronym PREVENIMSS. The results show that for each US dollar invested in prevention, $84-$323 would be saved over a twenty-year period. For this and other reasons, providing preventive care for prediabetes and prehypertension patients is better than the current routine care model, in which care is provided in most cases when the disease has progressed substantially. Yet data show that screening and preventive care services are still not being used widely enough in Mexico, are provided too late, or are not sufficiently targeted to the most at-risk individuals. Investing in preventive care for patients with prediabetes and prehypertension is cost saving.


Assuntos
Redução de Custos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Precoce , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/economia , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/economia
17.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 67(6): 477-491, nov.-dic. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-701042

RESUMO

Introducción. Con el propósito de determinar la efectividad del surfactante bovino (SB) para el tratamiento del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR) en recién nacidos prematuros (RNP), se realizó una revisión sistemática y meta-análisis. Métodos. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA) donde se comparó SB con placebo. Las variables de desenlace fueron: mortalidad, morbilidad, días de ventilación mecánica (VM) y de estancia hospitalaria. Los ECA publicados hasta el 2010 se identificaron en Medline, EMBASE y la Colaboración Cochrane. La selección de los ECA fue por pares. En el meta-análisis se calculó riesgo relativo (RR) y diferencia de medias ponderada (DMP), con intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95%). Resultados. De 865 títulos y resúmenes, se revisaron 89 artículos en extenso y se seleccionaron 12 ECA. El SB se mostró efectivo en cuatro variables: mortalidad (RR 0.73, IC95% 0.60-0.88, P =0.001), neumotórax (RR 0.41; IC95% 0.33-0.51, P <0.0001), enfisema intersticial pulmonar (RR 0.45; IC95% 0.36-0.56, P <0.0001) y días de VM (DMP -9.57; IC95% -16.58, -2.56, P =0.007). Para otras, como displasia broncopulmonar, enterocolitis necrosante, hemorragia intraventricular o alteración del desarrollo neurológico, no se determinó ventaja con SB. Conclusiones. En RNP, el uso de SB es efectivo al disminuir la mortalidad, la frecuencia de neumotórax y enfisema intersticial pulmonar, así como el tiempo de VM y, posiblemente, el de estancia hospitalaria.


Background. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the bovine surfactant (BS) for the treatment of newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods. Randomized-controlled trials (RCT) assessing the BS in comparison with placebo for the treatment of prematures with RDS were included. Outcome measures evaluated were: mortality, morbidity, days on mechanical ventilation (MV) and length of hospitalization. RCT published until 2010 were obtained from Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Collaboration. Selection of included studies was based on a peer-review process. For the meta-analyses, relative risk (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results. From 865 titles and abstracts obtained, 89 papers were reviewed and 12 RCT were selected. Among the outcome measures assessed, BS was shown to be effective in only in four: mortality (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.88, p =0.001), pneumothorax (RR 0.41; 95% CI 0.33-0.51, p <0.0001), pulmonary interstitial emphysema (RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.36-0.56, p <0.0001) and on days of MV (WMD -9.57; 95% CI -16.58 to -2.56, p =0.007). However, we did not find any positive effect on bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage or abnormal neurological development. Conclusions. In newborns with RDS, bovine surfactant is effective regarding mortality, pneumothorax, and pulmonary interstitial emphysema, as well as on decrease in the length of MV and possibly on length of hospitalization.

18.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 65(1): 49-56, ene.-feb. 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-701163

RESUMO

Objetivo. Estimar la carga económica y en salud de la obesidad en niños mexicanos en un horizonte de largo plazo. Estimación de costos médicos atribuibles a la obesidad en niños mexicanos durante 2006-2050. Una cohorte hipotética de 5-11 años de edad obesa se modeló con base en prevalencia, incidencia y evolución clínica. Los costos considerados fueron por diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e hipertensión arterial. En 2015 se presentarían los primeros casos de diabetes mellitus y de hipertensión arterial. Cuando el primer grupo de niños cumpla 40 años aumentarán considerablemente las complicaciones de la obesidad. Para 2050, 67.3% de la cohorte tendría obesidad. El costo de atención a la obesidad será de $57 678 millones de pesos. La magnitud de la obesidad se reporta en niveles preocupantes en todas las edades, con costos que consumirán buena parte de los recursos del sistema de salud.


Objective. To estimate the economic and health burden of childhood obesity in Mexican population over the long term. This study estimates healthcare costs due to child obesity in Mexican children from 2006-2050. A hypothetic 5-11-year-old obese cohort based on prevalence, incidence, and clinical development data was modelled. Cost allocation considerations include type 2 diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure. The first cases of diabetes mellitus and with a risk of high blood pressure appears in the year 2015. When the first group of children is 40 years old, there is a considerable increase in obesity-related complications. A total of 67.3% of the cohort would have obesity in the year 2050. The cost of obesity care would be $57 678 million Mexican pesos. The magnitude of obesity reported is at worrisome levels in all age groups, showing costs that would consume a high percentage of the health system’s resources.

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