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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(12): 1594-1612, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1094194

RESUMO

Aging constitutes a series of physical, physiological and cognitive changes, affecting independence in the activities of daily living. During this stage, neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment are common. Cognitive Reserve allows to face neuropathological changes and maintain cognitive function in the presence of brain damage. However, there are cases where a high cognitive reserve fails to attenuate and delay the effects of neuropathology, allowing the progression of cognitive damage to advanced stages. The objective of this systematic review is to identify evidence where high cognitive reserve does not limit the effects of cognitive impairment. Results indicate that the protective effect of cognitive reserve occurs only in the presence of minimal cognitive impairment, but not at later stages.

2.
Front Psychol ; 10: 335, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873076

RESUMO

There is an extensive body of evidence to support both family involvement and students' socioemotional development as key factors in the promotion of learning outcomes. However, there is insufficient evidence to establish exactly what this impact is when both factors are considered simultaneously. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the influence of family involvement and socioemotional development on learning outcomes of Chilean students, identifying the structure that most correctly identifies the influence of the predictor variables (family involvement and socioemotional development) on learning outcomes. We present the following three hypotheses that consider possible basic interrelation structures: (1) The influence of family involvement on learning outcomes is mediated by students' socioemotional development (mediation hypothesis); (2) The influence of family involvement on learning outcomes is moderated by students' socioemotional development (moderation hypothesis); (3) Family involvement and students' socio emotional development directly affect learning outcomes (covariance hypothesis). The structures were evaluated by means of a structural equation model analysis. The study included 768 students who attended second and third elementary grades in Chilean schools. The children were between 7 and 11 years old (M = 8.29, SD = 0.86); 41.3% were girls and 58.7% were boys. The results show that family involvement and students' emotional development directly affect learning outcomes (CFI = 0.995, TLI = 0.993, RMSEA = 0.016). From the results, we can conclude that the data support the hypothesis that both family involvement and socioemotional development are predictors of learning outcomes, thereby rejecting that the impact of family involvement on learning outcomes is mediated or moderated by socioemotional development.

3.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(12): 1594-1612, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186624

RESUMO

Aging constitutes a series of physical, physiological and cognitive changes, affecting independence in the activities of daily living. During this stage, neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment are common. Cognitive Reserve allows to face neuropathological changes and maintain cognitive function in the presence of brain damage. However, there are cases where a high cognitive reserve fails to attenuate and delay the effects of neuropathology, allowing the progression of cognitive damage to advanced stages. The objective of this systematic review is to identify evidence where high cognitive reserve does not limit the effects of cognitive impairment. Results indicate that the protective effect of cognitive reserve occurs only in the presence of minimal cognitive impairment, but not at later stages.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Escolaridade , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 53(5): 279-284, sept.-oct. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178090

RESUMO

El proceso de envejecimiento se caracteriza por la pérdida gradual de la reserva funcional, lo cual, asociado a la adopción de hábitos de vida sedentarios y al incremento de factores de riesgo, se traduce en un deterioro de la defensa antioxidante y en un aumento de los niveles circulantes de marcadores inflamatorios y oxidativos. Estos fenomenos incrementan el estado de inflamacion cronica de bajo grado, denominado inflamm-aging, presente en la etiopatología de cuadros crónicos y procesos de deterioro cognitivo asociados a la edad. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el efecto modulador antioxidante y antiinflamatorio del ejercicio físico de moderada intensidad y volumen durante el envejecimiento. Se presenta evidencia de su efectividad como herramienta no farmacológica, orientada a aminorar los efectos deletéreos del envejecimiento, debido en gran parte a su acción neuroprotectora, incremento de marcadores antiinflamatorios circulantes y mejora de la defensa antioxidante derivados de su práctica


Aging is characterised by a gradual loss of the functional reserve. This, along with the fostering of sedentary habits and the increase in risk factors, causes a deterioration of antioxidant defences and an increase of the circulatory levels of inflammatory and oxidative markers, boosting a low-rate chronic inflammation, defined as inflamm-aging. This phenomenon is present in the aetiopathology of chronic diseases, as well as in cognitive deterioration cases associated with aging. The objective of this review is to describe the modulation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of physical exercise of moderate intensity and volume in the elderly. Evidence of its effectiveness as a non-pharmacological resource is presented, which decreases some deleterious effects of aging. This is mainly due to its neuroprotective action, the increase in circulating anti-inflammatory markers, and the improvement of antioxidant defence derived from its practice


Assuntos
Humanos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia
5.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1492, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233442

RESUMO

In recent decades there have been significant changes in the conceptualization of reading as well as in the perception of how this activity should be assessed. Interest in the analysis of reading processes has led to the emergence of new explanatory models based primarily on the contributions of cognitive psychology. In parallel, there have been notable advances in measurement procedures, especially in models based on Item Response Theory (IRT), as well as in the capacity and performance of specific software programs that allow data to be managed and analyzed. These changes have contributed significantly to the rise of testing procedures such as computerized adaptive tests (CATs), whose fundamental characteristic is that the sequence of items presented in the tests is adapted to the level of competence that the subject manifests. Likewise, the incorporation of elements of dynamic assessment (DA) as the prompts are gradually offered allows for obtaining information about the type and degree of support required to optimize the subject's performance. In this sense, the confluence of contributions from DA and CATs offers a new possibility for approaching the assessment of learning processes. In this article, we present a longitudinal research developed in two phases, through which a computerized dynamic adaptive assessment battery of reading processes (EDPL-BAI) was configured. The research frame involved 1,831 students (46% girls) from 13 public schools in three regions of Chile. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differential contribution on reading competence of dynamic scores obtained in a subsample composed of 324 (47% girls) students from third to sixth grade after the implementation of a set of adaptive dynamic tests of morpho-syntactic processes. The results achieved in the structural equation modeling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show a significant contribution of calibrated score that reflects estimated knowledge level on reading competence, as well as dynamic scores based on the assigned value of graduated prompts required by the students. These results showed significant predictive values on reading competence and incremental validity in relation to predictions made by static criterion tests.

6.
Rev Med Chil ; 146(5): 570-577, 2018 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention is considered a central control mechanism in cognitive processing systems. Attention deficits contribute to the symptomatic profile of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Physical exercise and cognitive reserve, could delay cognitive impairment and constitute a protective factor against clinical manifestations of AD. AIM: To relate the functionality of the attentional networks with physical activity and cognitive reserve. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 20 older adults each (control, physical activity and with osteoarthritis) were studied. The Functional capacity assessment test, Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire and the Attention Networks Test - for Interactions and Vigilance or ANTI-V were applied to participants. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in the response times of the alert, orientation and executive network, and the percentage of success in the network orientation and executive network. No differences between groups were observed for the different indicators of vigilance. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the benefits of physical exercise as a protective factor for attentional functioning.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Tempo de Reação
7.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 53(5): 279-284, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898833

RESUMO

Aging is characterised by a gradual loss of the functional reserve. This, along with the fostering of sedentary habits and the increase in risk factors, causes a deterioration of antioxidant defences and an increase of the circulatory levels of inflammatory and oxidative markers, boosting a low-rate chronic inflammation, defined as inflamm-aging. This phenomenon is present in the aetiopathology of chronic diseases, as well as in cognitive deterioration cases associated with aging. The objective of this review is to describe the modulation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of physical exercise of moderate intensity and volume in the elderly. Evidence of its effectiveness as a non-pharmacological resource is presented, which decreases some deleterious effects of aging. This is mainly due to its neuroprotective action, the increase in circulating anti-inflammatory markers, and the improvement of antioxidant defence derived from its practice.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Humanos
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(5): 570-577, mayo 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-961433

RESUMO

Background: Attention is considered a central control mechanism in cognitive processing systems. Attention deficits contribute to the symptomatic profile of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Physical exercise and cognitive reserve, could delay cognitive impairment and constitute a protective factor against clinical manifestations of AD. Aim: To relate the functionality of the attentional networks with physical activity and cognitive reserve. Material and Methods: Three groups of 20 older adults each (control, physical activity and with osteoarthritis) were studied. The Functional capacity assessment test, Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire and the Attention Networks Test - for Interactions and Vigilance or ANTI-V were applied to participants. Results: Significant differences were observed in the response times of the alert, orientation and executive network, and the percentage of success in the network orientation and executive network. No differences between groups were observed for the different indicators of vigilance. Conclusions: These results confirm the benefits of physical exercise as a protective factor for attentional functioning.

9.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 35(2): 169-185, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491798

RESUMO

According to the attention network approach, attention is best understood in terms of three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct networks - alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Recent findings showed that social information influences the efficiency of these networks in adults. Using some social and non-social variants of the Attentional Network Test (ANT), this study was aimed to evaluate the development of the three attention networks in childhood, also assessing the development of the ability to manage social or non-social conflicting information. Sixty-six children (three groups of 6, 8, and 10 years of age) performed three variants of the original ANT, using fish, schematic, or real faces looking to the left or right as target and flanker stimuli. Results showed an improvement from 6 to 8 and 10 years of age in reaction time (RT) and accuracy, together with an improvement of executive control and a decrement in alerting. These developmental changes were not unique to social stimuli, and no differences were observed between social and no-social variants of the ANT. However, independently from the age of the children, a real face positively affected the executive control (as indexed by RTs) as compared to both a schematic face and a fish. Findings of this study suggest that attentional networks are still developing from 6 to 10 years of age and underline the importance of face information in modulating the efficiency of executive control. Statement of contribution What is already known? Younger children made more errors and slower reaction times (RTs) than older children, in line with the majority of the past selective attention studies. Younger children showed both greater conflict and alerting effect than older children. The prediction that younger children would display larger interference effects than older children was supported. What does this study add? Extending the findings observed in adults and children, independently from their age, demonstrated greater cognitive interference (i.e., slower RTs and higher percentage of errors to incongruent relative to congruent conditions) when fish and schematic faces were presented than when photographs of real faces were used as stimuli. Like adults, children have a greater ability in the control of social information as compared to non-social information. These results seem to indicate that the ability to handle social conflicts proceeds in parallel with the ability to manage non-social conflicting information.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Brain Cogn ; 108: 73-80, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27566000

RESUMO

Although several recent studies investigated the hemispheric contributions to the attentional networks using the Attention Network Test (ANT), the role of the cerebral hemispheres in modulating the interaction among them remains unclear. In this study, two lateralized versions of this test (LANT) were used to investigate theal effects on the attentional networks under different conflict conditions. One version, the LANTI-A, presented arrows as target and flankers, while the other version, the LANTI-F, had fruits as target and flankers. Data collected from forty-seven participants confirmed well-known results on the efficiency and interactions among the attentional networks. Further, a left visual field advantage was found when a target occurred in an unattended location (e.g. invalid trials), only with the LANTI-F, but not with LANTI-A. The present study adds more evidence to the hemispheric asymmetry of the orienting of attention, and further reveals patterns of interactions between the attentional networks and the visual fields across different conflicting conditions, underlying the dynamic control of attention in complex environments.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
An. psicol ; 32(2): 341-348, mayo 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-151686

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of fatalism as a cultural value orientation and causal attributions for past failure in the academic performance of high school students in the Araucania Region of Chile. Three thousand three hundred and fourty eight Mapuche and non-Mapuche students participated in the study. Consistent with the Culture and Behavior model that guided the research, the test of causal models based on the analysis of structural equations show that academic performance is in part a function of variations in the level of fatalism, directly as well as indirectly through its influence in the attribution processes and failure-related emotions. In general, the model representing the proposed structure of relations among fatalism, attributions, and emotions as determinants of academic performance fit the data for both Mapuche and non-Mapuche students. However, results show that some of the relations in the model are different for students from these two ethnic groups. Finally, according to the results from the analysis of causal models, family SES appear to be the most important determinant of fatalism


Este estudio investiga el rol del fatalismo como orientación valórica cultural y las atribuciones causales sobre el fracaso en el rendimiento académico de estudiantes secundarios en la región de La Araucanía, Chile. Tres mil trescientos cuarenta y ocho estudiantes Mapuche y no-Mapuche participaron en el estudio. De manera consistente con el modelo sobre cultura y comportamiento que guía la investigación, los resultados del análisis de modelos causales basado en ecuaciones estructurales muestra que el rendimiento académico es en parte una función de variaciones en el nivel de fatalismo, tanto directamente como por medio de los procesos de atribución causal y las emociones relacionadas al fracaso. En términos generales, el modelo propuesto respecto a la estructura de las relaciones entre las variables fatalismo, atribuciones, y emociones relacionadas con el fracaso como determinantes del rendimiento académico explican los datos tanto para estudiantes Mapuche como no-Mapuche. Sin embargo, los resultados muestran que la naturaleza de las relaciones entre algunas de las variables del modelo es distinta para estudiantes de estos dos grupos étnicos. Finalmente, de acuerdo al análisis de modelos causales, el nivel socioeconómico de la familia aparece como el determinante más importante del fatalismo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , 50227 , Valores Sociais , Carência Cultural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 44(11): 2871-81, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24898908

RESUMO

This study assessed visual search abilities, tested through the flicker task, in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Twenty-two children diagnosed with ASD and 22 matched typically developing (TD) children were told to detect changes in objects of central interest or objects of marginal interest (MI) embedded in either emotion-laden (positive or negative) or neutral real-world pictures. The results showed that emotion-laden pictures equally interfered with performance of both ASD and TD children, slowing down reaction times compared with neutral pictures. Children with ASD were faster than TD children, particularly in detecting changes in MI objects, the most difficult condition. However, their performance was less accurate than performance of TD children just when the pictures were negative. These findings suggest that children with ASD have better visual search abilities than TD children only when the search is particularly difficult and requires strong serial search strategies. The emotional-social impairment that is usually considered as a typical feature of ASD seems to be limited to processing of negative emotional information.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
13.
Exp Brain Res ; 232(10): 3147-57, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24913142

RESUMO

Short-term sleep deprivation, or extended wakefulness, adversely affects cognitive functions and behavior. However, scarce research has addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on emotional processing. In this study, we investigated the impact of reduced vigilance due to moderate sleep deprivation on the ability to recognize emotional expressions of faces and emotional content of words. Participants remained awake for 24 h and performed the tasks in two sessions, one in which they were not affected by sleep loss (baseline; BSL), and other affected by SD, according to a counterbalanced sequence. Tasks were carried out twice at 10:00 and 4:00 am, or at 12:00 and 6:00 am. In both tasks, participants had to respond to the emotional valence of the target stimulus: negative, positive, or neutral. The results showed that in the word task, sleep deprivation impaired recognition irrespective of the emotional valence of words. However, sleep deprivation impaired recognition of emotional face expressions mainly when they showed a neutral expression. Emotional face expressions were less affected by the sleep loss, but positive faces were more resistant than negative faces to the detrimental effect of sleep deprivation. The differential effects of sleep deprivation on recognition of the different emotional stimuli are indicative of emotional facial expressions being stronger emotional stimuli than emotional laden words. This dissociation may be attributed to the more automatic sensory encoding of emotional facial content.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cogn Process ; 15(4): 503-13, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24718933

RESUMO

Behaviour and neuroimaging studies have shown that poor vigilance (PV) due to sleep deprivation (SD) negatively affects exogenously cued selective attention. In the current study, we assessed the impact of PV due to both partial SD and night-time hours on reflexive attentional orienting triggered by central un-informative eye-gaze and arrow cues. Subjective mood and interference performance in emotional Stroop task were also investigated. Twenty healthy participants performed spatial cueing tasks using central directional arrow and eye-gaze as a cue to orient attention. The target was a word written in different coloured inks. The participant's task was to identify the colour of the ink while ignoring the semantic content of the word (with negative or neutral emotional valence). The experiment took place on 2 days. On the first day, each participant performed a 10-min training session of the spatial cueing task. On the second day, half of participants performed the task once at 4:30 p.m. (BSL) and once at 6:30 a.m. (PV), whereas the other half performed the task in the reversed order. Results showed that mean reaction times on the spatial cueing tasks were worsened by PV, although gaze paradigm was more resistant to this effect as compared to the arrow paradigm. Moreover, PV negatively affects attentional orienting triggered by both central un-informative gaze and arrow cues. Finally, prolonged wakefulness affects self-reported mood but does not influence interference control in emotional Stroop task.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Privação do Sono , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
15.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 148: 209-15, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24607440

RESUMO

The Attention Network Test (ANT) generates measures of three attention networks: alerting, orienting and executive control. Arrows have been generally used as imperative stimuli in the different versions of this paradigm. However, it is unknown whether the directional nature of these stimuli can modulate the efficiency of the executive control and its interaction with alerting and orienting. We developed three ANT variants to examine attentional effects in response to directional and non-directional stimuli. Arrows (ANTI-A), colored fruits (ANTI-F) and black geometrical-shape (ANTI-G) were used as imperative stimuli (i.e., flanker stimuli). Data collected from fifty-two university students, in two experiments, showed that arrows stimuli produced a greater interference effect and a greater orienting effect as compared to the other stimuli. Moreover, only arrows modulated the interaction between executive control and orienting: a reduced flanker effect in spatially cued trials was only observed in ANTI-A. These results suggest that the directional value of the stimuli increases the conflict and modulates the efficiency of executive control and its interaction with orienting network.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Exp Psychol ; 61(2): 99-109, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23988869

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed whether unspecific attention processes signaled by general reaction times (RTs), as well as specific facilitatory (validity or facilitation effect) and inhibitory (inhibition of return, IOR) effects involved in the attentional orienting network, are affected by low vigilance due to both circadian factors and sleep deprivation (SD). Eighteen male participants performed a cuing task in which peripheral cues were nonpredictive about the target location and the cue-target interval varied at three levels: 200 ms, 800 ms, and 1,100 ms. Facilitation with the shortest and IOR with the longest cue-target intervals were observed in the baseline session, thus replicating previous related studies. Under SD condition, RTs were generally slower, indicating a reduction in the participants' arousal level. The inclusion of a phasic alerting tone in several trials partially compensated for the reduction in tonic alertness, but not with the longest cue-target interval. With regard to orienting, whereas the facilitation effect due to reflexive shifts of attention was preserved with sleep loss, the IOR was not observed. These results suggest that the decrease of vigilance produced by SD affects both the compensatory effects of phasic alerting and the endogenous component involved in disengaging attention from the cued location, a requisite for the IOR effect being observed.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Atenção , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Orientação/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Facilitação Social , Adulto Jovem
17.
Exp Gerontol ; 49: 35-9, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24252535

RESUMO

In this preliminary study we assessed the functioning of the different attentional networks in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, taking as theoretical framework the Posner's cognitive neuroscience approach. Two groups of participants were tested in a single short experiment: 20 MCI patients (6 amnestic, 6 non-amnestic and 8 multiple-domain) and 18 healthy matched controls (HC). For attentional assessment we used a version of the Attention Network Test (the ANTI-V) that provided not only a score of the orienting, the executive, and the alerting networks and their interactions, but also an independent measure of vigilance (tonic alerting). The results showed that all subtypes of MCI patients exhibited a selective impairment in the tonic component of alerting, as indexed by a decrease in the d' sensitivity index, and their performance in executive network increased up to the HC group level when phasic alerting was provided by a warning tone. Our findings suggest that a core attentional deficit, especially the endogenous component of alerting, may significantly contribute to the behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with MCI.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Orientação/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
18.
J Atten Disord ; 17(7): 620-7, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22334620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated change blindness and visual search efficiency in children with ADHD in searching for central and marginal changes. METHOD: A total of 36 drug-naïve children (18 ADHD/18 controls) performed a flicker task that included changes in objects of central or marginal interest. The task required observers to search for a change until they detected it. RESULTS: Children with ADHD performed more slowly and less accurately than did typically developing children, specifically in detecting marginal-interest changes. CONCLUSION: In contrast to more standard visual search tasks, flicker tasks seem to be more sensitive to highlight focused attention deficits in children diagnosed with ADHD. Concretely, ADHD attentional deficits were more apparent when the task involved serial top-down strategies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Cegueira/complicações , Percepção Visual , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Cegueira/psicologia , Criança , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 140(2): 164-76, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22634265

RESUMO

The study of sleep deprivation is a fruitful area of research to increase our knowledge of cognitive functions and their neural basis. In the current work, 26 healthy young adults participated in a sleep deprivation study, in which the Attentional Networks Test for Interactions and Vigilance (ANTI-V) was performed at 10a.m. after a night of normal sleep and again at 10 a.m. after 25.5-27.5 h of total sleep deprivation. The ANTI-V is an experimental task that provides measures of alerting, orienting and executive control attentional functions. Compared with previous versions, the ANTI-V includes a vigilance task, more reliable auditory alerting signals, non-predictive peripheral orienting cues, and also a neutral no-cue condition allowing the analysis of reorienting costs and orienting benefits. Thus, new evidence to evaluate the influence of sleep deprivation on attentional functioning is provided. Results revealed differences in both tonic and phasic alertness after sleep deprivation. Vigilance performance was deteriorated, while a warning tone was more helpful to increase participants' alertness, resulting in slightly faster RT and, in particular, fewer errors. The reorienting costs of having an invalid spatial cue were reduced after sleep loss. No sleep deprivation effect on the executive control measure was found in this study. Finally, since no control group was used, particular precautions were taken to reduce the influence of potential practice effects.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Atenção , Função Executiva , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 140(1): 75-80, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22465912

RESUMO

When attention is oriented to a peripheral visual event, observers respond faster to stimuli presented at a cued location than at an uncued location. Following initial reaction time facilitation responses are slower to stimuli subsequently displayed at the cued location, an effect known as inhibition of return (IOR). Both facilitatory and inhibitory effects have been extensively investigated in two-dimensional space. Facilitation has also been documented in three-dimensional space, however the presence of IOR in 3D space is unclear, possibly because IOR has not been evaluated in an empty 3D space. Determining if IOR is sensitive to the depth plane of stimuli or if only their bi-dimensional location is inhibited may clarify the nature of the IOR. To address this issue, we used an attentional cueing paradigm in three-dimensional (3D) space. Results were obtained from fourteen participants showed IOR components in 3D space when binocular disparity was used to induce depth. We conclude that attentional orienting in depth operates as efficiently as in the bi-dimensional space.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
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