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1.
Cell Rep ; 30(2): 299-307.e3, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940477

RESUMO

Mutations and deletions of polycomb repressive complex (PRC) components are increasingly recognized to affect tumor biology in a range of cancers. However, little is known about how genetic alterations of PRC-interacting molecules such as the core binding factor (CBF) complex influence polycomb activity. We report that the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated CBFß-SMMHC fusion oncoprotein physically interacts with the PRC1 complex and that these factors co-localize across the AML genome in an apparently PRC2-independent manner. Depletion of CBFß-SMMHC caused substantial increases in genome-wide PRC1 binding and marked changes in the association between PRC1 and the CBF DNA-binding subunit RUNX1. PRC1 was more likely to be associated with actively transcribed genes in CBFß-SMMHC-expressing cells. CBFß-SMMHC depletion had heterogeneous effects on gene expression, including significant reductions in transcription of ribosomal loci occupied by PRC1. Our results provide evidence that CBFß-SMMHC markedly and diversely affects polycomb recruitment and transcriptional regulation across the AML genome.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226435, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869378

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by recurrent mutations that affect normal hematopoiesis. The analysis of human AMLs has mostly been performed using end-point materials, such as cell lines and patient derived AMLs that also carry additional contributing mutations. The molecular effects of a single oncogenic hit, such as expression of the AML associated oncoprotein AML1-ETO on hematopoietic development and transformation into a (pre-) leukemic state still needs further investigation. Here we describe the development and characterization of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) system that allows in vitro differentiation towards different mature myeloid cell types such as monocytes and granulocytes. During in vitro differentiation we expressed the AML1-ETO fusion protein and examined the effects of the oncoprotein on differentiation and the underlying alterations in the gene program at 8 different time points. Our analysis revealed that AML1-ETO as a single oncogenic hit in a non-mutated background blocks granulocytic differentiation, deregulates the gene program via altering the acetylome of the differentiating granulocytic cells, and induces t(8;21) AML associated leukemic characteristics. Together, these results reveal that inducible oncogene expression during in vitro differentiation of iPS cells provides a valuable platform for analysis of aberrant regulation in disease.

3.
Blood Adv ; 3(21): 3337-3350, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698463

RESUMO

Transfusion of donor-derived red blood cells (RBC) is the most common form of cellular therapy. Donor availability and the potential risk of alloimmunization and other transfusion-related complications may, however, limit the availability of transfusion units, especially for chronically transfused patients. In vitro cultured, customizable RBC would negate these concerns and further increase precision medicine. Large-scale, cost-effective production depends on optimization of culture conditions. We developed a defined medium and adapted our protocols to good manufacturing practice (GMP) culture requirements, which reproducibly provided pure erythroid cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells without prior CD34+ isolation, and a 3 × 107-fold increase in erythroblasts in 25 days (or from 100 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 2 to 4 mL packed red cells can be produced). Expanded erythroblast cultures could be differentiated to CD71dimCD235a+CD44+CD117-DRAQ5- RBC in 12 days. More than 90% of the cells enucleated and expressed adult hemoglobin as well as the correct blood group antigens. Deformability and oxygen-binding capacity of cultured RBC was comparable to in vivo reticulocytes. Daily RNA sampling during differentiation followed by RNA-sequencing provided a high-resolution map/resource of changes occurring during terminal erythropoiesis. The culture process was compatible with upscaling using a G-Rex bioreactor with a capacity of 1 L per reactor, allowing transition toward clinical studies and small-scale applications.

5.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3111-3122, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648334

RESUMO

Ring sideroblasts (RS) emerge as result of aberrant erythroid differentiation leading to excessive mitochondrial iron accumulation, a characteristic feature for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with mutations in the spliceosome gene SF3B1. However, RS can also be observed in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The objective of this study was to characterize RS in patients with AML. Clinically, RS-AML is enriched for ELN adverse risk (55%). In line with this finding, 35% of all cases had complex cytogenetic aberrancies, and TP53 was most recurrently mutated in this cohort (37%), followed by DNMT3A (26%), RUNX1 (25%), TET2 (20%), and ASXL1 (19%). In contrast to RS-MDS, the incidence of SF3B1 mutations was low (8%). Whole-exome sequencing and SNP array analysis on a subset of patients did not uncover a single genetic defect underlying the RS phenotype. Shared genetic defects between erythroblasts and total mononuclear cell fraction indicate common ancestry for the erythroid lineage and the myeloid blast cells in patients with RS-AML. RNA sequencing analysis on CD34+ AML cells revealed differential gene expression between RS-AML and non RS-AML cases, including genes involved in megakaryocyte and erythroid differentiation. Furthermore, several heme metabolism-related genes were found to be upregulated in RS- CD34+ AML cells, as was observed in SF3B1mut MDS. These results demonstrate that although the genetic background of RS-AML differs from that of RS-MDS, they have certain downstream effector pathways in common.

6.
FASEB J ; 33(9): 10104-10115, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199668

RESUMO

The alarmin S100A8/A9 is implicated in sterile inflammation-induced bone resorption and has been shown to increase the bone-resorptive capacity of mature osteoclasts. Here, we investigated the effects of S100A9 on osteoclast differentiation from human CD14+ circulating precursors. Hereto, human CD14+ monocytes were isolated and differentiated toward osteoclasts with M-CSF and receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) in the presence or absence of S100A9. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining showed that exposure to S100A9 during monocyte-to-osteoclast differentiation strongly decreased the numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts. This was underlined by a decreased resorption of a hydroxyapatite-like coating. The thus differentiated cells showed a high mRNA and protein production of proinflammatory factors after 16 h of exposure. In contrast, at d 4, the cells showed a decreased production of the osteoclast-promoting protein TNF-α. Interestingly, S100A9 exposure during the first 16 h of culture only was sufficient to reduce osteoclastogenesis. Using fluorescently labeled RANKL, we showed that, within this time frame, S100A9 inhibited the M-CSF-mediated induction of RANK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that this was associated with changes in various histone marks at the epigenetic level. This S100A9-induced reduction in RANK was in part recovered by blocking TNF-α but not IL-1. Together, our data show that S100A9 impedes monocyte-to-osteoclast differentiation, probably via a reduction in RANK expression.-Di Ceglie, I., Blom, A. B., Davar, R., Logie, C., Martens, J. H. A., Habibi, E., Böttcher, L.-M., Roth, J., Vogl, T., Goodyear, C. S., van der Kraan, P. M., van Lent, P. L., van den Bosch, M. H. The alarmin S100A9 hampers osteoclast differentiation from human circulating precursors by reducing the expression of RANK.

7.
Elife ; 82019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199242

RESUMO

Maintenance of epigenetic modifiers is of utmost importance to preserve the epigenome and consequently appropriate cellular functioning. Here, we analyzed Polycomb group protein (PcG) complex integrity in response to heat shock (HS). Upon HS, various Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC)1 and PRC2 subunits, including CBX proteins, but also other chromatin regulators, are found to accumulate in the nucleolus. In parallel, binding of PRC1/2 to target genes is strongly reduced, coinciding with a dramatic loss of H2AK119ub and H3K27me3 marks. Nucleolar-accumulated CBX proteins are immobile, but remarkably both CBX protein accumulation and loss of PRC1/2 epigenetic marks are reversible. This post-heat shock recovery of pan-nuclear CBX protein localization and reinstallation of epigenetic marks is HSP70 dependent. Our findings demonstrate that the nucleolus is an essential protein quality control center, which is indispensable for recovery of epigenetic regulators and maintenance of the epigenome after heat shock.

8.
Leukemia ; 33(12): 2817-2829, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138842

RESUMO

Subtype-specific leukemia oncogenes drive aberrant gene expression profiles that converge on common essential mediators to ensure leukemia self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation. The transcription factor c-MYB functions as one such mediator in a diverse range of leukemias. Here we show for the first time that transcriptional repression of myeloid differentiation associated c-MYB target genes in AML is enforced by the AAA+ ATPase RUVBL2. Silencing RUVBL2 expression resulted in increased binding of c-MYB to these loci and their transcriptional activation. RUVBL2 inhibition resulted in AML cell apoptosis and severely impaired disease progression of established AML in engrafted mice. In contrast, such inhibition had little impact on normal hematopoietic progenitor differentiation. These data demonstrate that RUVBL2 is essential for the oncogenic function of c-MYB in AML by governing inhibition of myeloid differentiation. They also indicate that targeting the control of c-MYB function by RUVBL2 is a promising approach to developing future anti-AML therapies.

9.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(5): 338, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000698

RESUMO

Leukemia is characterized by genetic and epigenetic mutations resulting in selection of cancer cells, which are unable to differentiate. Although genetic alterations are difficult to target, the epigenome is intrinsically dynamic and readily offers new therapeutic strategies. Thus, identifying cancer-specific context-dependent targets and unraveling their biological function may open up new therapeutic perspectives. Here we identify bromodomain-containing protein 9 (BRD9) as a critical target required in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We show that BRD9 is overexpressed in AML cells including ex vivo primary blasts compared with CD34+ cells. By targeting BRD9 expression in AML, we observed an alteration in proliferation and survival, ultimately resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Intriguingly, genome-wide profiling revealed that BRD9 binds enhancer regions in a cell type-specific manner, regulating cell type-related processes. We unveil a novel BRD9-sustained STAT5 pathway activation via regulation of SOCS3 expression levels. Our findings identify a previously undescribed BRD9-STAT5 axis as critical for leukemia maintenance, suggesting BRD9 as a potential therapeutic target.

10.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(3): 33, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850577

RESUMO

The inv(16) acute myeloid leukemia-associated CBFß-MYH11 fusion is proposed to block normal myeloid differentiation, but whether this subtype of leukemia cells is poised for a unique cell lineage remains unclear. Here, we surveyed the functional consequences of CBFß-MYH11 in primary inv(16) patient blasts, upon expression during hematopoietic differentiation in vitro and upon knockdown in cell lines by multi-omics profiling. Our results reveal that primary inv(16) AML cells share common transcriptomic signatures and epigenetic determiners with megakaryocytes and erythrocytes. Using in vitro differentiation systems, we reveal that CBFß-MYH11 knockdown interferes with normal megakaryocyte maturation. Two pivotal regulators, GATA2 and KLF1, are identified to complementally occupy RUNX1-binding sites upon fusion protein knockdown, and overexpression of GATA2 partly induces a gene program involved in megakaryocyte-directed differentiation. Together, our findings suggest that in inv(16) leukemia, the CBFß-MYH11 fusion inhibits primed megakaryopoiesis by attenuating expression of GATA2/KLF1 and interfering with a balanced transcriptional program involving these two factors.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição GATA2/metabolismo , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Megacariócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Epigênese Genética , Células Eritroides/citologia , Células Eritroides/metabolismo , Eritropoese/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Megacariócitos/citologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Trombopoese , Transcrição Genética
11.
Blood Adv ; 3(3): 320-332, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709863

RESUMO

To unravel molecular mechanisms by which Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) mutations contribute to leukemic transformation, we introduced the RUNX1-S291fs300X mutation in human CD34+ stem/progenitor cells and in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In both models, RUNX1mut overexpression strongly impaired myeloid commitment. Instead, self-renewal was enhanced, as shown, by increased long-term culture-initiating cell frequencies and enhanced colony-forming cell replating capacity. Long-term suspension cultures with RUNX1mut-transduced cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells continued for more than 100 days, during which the cells displayed an immature granulocyte-macrophage progenitor-like CD34+/CD123+/CD45RA+ phenotype. The CD34+/CD38- hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population most likely acted as cell of origin, as HSCs provided the best long-term proliferative potential on overexpression of RUNX1mut. CEBPA expression was reduced in RUNX1mut cells, and reexpression of CEBPA partly restored differentiation. RNA-seq analysis on CB/iPSC systems and on primary patient samples confirmed that RUNX1 mutations induce a myeloid differentiation block, and that a common set of RUNX1mut-upregulated target genes was strongly enriched for gene ontology terms associated with nucleosome assembly and chromatin structure. Interestingly, in comparison with AML1-ETO binding in acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), we found significantly distinct genomic distribution and differential expression for RUNX1mut of genes such as TCF4, MEIS1, and HMGA2 that may potentially contribute to the underlying difference in clinical outcomes between RUNX1mut and AML1-ETO patients. In conclusion, RUNX1mut appears to induce a specific transcriptional program that contributes to leukemic transformation.

12.
Cell Rep ; 26(4): 1059-1069.e6, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673601

RESUMO

Global investigation of histone marks in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains limited. Analyses of 38 AML samples through integrated transcriptional and chromatin mark analysis exposes 2 major subtypes. One subtype is dominated by patients with NPM1 mutations or MLL-fusion genes, shows activation of the regulatory pathways involving HOX-family genes as targets, and displays high self-renewal capacity and stemness. The second subtype is enriched for RUNX1 or spliceosome mutations, suggesting potential interplay between the 2 aberrations, and mainly depends on IRF family regulators. Cellular consequences in prognosis predict a relatively worse outcome for the first subtype. Our integrated profiling establishes a rich resource to probe AML subtypes on the basis of expression and chromatin data.

13.
Haematologica ; 104(7): 1460-1472, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655368

RESUMO

Dominant-negative mutations in the transcription factor Growth Factor Independence-1B (GFI1B), such as GFI1BQ287*, cause a bleeding disorder characterized by a plethora of megakaryocyte and platelet abnormalities. The deregulated molecular mechanisms and pathways are unknown. Here we show that both normal and Q287* mutant GFI1B interacted most strongly with the lysine specific demethylase-1 - REST corepressor - histone deacetylase (LSD1-RCOR-HDAC) complex in megakaryoblasts. Sequestration of this complex by GFI1BQ287* and chemical separation of GFI1B from LSD1 induced abnormalities in normal megakaryocytes comparable to those seen in patients. Megakaryocytes derived from GFI1BQ287*-induced pluripotent stem cells also phenocopied abnormalities seen in patients. Proteome studies on normal and mutant-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived megakaryocytes identified a multitude of deregulated pathways downstream of GFI1BQ287* including cell division and interferon signaling. Proteome studies on platelets from GFI1BQ287* patients showed reduced expression of proteins implicated in platelet function, and elevated expression of proteins normally downregulated during megakaryocyte differentiation. Thus, GFI1B and LSD1 regulate a broad developmental program during megakaryopoiesis, and GFI1BQ287* deregulates this program through LSD1-RCOR-HDAC sequestering.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15454, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337563

RESUMO

Despite the fact that loss of E-cadherin is causal to the development and progression of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), options to treat this major breast cancer subtype are limited if tumours develop resistance to anti-oestrogen treatment regimens. This study aimed to identify clinically targetable pathways that are aberrantly active downstream of E-cadherin loss in ILC. Using a combination of reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) analyses, mRNA sequencing, conditioned medium growth assays and CRISPR/Cas9-based knock-out experiments, we demonstrate that E-cadherin loss causes increased responsiveness to autocrine growth factor receptor (GFR)-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling. Autocrine activation of GFR signalling and its downstream PI3K/Akt hub was independent of oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1 or PTEN. Analyses of human ILC samples confirmed growth factor production and pathway activity. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt using AZD5363 or MK2206 resulted in robust inhibition of cell growth and survival of ILC cells, and impeded tumour growth in a mouse ILC model. Because E-cadherin loss evokes hypersensitisation of PI3K/Akt activation independent of oncogenic mutations in this pathway, we propose clinical intervention of PI3K/Akt in ILC based on functional E-cadherin inactivation, irrespective of activating pathway mutations.


Assuntos
Comunicação Autócrina , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Caderinas/deficiência , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia
15.
Cell Rep ; 24(10): 2784-2794, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184510

RESUMO

Neutrophils are short-lived blood cells that play a critical role in host defense against infections. To better comprehend neutrophil functions and their regulation, we provide a complete epigenetic overview, assessing important functional features of their differentiation stages from bone marrow-residing progenitors to mature circulating cells. Integration of chromatin modifications, methylation, and transcriptome dynamics reveals an enforced regulation of differentiation, for cellular functions such as release of proteases, respiratory burst, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. We observe an early establishment of the cytotoxic capability, while the signaling components that activate these antimicrobial mechanisms are transcribed at later stages, outside the bone marrow, thus preventing toxic effects in the bone marrow niche. Altogether, these data reveal how the developmental dynamics of the chromatin landscape orchestrate the daily production of a large number of neutrophils required for innate host defense and provide a comprehensive overview of differentiating human neutrophils.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos
16.
Oncotarget ; 9(39): 25630-25646, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876013

RESUMO

Epigenetic alterations have been associated with both pathogenesis and progression of cancer. By screening of library compounds, we identified a novel hybrid epi-drug MC2884, a HAT/EZH2 inhibitor, able to induce bona fide cancer-selective cell death in both solid and hematological cancers in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo xenograft models. Anticancer action was due to an epigenome modulation by H3K27me3, H3K27ac, H3K9/14ac decrease, and to caspase-dependent apoptosis induction. MC2884 triggered mitochondrial pathway apoptosis by up-regulation of cleaved-BID, and strong down-regulation of BCL2. Even aggressive models of cancer, such as p53-/- or TET2-/- cells, responded to MC2884, suggesting MC2884 therapeutic potential also for the therapy of TP53 or TET2-deficient human cancers. MC2884 induced massive apoptosis in ex vivo human primary leukemia blasts with poor prognosis in vivo, by targeting BCL2 expression. MC2884-treatment reduced acetylation of the BCL2 promoter at higher level than combined p300 and EZH2 inhibition. This suggests a key role for BCL-2 reduction in potentiating responsiveness, also in combination therapy with BCL2 inhibitors. Finally, we identified both the mechanism of MC2884 action as well as a potential therapeutic scheme of its use. Altogether, this provides proof of concept for the use of epi-drugs coupled with epigenome analyses to 'personalize' precision medicine.

17.
Oncotarget ; 9(39): 25647-25660, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876014

RESUMO

Epigenomic alterations have been associated with both pathogenesis and progression of cancer. Here, we analyzed the epigenome of two high-risk APL (hrAPL) patients and compared it to non-high-risk APL cases. Despite the lack of common genetic signatures, we found that human hrAPL blasts from patients with extremely poor prognosis display specific patterns of histone H3 acetylation, specifically hyperacetylation at a common set of enhancer regions. In addition, unique profiles of the repressive marks H3K27me3 and DNA methylation were exposed in high-risk APLs. Epigenetic comparison with low/intermediate-risk APLs and AMLs revealed hrAPL-specific patterns of histone acetylation and DNA methylation, suggesting these could be further developed into markers for clinical identification. The epigenetic drug MC2884, a newly generated general HAT/EZH2 inhibitor, induces apoptosis of high-risk APL blasts and reshapes their epigenomes by targeting both active and repressive marks. Together, our analysis uncovers distinctive epigenome signatures of hrAPL patients, and provides proof of concept for use of epigenome profiling coupled to epigenetic drugs to 'personalize' precision medicine.

18.
Nat Med ; 24(6): 868-880, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785028

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological neoplasm in which underlying epigenetic alterations are only partially understood. Here, we analyze the reference epigenome of seven primary CLLs and the regulatory chromatin landscape of 107 primary cases in the context of normal B cell differentiation. We identify that the CLL chromatin landscape is largely influenced by distinct dynamics during normal B cell maturation. Beyond this, we define extensive catalogues of regulatory elements de novo reprogrammed in CLL as a whole and in its major clinico-biological subtypes classified by IGHV somatic hypermutation levels. We uncover that IGHV-unmutated CLLs harbor more active and open chromatin than IGHV-mutated cases. Furthermore, we show that de novo active regions in CLL are enriched for NFAT, FOX and TCF/LEF transcription factor family binding sites. Although most genetic alterations are not associated with consistent epigenetic profiles, CLLs with MYD88 mutations and trisomy 12 show distinct chromatin configurations. Furthermore, we observe that non-coding mutations in IGHV-mutated CLLs are enriched in H3K27ac-associated regulatory elements outside accessible chromatin. Overall, this study provides an integrative portrait of the CLL epigenome, identifies extensive networks of altered regulatory elements and sheds light on the relationship between the genetic and epigenetic architecture of the disease.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0189102, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240787

RESUMO

In the present work we aimed to identify targetable signaling networks in human MLL-AF9 leukemias. We show that MLL-AF9 cells critically depend on FLT3-ligand induced pathways as well as on BRD3/4 for their survival. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the BRD3/4 inhibitor I-BET151 in various human MLL-AF9 (primary) models and patient samples and analyzed the transcriptome changes following treatment. To further understand the mode of action of BRD3/4 inhibition, we performed ChIP-seq experiments on the MLL-AF9 complex in THP1 cells and compared it to RNA-seq data of I-BET151 treated cells. While we could confirm a consistent and specific downregulation of key-oncogenic drivers such as MYC and BCL2, we found that the majority of I-BET151-responsive genes were not direct MLL-AF9 targets. In fact, MLL-AF9 specific targets such as the HOXA cluster, MEIS1 and other cell cycle regulators such as CDK6 were not affected by I-BET151 treatment. Furthermore, we also highlight how MLL-AF9 transformed cells are dependent on the function of non-mutated hematopoietic transcription factors and tyrosine kinases such as the FLT3-TAK1/NF-kB pathway, again impacting on BCL2 but not on the HOXA cluster. We conclude that BRD3/4 and the FLT3-TAK1/NF-kB pathways collectively control a set of targets that are critically important for the survival of human MLL-AF9 cells.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular , Leucemia/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia/metabolismo
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