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1.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab plus lenvatinib is a novel combination with promising efficacy in patients with advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer. This combination demonstrated high objective response rates in a single-arm phase 1b/2 trial of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab in patients with advanced endometrial cancer (KEYNOTE-146/Study 111) after ≤2 previous lines of therapy. In a randomized phase 3 trial of lenvatinib in combination with pembrolizumab versus treatment of physician's choice in patients with advanced endometrial cancer (KEYNOTE-775/Study 309), after 1‒2 previous lines of therapy (including neoadjuvant/adjuvant), this combination improved objective response rates, progression-free survival, and overall survival compared with chemotherapy. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of first-line pembrolizumab plus lenvatinib versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin in patients with newly diagnosed stage III/IV or recurrent endometrial cancer, with measurable or radiographically apparent disease. STUDY HYPOTHESIS: Pembrolizumab plus lenvatinib is superior to chemotherapy with respect to progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with mismatch repair-proficient tumors and all patients (all-comers). TRIAL DESIGN: Phase 3, randomized (1:1), open-label, active-controlled trial. Patients will receive pembrolizumab intravenously every 3 weeks plus lenvatinib orally daily or paclitaxel plus carboplatin intravenously every 3 weeks, stratified by mismatch repair status (proficient vs deficient). Patients with mismatch repair-proficient tumors will be further stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0/1), measurable disease (yes/no), and prior chemotherapy and/or chemoradiation (yes/no). MAJOR INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Adults with stage III/IV/recurrent histologically confirmed endometrial cancer that is measurable or radiographically apparent per blinded independent central review. Patients may have received previous chemotherapy only as neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy and/or concurrently with radiation. Patients with carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed Müllerian tumor), endometrial leiomyosarcoma, or other high grade sarcomas, or endometrial stromal sarcomas were excluded. PRIMARY ENDPOINTS: Progression-free and overall survival (dual primary endpoints). SAMPLE SIZE: About 875 patients. ESTIMATED DATES FOR COMPLETING ACCRUAL AND PRESENTING RESULTS: Enrollment is expected to take approximately 24 months, with presentation of results in 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03884101.

2.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of surgical care as a crucial component of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary management improves outcomes in patients with endometrial carcinoma, notably helping to avoid suboptimal surgical treatment. Quality indicators (QIs) enable healthcare professionals to measure their clinical management with regard to ideal standards of care. OBJECTIVE: In order to complete its set of QIs for the surgical management of gynecological cancers, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) initiated the development of QIs for the surgical treatment of endometrial carcinoma. METHODS: QIs were based on scientific evidence and/or expert consensus. The development process included a systematic literature search for the identification of potential QIs and documentation of the scientific evidence, two consensus meetings of a group of international experts, an internal validation process, and external review by a large international panel of clinicians and patient representatives. QIs were defined using a structured format comprising metrics specifications, and targets. A scoring system was then developed to ensure applicability and feasibility of a future ESGO accreditation process based on these QIs for endometrial carcinoma surgery and support any institutional or governmental quality assurance programs. RESULTS: Twenty-nine structural, process and outcome indicators were defined. QIs 1-5 are general indicators related to center case load, training, experience of the surgeon, structured multi-disciplinarity of the team and active participation in clinical research. QIs 6 and 7 are related to the adequate pre-operative investigations. QIs 8-22 are related to peri-operative standards of care. QI 23 is related to molecular markers for endometrial carcinoma diagnosis and as determinants for treatment decisions. QI 24 addresses the compliance of management of patients after primary surgical treatment with the standards of care. QIs 25-29 highlight the need for a systematic assessment of surgical morbidity and oncologic outcome as well as standardized and comprehensive documentation of surgical and pathological elements. Each QI was associated with a score. An assessment form including a scoring system was built as basis for ESGO accreditation of centers for endometrial cancer surgery.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 415-423, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of randomised head-to-head trials, we conducted a population-adjusted indirect treatment comparison (PA-ITC) of phase III trial data to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of maintenance olaparib and bevacizumab alone and in combination in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation (BRCAm). METHODS: An unanchored PA-ITC was performed on investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) data. Individual patient data from SOLO1 (olaparib versus placebo) and from BRCA-mutated patients in PAOLA-1/ENGOT-ov25 (olaparib plus bevacizumab versus placebo plus bevacizumab) were pooled. Each arm of PAOLA-1 was weighted so that key baseline patient characteristics were similar to the SOLO1 cohort. Analyses were performed in patients with complete baseline data. Weighted Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the comparative efficacy of different maintenance therapy strategies, supplemented by weighted Kaplan-Meier analyses. RESULTS: Data from SOLO1 patients (olaparib, n = 254; placebo, n = 126) were compared with data from BRCA-mutated PAOLA-1 patients (olaparib plus bevacizumab, n = 151; placebo plus bevacizumab, n = 71). Adding bevacizumab to olaparib was associated with a numerical improvement in PFS compared with olaparib alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-1.09). Statistically significant improvements in PFS were seen with olaparib alone versus placebo plus bevacizumab (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.30-0.75), olaparib plus bevacizumab versus placebo (0.23; 0.14-0.34), and placebo plus bevacizumab versus placebo (0.65; 0.43-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Results of this hypothesis-generating PA-ITC analysis support the use of maintenance olaparib alone or with bevacizumab in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCAm.

4.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 81(9): 1047-1054, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531611

RESUMO

Introduction HE4 and CA 125, two established biomarkers for assessing adnexal masses in non-pregnant women, are hardly investigated in pregnancy, especially in pregnancy-associated conditions. The aim was to evaluate HE4 and CA 125 levels in the course of pregnancy and to assess the impact of pregnancy disorders, contractions and rupture of membranes on HE4 and CA 125 serum levels in order to use these parameters for evaluation of adnexal masses in pregnancy. Patients and Methods Blood samples (n = 238) of 201 women seen at the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria, were prospectively obtained during pregnancy and postpartum. Serum concentrations of HE4 and CA 125 were analyzed. ROMA index was calculated by the premenopausal formula. Results HE4 serum levels were highest in the third trimester. Contractions (p < 0.001), rupture of membranes (p = 0.005) and pregnancy-associated diseases (p = 0.003) were associated with higher HE4 levels. As much as 97.5% of HE4 measurements remained below the recommended cut-off for premenopausal women (70 pmol/l). CA 125 levels were not altered by pregnancy-associated conditions. Generally, CA 125 exhibited a wider serum level variability, exceeding the established cut-off of 35 U/ml in 16.4%. Conclusions HE4 serum levels are influenced by several pregnancy-related conditions leading to significantly higher levels in these cases. Despite differing medians according to trimester, the 95th percentile cut-offs and almost all maximum values during the entire course of pregnancy were below the established cut-off for premenopausal women. It was also superior to the performance of ROMA index. Therefore, HE4 can be used as a valuable negative predictive marker for the assessment of adnexal masses during pregnancy.

5.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of postponed screening examinations and lockdown measures on gynecological and breast cancer diagnoses throughout the year 2020 in a gynecological oncological center in Austria. METHODS: Data of 889 patients with either newly diagnosed gynecological or breast cancer between January 2019 and December 2020 were collected. Clinical parameters including symptoms, performance status, comorbidities and referral status were compared in patients, who were newly diagnosed with cancer in the period of the first lockdown from March 2020 to April 2020 and the second lockdown from November 2020 to December 2020 and compared to the same period in 2019. RESULTS: Our results showed a strong decline in newly diagnosed cancers during the lockdown periods: -45% in gynecological cancer and -52% in breast cancer compared to the same period in 2019. Compared to the analogue period of 2019, breast cancer patients reported significantly more tumor-associated symptoms (55% vs. 31%, p = 0.013) during and in between (48% vs. 32%, p = 0.022) the lockdowns. During the lockdown, periods in the group of breast cancer patients' tumor stage varied significantly compared to 2019 (T2-T4; p = 0.047). CONCLUSION: Both lockdowns led to a strong decrease in newly diagnosed gynecological and breast cancers. Treatment delays in potentially curable disease could lead to inferior clinical outcomes, with the risk of missing the optimal treatment window. As the COVID-19 pandemic will be a challenge for some time to come, new strategies in patient care are needed to optimize cancer screening and management during the pandemic.

6.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To date, ovarian cancer screening in asymptomatic women has not shown a mortality benefit. The aim of this simulation study was to outline the impact of different histological subtypes on a potential stage-shift, achieved by screening. METHODS: Real-world data were derived in the period of 2000-2017 from the Klinischen Tumorregister Austria. We estimated five-year overall survival (OS) of patients with ovarian cancer regarding different histological subtypes and FIGO stages. A theoretical model was generated predicting the trend of OS mediated by an eventual down-shifting of ovarian cancer from FIGO stage III/IV to FIGO stage I/II by screening, considering the influence of different histological subtypes. RESULTS: 3458 ovarian cancer patients were subdivided according to histological subtypes and FIGO classification. Major difference in distribution of histological types was found between FIGO stage I/II and III/IV. A theoretical down-shift of tumors from high to low FIGO stages based on our registry calculations showed that the five-year OS would increase from 50% to nearly 80% by perfect screening. CONCLUSION: In our simulation study, we showed that down-shifting ovarian cancers by successful screening might increase OS by 30 percentage point. Our results underscore the importance to recognize ovarian cancer as a heterogenous disease with distinct epidemiologic, molecular and clinical features. The individual characteristic of each histotype is of utmost impact on the definition of screening aims and may influence early detection and stage-shift. Efficacy of screening is mainly dependent on detection of high-risk cancer types and not the slow growing low-grade types.

7.
Radiother Oncol ; 154: 327-353, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712263

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Guias como Assunto , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Consenso , Neoplasias do Endométrio/radioterapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Virchows Arch ; 478(2): 153-190, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604759

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Oncologia/normas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia/normas , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(1): 12-39, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397713

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multi-disciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(7): 917-923, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PAOLA1 is a phase III study assessing olaparib maintenance therapy in advanced high-grade ovarian carcinoma patients responding to first-line platinum-taxane-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as standard of care. Randomization was stratified by treatment outcome and tumor BRCA1/2 status (tBRCA) at screening. METHODS: tBRCA was tested on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor blocks on 5 French platforms using 2 next-generation sequencing methods based either on hybrid capture or amplicon technology. One of the exploratory objectives was to assess the concordance between germline (gBRCA) and tBRCA testing in French patients. gBRCA testing was performed on blood samples on the same platforms. RESULTS: From May 2015 to July 2017, tBRCA tests were performed for 1176 screened patients. Only 52 (4.4%) tumor samples were noncontributive. The median interval between reception of the tumor sample and availability of the tBRCA status result was 37 days (range = 8-260). A pathogenic variant was reported in 27.1% tumor samples (319 of 1176 screened patients). tBRCA and gBRCA testing were performed for 451 French patients with negative results for both tests in 306 patients (67.8%) and positive results for both tests in 85 patients (18.8%). Only 1 large genomic rearrangement of BRCA1 was detected, exclusively in the blood sample. Interestingly, tBRCA testing revealed 6.4% of pathogenic variant (29 of 451) not detected by gBRCA testing. CONCLUSIONS: tBRCA testing is an appropriate tool with an acceptable turnaround time for clinical practice and a low failure rate, ensuring reliable identification of patients likely to benefit from poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor therapy.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20412, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230143

RESUMO

SMARCA4 and EZH2 are two functional key players of their respective antagonizing chromatin remodeling complexes SWI/SNF and PRC2. EZH2 inhibitory drugs may abrogate pro-oncogenic features of PRC2 and turn the balance to cell differentiation via SWI/SNF activity in cancers. SMARCA4 and EZH2 expression was assessed by RT-PCR in 238 epithelial ovarian cancers (OCs) and put in relation to clinico-pathological parameters and patients' outcome. Optimal thresholds for high and low expression of both variables were calculated by the Youden's index based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. High SMARCA4 mRNA expression was independently associated with favorable progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.03) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.018). As Youden's threshold determination for EZH2 yielded a S-shaped ROC-curve, two cut-off points (29th and 94th percentile) predicting opposite features were defined. Whereas EZH2 mRNA levels beyond the 29th percentile independently predicted poor PFS (P = 0.034), Cox-regression in EZH2 transcripts above the 94th percentile revealed a conversion from unfavorable to favorable PFS and OS (P = 0.009 and P = 0.032, respectively). High SMARCA4 expression associates with improved survival, whereas moderate/high EZH2 expression predicts poor outcome, which converts to favorable survival in ultra-high expressing OCs. This small OC subgroup could be characterized by REV7-abrogated platinum hypersensitivity but concomitant PARP-inhibitor resistance.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Tubas Uterinas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Mad2/genética , Proteínas Mad2/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/cirurgia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(11): 1667-1671, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On March 16, 2020, the federal government of Austria declared a nationwide lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the lockdown, screening examinations and routine checkups have been restricted to prevent the spread of the virus and to increase the hospitals' bed capacity across the country. This resulted in a severe decline of patient referrals to the hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the rate of newly diagnosed gynecological and breast cancers in Austria. METHODS: Data of 2077 patients from 18 centers in Austria with newly diagnosed gynecological or breast cancer between January and May 2019 and January and May 2020 were collected. Clinical parameters, including symptoms, performance status, co-morbidities, and referral status, were compared between the time before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: Our results showed a slight increase of newly diagnosed cancers in January and February 2020 as compared with 2019 (+2 and +35%, respectively) and a strong decline in newly diagnosed tumors since the lockdown: -24% in March 2020 versus March 2019, -49% in April 2020 versus April 2019, -49% in May 2020 versus May 2019. Two-thirds of patients diagnosed during the pandemic presented with tumor-specific symptoms compared with less than 50% before the pandemic (p<0.001). Moreover, almost 50% of patients in 2020 had no co-morbidities compared with 35% in 2019 (p<0.001). Patients, who already had a malignant disease, were rarely diagnosed with a new cancer in 2020 as compared with 2019 (11% vs 6%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown led to a decreased number of newly diagnosed gynecological and breast cancers. The decreased accessibility of the medical services and postponed diagnosis of potentially curable cancers during the COVID-19 pandemic may be a step backwards in our healthcare system and might impair cancer treatment outcomes. Therefore, new strategies to manage early cancer detection are needed to optimize cancer care in a time of pandemic in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , COVID-19 , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(32): 3753-3762, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822286

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (LGSOCs) have historically low chemotherapy responses. Alterations affecting the MAPK pathway, most commonly KRAS/BRAF, are present in 30%-60% of LGSOCs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate binimetinib, a potent MEK1/2 inhibitor with demonstrated activity across multiple cancers, in LGSOC. METHODS: This was a 2:1 randomized study of binimetinib (45 mg twice daily) versus physician's choice chemotherapy (PCC). Eligible patients had recurrent measurable LGSOC after ≥ 1 prior platinum-based chemotherapy but ≤ 3 prior chemotherapy lines. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by blinded independent central review (BICR); additional assessments included overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), clinical-benefit rate, biomarkers, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 303 patients were randomly assigned to an arm of the study at the time of interim analysis (January 20, 2016). Median PFS by BICR was 9.1 months (95% CI, 7.3 to 11.3) for binimetinib and 10.6 months (95% CI, 9.2 to 14.5) for PCC (hazard ratio,1.21; 95%CI, 0.79 to 1.86), resulting in early study closure according to a prespecified futility boundary after 341 patients had enrolled. Secondary efficacy end points were similar in the two groups: ORR 16% (complete response [CR]/partial responses[PRs], 32) versus 13% (CR/PRs, 13); median DOR, 8.1 months (range, 0.03 to ≥ 12.0 months) versus 6.7 months (0.03 to ≥ 9.7 months); and median OS, 25.3 versus 20.8 months for binimetinib and PCC, respectively. Safety results were consistent with the known safety profile of binimetinib; the most common grade ≥ 3 event was increased blood creatine kinase level (26%). Post hoc analysis suggests a possible association between KRAS mutation and response to binimetinib. Results from an updated analysis (n = 341; January 2019) were consistent. CONCLUSION: Although the MEK Inhibitor in Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Study did not meet its primary end point, binimetinib showed activity in LGSOC across the efficacy end points evaluated. A higher response to chemotherapy than expected was observed and KRAS mutation might predict response to binimetinib.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/enzimologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/enzimologia , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Topotecan/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(6): 819-824, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopy is one of the diagnostic tools available for the complex clinical decision-making process in advanced ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma. This article presents the results of a survey conducted within the European Network of Gynaecological Oncology Trial (ENGOT) group aimed at reviewing the current patterns of practice at gynecologic oncology centers with regard to the evaluation of resection in advanced ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma. METHODS: A 24-item questionnaire was sent to the chair of the 20 cooperative groups that are currently part of the ENGOT group, and forwarded to the members within each group. RESULTS: A total of 142 questionnaires were returned. Only 39 respondents (27.5%) reported using some form of clinical (not operative) score for the evaluation of resection. The frequency of use of diagnostic laparoscopy to assess disease status and feasibility of resection was as follows: never, 21 centers (15%); only in select cases, 83 centers (58.5%); and routinely, 36 centers (25.4%). When laparoscopy was performed, 64% of users declared they made the decision to proceed with maximal effort cytoreductive surgery based on their personal/staff opinion, and 36% based on a laparoscopic score. To the question of whether laparoscopy should be considered the gold standard in the evaluation of resection, 71 respondents (50%) answered no, 66 respondents (46.5%) answered yes, whereas 5 respondents (3.5%) did not provide an answer. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that laparoscopy was routinely performed to assess feasibility of cytoreduction in only 25.4% of centers in Europe. However, it was commonly used to select patients and in a minority of centers it was never used . When laparoscopy was adopted, the treatment strategy was based on laparoscopic scores only in a minority of centers.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Oncologia Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Carcinogenesis ; 41(8): 1065-1073, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301486

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecologic tumour in the Western world. Previous studies have implicated an imbalance of oestrogens and progestogens in the development of most ECs, while the role of low-grade tissue inflammation remains largely unexplored. We investigated the impact of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a central mediator of inflammation and spermatogenesis-associated protein 2 (SPATA2), a regulator of TNF receptor signalling, on clinical outcomes in EC. We evaluated TNFA and SPATA2 transcript levels in 239 EC patients and 25 non-malignant control tissues. Findings were validated in a cohort of 332 EC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Expression of TNFA and SPATA2 was increased in EC when compared with control tissues (P < 0.001). TNFA expression correlated with SPATA2 expression in non-malignant (P = 0.003, rS = 0.568) and EC tissue (P = 0.005, rS = 0.179). High TNFA and SPATA2 expression were associated with poor recurrence-free survival (RFS; P = 0.049 and P = 0.018) and disease-specific (P = 0.034 and P = 0.002) survival. Increased SPATA2 expression was also associated with decreased overall survival (OS; P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, both TNFA and SPATA2 were predictors of clinical outcome. The impact of SPATA2 on RFS and OS could be validated in the TCGA cohort. Our study demonstrates that ECs exhibit a TNF signature which predicts clinical outcome. These findings indicate that TNF signalling modulates the course of EC, which could be therapeutically utilized in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
17.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(8): 1092-1099, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112653

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The outcome of ovarian cancer patients is highly dependent on the success of primary debulking surgery in terms of postoperative residual disease. This study critically evaluates the clinical impact of preoperative radiologic assessment of the cardiophrenic lymph node (CPLN) status in advanced ovarian cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Baseline CT scans of 178 stage III and IV ovarian cancer patients were retrospectively reviewed by two independent radiologists. CPLN enlargement defined at a short-axis ≥5 mm was evaluated for its prognostic value and predictive power of upper abdominal tumor involvement and the chance of complete intra-abdominal tumor resection at primary debulking surgery. Only patients without surgically removed CPLN were eligible for this study. RESULTS: Enlarged CPLNs were detected in 50% of patients and correlated with radiologically suspicious (P = .028) and histologically confirmed (P = .001) paraaortic lymph node metastases. CPLNs ≥ 5 mm were associated with high CA-125 levels at baseline and revealed independent prognostic relevance for progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-3.42) and overall survival (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.16-4.08). Noteworthy, patients with enlarged CPLNs nonetheless benefit from complete intra-abdominal tumor debulking in terms of an improvement in progression-free survival (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.94) and overall survival (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.82). Enlarged CPLNs correctly predicted carcinomatosis of the upper abdomen in 94.6%. A predictive score of complete tumor debulking, termed CD-score, which integrates, beside a CPLN short axis <5 mm, an ascites volume <500 mL, and CA-125 levels <500 U/mL at baseline, correctly predicted complete intra-abdominal debulking in 100% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: CPLNs ≥5 mm predict upper abdominal tumor involvement. The application of the CD-score predicted complete macroscopic tumor resection at primary surgery in all of the patients. Although, CPLN pathology suggests extra-abdominal disease, we consistently demonstrated that patients nonetheless benefit from complete intra-abdominal tumor resection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Abdominais/secundário , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Breast ; 50: 64-70, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: STEPAUT, an Austrian non-interventional study, evaluated the safety and efficacy of everolimus plus exemestane in patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC) recurring/progressing on/after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) in routine clinical practice. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- ABC progressing on/after NSAIs receiving everolimus plus exemestane in accordance with routine practice and the current version of Summary of Product Characteristics were eligible. Planned individual observation period corresponded to the duration of treatment until formal study end. RESULTS: Overall, 236 patients (median age: 65 years) were enrolled at 17 sites across Austria. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) in the overall population was 9.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.6-10.7 months). The mPFS (95% CI) in patients who received everolimus 10 and 5 mg was 9.9 months (7.3-11.5 months) and 8 months (4.7-10.7 months), respectively. The median time to progression was numerically longer in patients who had a therapy break (11.9 months, 95% CI: 10.0-14.6 months) versus those who did not have any therapy break (10.7 months, 95% CI: 8.9-12.6 months). Patients experienced grade 1 (53.7%), grade 2 (35.9%), grade 3 (9.9%), grade 4 (0.2%) adverse events (AEs). The most common AEs of any grade were stomatitis, mucositis (53.8%), rash, exanthema (29.7%), loss of appetite, nausea (28.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Real-world safety and efficacy data from STEPAUT were consistent with results from BOLERO-2, supporting everolimus plus exemestane as a suitable treatment option for HR+, HER2- ABC recurring/progressing on/after NSAIs.


Assuntos
Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Idoso , Áustria/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
19.
J Cancer ; 11(6): 1446-1456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047551

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor miR-34 family is transcriptionally induced by p53. Clinical significance of the various miR-34 family members has not been studied in ovarian cancer. In 228 ovarian cancers and in 19 non-neoplastic fallopian tube samples we analysed miR-34 a/b/c expression in relation to clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome. We found significantly lower levels of miR-34 a/b/c in ovarian cancers as compared to control-tissues (P=0.002, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Expression of miR-34 b/c revealed an inverse correlation with BRCA1/2 mRNA-expression (BRCA1: miR34 b/c P=0.002 each; BRCA2: miR-34 b/c P<0.001 each), the same was true for miR-34a and BRCA2 mRNA-expression (P<0.001). The miR-34 family expression was found to be significantly lower in type 2 in comparison to type 1 cancers (P<0.001) and in TP53-mutated compared with TP53-wild-type ovarian cancers (P<0.001, P=0.002, P=0.004, respectively). When low grade serous ovarian cancers were compared with high grade serous cancers the respective miR-34 a/b/c expression was 2.6-, 40.8- and 32.3-fold higher. The expression of each of the miR-34 family members was revealed to be of independent prognostic relevance regarding progression free survival (PFS); miR-34a: HR 0.6, P=0.033; miR-34b: HR 0.2, P=0.001 and miR-34c: HR 0.3, P=0.002, respectively). For overall survival (OS) independency of the prognostic value was confined to miR-34b (HR 0.4, P=0.016) and miR-34c (HR 0.6, P=0.049). The independency of the prognostic value of our identified thresholds was confirmed for PFS for miR-34c in a publicly available dataset (NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE73582). Our findings suggest that downregulation of miR-34 family is a crucial part in ovarian cancer development. Low miR-34 levels are linked to a worse overall survival and progression free survival and may indicate a more aggressive disease.

20.
J Sex Med ; 17(3): 461-469, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918983

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor genital self-image is a common phenomenon leading to an increasing interest in female genital surgery over the last years. AIM: The aim was to correlate objective measurements of the labia minora with the individual subjective perception of the labial size. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study with 200 premenopausal women (median age 33.5 years) presenting for gynecological issues other than vulvar diseases, labial width and length were measured, and psychological and physical complaints were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors that influenced self-reported complaints and subjective perception of labia size. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was labial appearance (width and length in mm, color), subjective perception of the labial size, and complaints. RESULTS: The median width of the labia minora was 19.0 mm (interquartile range = 12.6-27.5), and the median length was 35.5 mm (interquartile range = 27.8-48.9). The objective size of the labia was significantly associated with womens' subjective perception of the labial size, but not with self-reported complaints. Nearly one-third of the women (n = 53, 27%) reported complaints of their labia minora which were mainly physical (n = 41, 77%) or a combination of physical and psychological problems (n = 9, 17%), while only a small group reported experiencing only psychological complaints (n = 3, 6%). Predictors of complaints were previous cosmetic surgery and the subjective perception of the labia size. The latter was significantly associated with discomfort during intercourse and when visiting a sauna and by labia minora that protruded over the labia majora. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Cutoff values to define labial hypertrophy and to justify labial reduction surgery should be avoided. STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: This is a large sample of labial measurements in women not seeking labiaplasty. Standardized and validated questions regarding quality of life, sexuality, and body image could have provided more insight into psychological aspects. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the variability of labial anatomy and its perception. Widschwendter A, Riedl D, Freidhager K, et al. Perception of Labial Size and Objective Measurements-Is There a Correlation? A Cross-Sectional Study in a Cohort Not Seeking Labiaplasty. J Sex Med 2020;17:461-469.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Qualidade de Vida , Vulva/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Humanos , Hipertrofia/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Vulva/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
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