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1.
Drug Test Anal ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652887

RESUMO

Mexedrone is a synthetic cathinone structurally related to mephedrone, which belongs to the class of N-alkyl cathinone derivatives, whose metabolic profile has not been fully clarified yet. This study considers the in vitro phase I metabolism of mexedrone, to pre-select the most appropriate marker(s) of intake. Mexedrone was incubated in the presence of either human liver microsomes or single recombinant CYP450 isoforms. The metabolic profile was outlined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to both high- and low-resolution mass spectrometry. In detail, the phase I metabolic profile of mexedrone was initially defined by a time-of-flight analyzer, while the chemical structures of the detected metabolites and the potential presence of minor metabolites were subsequently studied by tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple quadrupole analyzer. The main phase I metabolic reactions were hydroxylation and N- and O-dealkylation. The CYP450 isoforms most involved were CYP2C19, responsible for the formation of both hydroxylated and dealkylated metabolites, followed by CYP2D6 and CYP1A2, involved in the hydroxylation reactions only. Finally, a significant fraction of mexedrone unchanged was also detected. Based on this evidence, the most appropriate markers of intake are mexedrone unchanged and the hydroxylated metabolites.

2.
Exp Neurol ; 345: 113836, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384790

RESUMO

Methoxetamine (MXE) is a dissociative substance of the arylcyclohexylamine class that has been present on the designer drug market as a ketamine-substitute since 2010. We have previously shown that MXE (i) possesses ketamine-like discriminative and positive rewarding effects in rats, (ii) affects brain processing involved in cognition and emotional responses, (iii) causes long-lasting behavioral abnormalities and neurotoxicity in rats and (iv) induces neurological, sensorimotor and cardiorespiratory alterations in mice. To shed light on the mechanisms through which MXE exerts its effects, we conducted a multidisciplinary study to evaluate the various neurotransmitter systems presumably involved in its actions on the brain. In vivo microdialysis study first showed that a single administration of MXE (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) is able to significantly alter serotonin levels in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens. Then, we observed that blockade of the serotonin 5-HT2 receptors through two selective antagonists, ketanserin (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and MDL 100907 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.), at doses not affecting animals behavior per se, attenuated the facilitatory motor effect and the inhibition on visual sensory responses induced by MXE (3 mg/kg, i.p.) and ketamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.), and prevented MXE-induced reduction of the prepulse inhibition in rats, pointing to the 5-HT2 receptors as a key target for the recently described MXE-induced sensorimotor effects. Finally, in-vitro electrophysiological studies revealed that the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems are also likely involved in the mechanisms through which MXE exerts its central effects since MXE inhibits, in a concentration-dependent manner, NMDA-mediated field postsynaptic potentials and GABA-mediated spontaneous currents. Conversely, MXE failed to alter both the AMPA component of field potentials and presynaptic glutamate release, and seems not to interfere with the endocannabinoid-mediated effects on mPFC GABAergic synapses. Altogether, our results support the notion of MXE as a NMDA receptor antagonist and shed further lights into the central mechanisms of action of this ketamine-substitute by pointing to serotonin 5-HT2 receptors as crucial players in the expression of its sensorimotor altering effects and to the NMDA and GABA receptors as potential further important targets of action.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463916

RESUMO

This study involves the histological analysis of samples taken during autopsies in cases of COVID-19 related death to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine response and the tissue localization of the virus in various organs. In all the selected cases, SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on swabs collected from the upper (nasopharynx and oropharynx) and/or the lower respiratory (trachea and primary bronchi) tracts were positive. Tissue localization of SARS-CoV-2 was detected using antibodies against the nucleoprotein and the spike protein. Overall, we tested the hypothesis that the overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the development of COVID-19-associated pneumonia by estimating the expression of multiple cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, and MCP-1), inflammatory cells (CD4, CD8, CD20, and CD45), and fibrinogen. Immunohistochemical staining showed that endothelial cells expressed IL-1ß in lung samples obtained from the COVID-19 group (p < 0.001). Similarly, alveolar capillary endothelial cells showed strong and diffuse immunoreactivity for IL-6 and IL-15 in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.001). TNF-α showed a higher immunoreactivity in the COVID-19 group than in the control group (p < 0.001). CD8 + T cells where more numerous in the lung samples obtained from the COVID-19 group (p < 0.001). Current evidence suggests that a cytokine storm is the major cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure and is consistently linked with fatal outcomes.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445476

RESUMO

4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a new synthetic stimulant, and only a little information has been made available so far regarding its pharmaco-toxicological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the systemic administration of both the single (±)cis (0.1-60 mg/kg) and (±)trans (30 and 60 mg/kg) stereoisomers and their co-administration (e.g., (±)cis at 1, 10 or 60 mg/kg + (±)trans at 30 mg/kg) in mice. Moreover, we investigated the effect of 4,4'-DMAR on the expression of markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress (8-OHdG, iNOS, NT and NOX2), apoptosis (Smac/DIABLO and NF-κB), and heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP70, HSP90) in the cerebral cortex. Our study demonstrated that the (±)cis stereoisomer dose-dependently induced psychomotor agitation, sweating, salivation, hyperthermia, stimulated aggression, convulsions and death. Conversely, the (±)trans stereoisomer was ineffective whilst the stereoisomers' co-administration resulted in a worsening of the toxic (±)cis stereoisomer effects. This trend of responses was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis on the cortex. Finally, we investigated the potentially toxic effects of stereoisomer co-administration by studying urinary excretion. The excretion study showed that the (±)trans stereoisomer reduced the metabolism of the (±)cis form and increased its amount in the urine, possibly reflecting its increased plasma levels and, therefore, the worsening of its toxicity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxazóis/toxicidade , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/patologia , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Oxazóis/classificação , Oxazóis/urina , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/induzido quimicamente , Psicotrópicos/classificação , Psicotrópicos/urina , Estereoisomerismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204826

RESUMO

Mexedrone, α-PVP and α-PHP are synthetic cathinones. They can be considered amphetamine-like substances with a stimulating effect. Actually, studies showing their impact on DNA are totally absent. Therefore, in order to fill this gap, aim of the present work was to evaluate their mutagenicity on TK6 cells. On the basis of cytotoxicity and cytostasis results, we selected the concentrations (35-100 µM) to be used in the further analysis. We used the micronucleus (MN) as indicator of genetic damage and analyzed the MNi frequency fold increase by flow cytometry. Mexedrone demonstrated its mutagenic potential contrary to the other two compounds; we then proceeded by repeating the analyzes in the presence of extrinsic metabolic activation in order to check if it was possible to totally exclude the mutagenic capacity for α-PVP and α-PHP. The results demonstrated instead the mutagenicity of their metabolites. We then evaluated reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction as a possible mechanism at the basis of the highlighted effects but the results did not show a statistically significant increase in ROS levels for any of the tested substances. Anyway, our outcomes emphasize the importance of mutagenicity evaluation for a complete assessment of the risk associated with synthetic cathinones exposure.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/toxicidade , Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Pentanonas/toxicidade , Pirrolidinas/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Micronúcleo Germinativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronúcleo Germinativo/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299276

RESUMO

1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS), first discovered in Europe in 2012 as unknown racemic mixture of its three stereoisomers: ortho, meta and para. Each of these has structural similarities with the analgesic tramadol and the dissociative anesthetic phencyclidine. In light of these structural analogies, and based on the fact that both tramadol and phencyclidine are substances that cause toxic effects in humans, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic profile of these molecules, and to compare them with those caused by tramadol and phencyclidine. In vitro studies demonstrated that tramadol, ortho, meta and para were inactive at mu, kappa and delta opioid receptors. Systemic administration of the three stereoisomers impairs sensorimotor responses, modulates spontaneous motor activity, induces modest analgesia, and alters thermoregulation and cardiorespiratory responses in the mouse in some cases, with a similar profile to that of tramadol and phencyclidine. Naloxone partially prevents only the visual sensorimotor impairments caused by three stereoisomers, without preventing other effects. The present data show that 1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene derivatives cause pharmaco-toxicological effects by activating both opioid and non-opioid mechanisms and suggest that their use could potentially lead to abuse and bodily harm.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/toxicidade , Anisóis/toxicidade , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Alucinógenos/toxicidade , Fenciclidina/toxicidade , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Tramadol/toxicidade , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Animais , Anisóis/química , Derivados de Benzeno/química , Células Cultivadas , Cricetinae , Alucinógenos/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Fenciclidina/química , Psicotrópicos/química , Tramadol/química
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299015

RESUMO

Synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among young drug users and are widely used in the clandestine market. While the cathinone-induced behavioral profile has been extensively investigated, information on their neuroplastic effects is still rather fragmentary. Accordingly, we have exposed male mice to a single injection of MDPV and α-PVP and sacrificed the animals at different time points (i.e., 30 min, 2 h, and 24 h) to have a rapid readout of the effect of these psychostimulants on neuroplasticity in the frontal lobe and hippocampus, two reward-related brain regions. We found that a single, low dose of MDPV or α-PVP is sufficient to alter the expression of neuroplastic markers in the adult mouse brain. In particular, we found increased expression of the transcription factor Npas4, increased ratio between the vesicular GABA transporter and the vesicular glutamate transporter together with changes in the expression of the neurotrophin Bdnf, confirming the widespread impact of these cathinones on brain plasticity. To sum up, exposure to low dose of cathinones can impair cortical and hippocampal homeostasis, suggesting that abuse of these cathinones at much higher doses, as it occurs in humans, could have an even more profound impact on neuroplasticity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Pentanonas/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
8.
Drug Test Anal ; 13(8): 1516-1526, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835674

RESUMO

The emerging market of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) is a global-scale phenomenon, and their identification in biological samples is challenging because of the lack of information about their metabolism and pharmacokinetic. In this study, we performed in silico metabolic pathway prediction and in vivo metabolism experiments, in order to identify the main metabolites of mephtetramine (MTTA), an NPS found in seizures since 2013. MetaSite™ software was used for in silico metabolism predictions and subsequently the presence of metabolites in the blood, urine, and hair of mice after MTTA administration was verified. The biological samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) using a benchtop Orbitrap instrument. This confirmed the concordance between software prediction and experimental results in biological samples. The metabolites were identified by their accurate masses and fragmentation patterns. LC-HRMS analysis identified the dehydrogenated and demethylated-dehydrogenated metabolites, together with unmodified MTTA in the blood samples. Besides unmodified MTTA, 10 main metabolites were detected in urine. In hair samples, only demethyl MTTA was detected along with MTTA. The combination of Metasite™ prediction and in vivo experiment was a powerful tool for studying MTTA metabolism. This approach enabled the development of the analytical method for the detection of MTTA and its main metabolites in biological samples. The development of analytical methods for the identification of new drugs and their main metabolites is extremely useful for the detection of NPS in biological specimens. Indeed, high throughput methods are precious to uncover the actual extent of use of NPS and their toxicity.

9.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(8): 2275-2295, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881584

RESUMO

N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and γ-hydroxybutyrate acid (GHB) are synthetic solvents detected in the recreational drug market. GHB has sedative/hypnotic properties and is used for criminal purposes to compromise reaction ability and commit drug-facilitated sexual assaults and other crimes. NMP is a strong solubilizing solvent that has been used alone or mixed with GHB in case of abuse and robberies. The aim of this experimental study is to compare the acute pharmaco-toxicological effects of NMP and GHB on neurological signs (myoclonia, convulsions), sensorimotor (visual, acoustic, and overall tactile) responses, righting reflex, thermoregulation, and motor activity (bar, drag, and accelerod test) in CD-1 male mice. Moreover, since cardiorespiratory depression is one of the main adverse effects related to GHB intake, we investigated the effect of NMP and GHB on cardiorespiratory changes (heart rate, breath rate, oxygen saturation, and pulse distension) in mice. The present study demonstrates that NMP inhibited sensorimotor and motor responses and induced cardiorespiratory depression, with a lower potency and efficacy compared to GHB. These results suggest that NMP can hardly be used alone as a substance to perpetrate sexual assault or robberies.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas/toxicidade , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinonas/toxicidade , Reflexo de Sobressalto/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxibato de Sódio/toxicidade , Adjuvantes Anestésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/toxicidade , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Estupro , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia
10.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(7): 1847-1856, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770233

RESUMO

Recreational use of illicit methiopropamine (MPA) is a public health concern because it produces neurochemical effects comparable with those induced by methamphetamine (METH). The present study investigated the effects of MPA on the expression of an aggressive behaviour. Eighty CD-1 male mice, after receiving intraperitoneal injection of saline, MPA (0.01-10 mg/kg), METH (0.01-10 mg/kg), or AMPH (0.01-10 mg/kg), once a week over a 5-week period, underwent the resident-intruder test and spontaneous locomotor activity measurement. Results showed that all psychostimulants induce aggressive behaviour even at low doses, with a dose-dependent increase and a time-dependent sensitisation. MPA potency was similar to METH and superior to AMPH. Therefore, MPA-induced aggressive behaviour may appear even at MPA dosages free of cardiovascular or other behavioural adverse effects and could become a non-intentional side effect that users experience after increasing and repeating MPA consumption.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/toxicidade , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/química , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Metanfetamina/química , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Tiofenos/química
11.
Metabolites ; 11(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578841

RESUMO

The diffusion of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is highly dynamic and the available substances change over time, resulting in forensic laboratories becoming highly engaged in NPS control. In order to manage NPS diffusion, efficient and innovative legal responses have been provided by several nations. Metabolic profiling is also part of the analytical fight against NPS, since it allows us to identify the biomarkers of drug intake which are needed for the development of suitable analytical methods in biological samples. We have recently reported the characterization of two new analogs of fentanyl, i.e., 4-fluoro-furanylfentanyl (4F-FUF) and isobutyrylfentanyl (iBF), which were found for the first time in Italy in 2019; 4F-FUF was identified for the first time in Europe and was notified to the European Early Warning System. The goal of this study was the characterization of the main metabolites of both drugs by in vitro and in vivo experiments. To this end, incubation with mouse hepatocytes and intraperitoneal administration to mice were carried out. Samples were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), followed by untargeted data evaluation using Compound Discoverer software with a specific workflow, designed for the identification of the whole metabolic pattern, including unexpected metabolites. Twenty metabolites were putatively annotated for 4-FFUF, with the dihydrodiol derivative appearing as the most abundant, whereas 22 metabolites were found for iBF, which was mainly excreted as nor-isobutyrylfentanyl. N-dealkylation of 4-FFUF dihydrodiol and oxidation to carbonyl metabolites for iBF were also major biotransformations. Despite some differences, in general there was a good agreement between in vitro and in vivo samples.

12.
Drug Test Anal ; 13(1): 91-100, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678963

RESUMO

We have considered the urinary excretion profile of methiopropamine (MPA), a thiophene ring-based structural analog of methamphetamine with similar stimulant effects, with the aim of selecting the most appropriate marker(s) of intake that may be useful in forensic analysis. For this purpose, in vitro studies were preliminarily performed on human liver microsomes for tracing the phase I metabolic pathways of MPA, preselecting the best candidates as potential target analytes, and designing the optimal experimental strategy. In vivo studies were then conducted on mice, after the intraperitoneal administration of a 10-mg/kg dose. Urine samples were collected every 3 h in the first 9 h and, subsequently, from 24 to 36 h, and stored at -80°C until further analysis. The measurements were performed using a targeted procedure based on liquid/liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Our results show that in the time interval 0-9 h after administration, MPA was extensively oxidized mainly to nor-MPA, oxo-MPA, and two hydroxylated metabolites (ie, hydroxy-aryl-methiopropamine and hydroxy-alkyl-methiopropamine). All phase I metabolites underwent phase II metabolism, with the formation of nor-hydroxy-methiopropamine only in phase II, confirmed by the results obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis with ß-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase. In the time interval 24-36 h after administration, only unchanged MPA and nor-MPA were detected, suggesting that these two markers are those endowed with the highest diagnostic value. The method was validated for these two principal markers, proving to be fit for anti-doping, toxicological, and forensic analyses.

13.
J Anal Toxicol ; 45(5): 475-483, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860694

RESUMO

Since the widespread diffusion of new psychoactive substances, forensic laboratories are often required to identify new drugs and their metabolites for which information or reference standards are lacking. We performed a study on N-methyl-2-aminoindane (NM2AI) metabolism in silico and in vivo, in order to identify the main metabolites to be screened in the different biological samples. We performed the in silico metabolism prediction of NM2AI using MetaSiteTM software and subsequently verified the presence of metabolites in the blood, urine and hair of mice after NM2AI administration. The samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) with a benchtop Orbitrap Exactive mass detector. This allowed the evaluation of the agreement between software prediction and experimental results in biological samples. LC-HRMS analysis identified seven main metabolites in the urine. They were identified, by their accurate masses and fragmentation patterns, as 2-aminoindane (2AI), two hydroxy-2AI and four hydroxy-NM2AI; one of the hydroxy-NM2AI and one of the hydroxy-2AI underwent also to conjugation. NM2AI and 2AI were also detected by LC-HRMS in the hair and blood. Based on these findings, we developed an LC-HRMS method for the screening of NM2AI and metabolites in urine, blood and hair samples. This can be of primary effectiveness to uncover the abuse of NM2AI and related possible intoxications.


Assuntos
Indanos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348640

RESUMO

Psychedelic and stimulating phenethylamines belong to the family of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The acute toxicity framework has begun to be investigated, while studies showing genotoxic potential are very limited or not available. Therefore, in order to fill this gap, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the genotoxicity by treating TK6 cells with 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-B, 25B-NBOMe, and the popular 3,4-Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). On the basis of cytotoxicity and cytostasis results, we selected the concentrations (6.25-35 µM) to be used in genotoxicity analysis. We used the micronucleus (MN) as indicator of genetic damage and analyzed the MNi frequency fold increase by an automated flow cytometric protocol. All substances, except MDMA, resulted genotoxic; therefore, we evaluated reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction as a possible mechanism at the basis of the demonstrated genotoxicity. The obtained results showed a statistically significant increase in ROS levels for all genotoxic phenethylamines confirming this hypothesis. Our results highlight the importance of genotoxicity evaluation for a complete assessment of the risk associated also with NPS exposure. Indeed, the subjects who do not have hazardous behaviors or require hospitalization by using active but still "safe" doses could run into genotoxicity and in the well-known long-term effects associated.


Assuntos
Anisóis/farmacologia , Dimetoxifeniletilamina/análogos & derivados , Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/farmacologia , Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimetoxifeniletilamina/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Humanos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Brain Sci ; 10(9)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899299

RESUMO

Sex and gender deeply affect the subjective effects and pharmaco-toxicological responses to drugs. Men are more likely than women to use almost all types of illicit drugs and to present to emergency departments for serious or fatal intoxications. However, women are just as likely as men to develop substance use disorders, and may be more susceptible to craving and relapse. Clinical and preclinical studies have shown important differences between males and females after administration of "classic" drugs of abuse (e.g., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, cocaine). This scenario has become enormously complicated in the last decade with the overbearing appearance of the new psychoactive substances (NPS) that have emerged as alternatives to regulated drugs. To date, more than 900 NPS have been identified, and can be catalogued in different pharmacological categories including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic stimulants (cathinones and amphetamine-like), hallucinogenic phenethylamines, synthetic opioids (fentanyls and non-fentanyls), new benzodiazepines and dissociative anesthetics (i.e., methoxetamine and phencyclidine-derivatives). This work collects the little knowledge reached so far on the effects of NPS in male and female animal and human subjects, highlighting how much sex and gender differences in the effects of NPS has yet to be studied and understood.

16.
Brain Sci ; 10(9)2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847111

RESUMO

The drastic increase in hallucinogenic compounds in illicit drug markets of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a worldwide threat. Among these, 2, 5-dimetoxy-4-bromo-amphetamine (DOB) and paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA; marketed as "ecstasy") are frequently purchased on the dark web and consumed for recreational purposes during rave/dance parties. In fact, these two substances seem to induce the same effects as MDMA, which could be due to their structural similarities. According to users, DOB and PMA share the same euphoric effects: increasing of the mental state, increasing sociability and empathy. Users also experienced loss of memory, temporal distortion, and paranoia following the repetition of the same thought. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the acute systemic administration of DOB and PMA (0.01-30 mg/kg; i.p.) on motor, sensorimotor (visual, acoustic, and tactile), and startle/PPI responses in CD-1 male mice. Moreover, the pro-psychedelic effect of DOB (0.075-2 mg/kg) and PMA (0.0005-0.5 mg/kg) was investigated by using zebrafish as a model. DOB and PMA administration affected spontaneous locomotion and impaired behaviors and startle/PPI responses in mice. In addition, the two compounds promoted hallucinatory states in zebrafish by reducing the hallucinatory score and swimming activity in hallucinogen-like states.

17.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(5): 1695-1711, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356113

RESUMO

Methiopropamine is a structural analog of methamphetamine that is categorized as a novel psychoactive substance. It primarily acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor and, secondarily, as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. In humans, methiopropamine induces stimulation and alertness and increases focus and energy. However, significant side effects are reported, such as tachycardia, anxiety, panic attacks, perspiration, headache, and difficulty in breathing. To date, little data is available regarding its pharmacodynamic effects, thereby we aimed to investigate the acute in vivo effects induced by this drug on sensorimotor responses, body temperature, pain thresholds, motor activity, and cardiovascular and respiratory systems in CD-1 male mice. We selected a range of doses that correspond to the whole range of human reported use, in order to evaluate the threshold of adverse effects presentation. This study demonstrates that methiopropamine acts as a dopaminergic and noradrenergic stimulating drug and that the highest doses (10-30 mg/kg) impair the visual placing response, facilitate the acoustic and tactile response, induce hypothermia, increase mechanical and thermal analgesia, stimulate locomotor activity, induce motor stereotypies, and strongly affected cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, increasing heart rate, breath rate, and blood pressure but reducing oxygen saturation. On the contrary, lower doses do not show any of those effects. We hypothesize that there is a range of doses that do enhance performance but do not seem hazardous to users: this gap could induce the perception of safety and increase the abuser population.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia
18.
Neurotoxicology ; 78: 36-46, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050087

RESUMO

The increased diffusion of the so-called novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and their continuous change in structure andconceivably activity has led to the need of a rapid screening method to detect their biological effects as early as possible after their appearance in the market. This problem is very felt in forensic pathology and toxicology, so the preclinical study is fundamental in the approach to clinical and autopsy cases of difficult interpretation intoxication. Zebrafish is a high-throughput suitable model to rapidly hypothesize potential aversive or beneficial effects of novel molecules. In the present study, we measured and compared the behavioral responses to two novel neuroactive drugs, namely APINAC, a new cannabimimetic drug, and methiopropamine (MPA), a methamphetamine-like compound, on zebrafish larvae (ZL) and adult mice. By using an innovative statistical approach (general additive models), it was found that the spontaneous locomotor activity was impaired by the two drugs in both species: the disruption extent varied in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Sensorimotor function was also altered: i) the visual object response was reduced in mice treated with APINAC, whereas it was not after exposure to MPA; ii) the visual placing responses were reduced after treatment with both NPS in mice. Furthermore, the visual motor response detected in ZL showed a reduction after treatment with APINAC during light-dark and dark-light transition. The same pattern was found in the MPA exposed groups only at the dark-light transition, while at the transition from light to dark, the individuals showed an increased response. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the impairment of spontaneous motor and sensorimotor behavior induced by MPA and APINAC administration in both species, thus confirming the usefulness of ZL as a model for a rapid behavioural-based drug screening.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/toxicidade , Animais , Indazóis/toxicidade , Masculino , Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Tiofenos/toxicidade
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050487

RESUMO

Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) include several classes of substances such as synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), an emerging alternative to marijuana, easily purchasable on internet. SCBs are more dangerous than Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as a consequence of their stronger affinities for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, which may result in longer duration of distinct effects, greater potency, and toxicity. The information on SCBs cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and long-term effects is scarce. This fact suggests the urgent need to increase available data and to investigate if some SCBs have an impact on the stability of genetic material. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the mutagenic effect of different SCBs belonging to indole- and indazole-structures. The analyzes were conducted in vitro on human TK6 cells and mutagenicity were measured as micronucleus fold increase by flow cytometry. Our results have highlighted, for the first time, the mutagenic capacity of four SCBs, in particular in terms of chromosomal damage induction. We underline the serious potential toxicity of SCBs that suggests the need to proceed with the studies of other different synthetic compounds. Moreover, we identified a method that allows a rapid but effective screening of NPS placed on the market increasingly faster.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Canabinoides/química , Linhagem Celular , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/química , Psicotrópicos/química
20.
J Med Chem ; 63(5): 2688-2704, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951130

RESUMO

A novel series of C(3)-substituted piperdinylindoles were developed as nociceptin opioid receptor (NOP) partial agonists to explore a pharmacological hypothesis that NOP partial agonists would afford a dual pharmacological action of attenuating Parkinson's disease (PD) motor symptoms and development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. SAR around the C-3 substituents investigated effects on NOP binding, intrinsic activity, and selectivity and showed that while the C(3)-substituted indoles are selective, high affinity NOP ligands, the steric, polar, and cationic nature of the C-3 substituents affected intrinsic activity to afford partial agonists with a range of efficacies. Compounds 4, 5, and 9 with agonist efficacies between 25% and 35% significantly attenuated motor deficits in the 6-OHDA-hemilesioned rat model of PD. Further, unlike NOP antagonists, which appear to worsen dyskinesia expression, these NOP partial agonists did not attenuate or worsen dyskinesia expression. The NOP partial agonists and their SAR reported here may be useful to develop nondopaminergic treatments for PD.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Opioides/agonistas , Animais , Antiparkinsonianos/química , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacocinética , Células CACO-2 , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacocinética , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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