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2.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 20(4): 101472, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ozone therapy for treating dental caries. METHODS: We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in 8 databases, from inception to April 4, 2020 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, LILACS, Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO, and OpenGrey). Primary outcome measures were antimicrobial effect and adverse events. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to evaluate methodological quality of included RCTs and GRADE approach to evaluate the certainty of the evidence. We used the Review Manager software to conduct meta-analyses. RESULTS: We included 12 RCTs comparing ozone therapy with no ozone, chlorhexidine digluconate, fissure sealants (alone and added to ozone), and fluoride. Considering primary outcomes, ozone therapy showed (a) lower reduction in the bacterial number than chlorhexidine digluconate in children (mean difference [MD]: -5.65 [-9.79 to -1.51]), but no difference was observed in adults (MD: -0.10 [-1.07 to 0.88]); (b) higher reduction in the bacterial number than sealant (MD: 12.60 [3.86-21.34]), but no difference was observed after final excavation (MD: -0.00 [-0.01 to 0.01]). Regarding safety of ozone therapy, results from individual studies presented no adverse events during or after treatment. Most of these results are imprecise and should be interpreted with caution because of clinical and methodological concerns, small sample size, and wide confidence interval, precluding to determine the real effect direction. CONCLUSION: Based on a very low certainty of evidence, there is not enough support from published RCTs to recommend the use of ozone for the treatment of dental caries. Well-conducted studies should be encouraged, measuring mainly the antimicrobial effects of ozone therapy at long term and following the recommendations of the CONSORT statement for the reporting of RCTs.

3.
J Pain Res ; 13: 2413-2421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061557

RESUMO

Bruxism, specifically sleep bruxism (SB), is a worldwide discussed topic in the literature; however, there is insufficient evidence to define and support a standard approach for the treatment of SB. The purpose of this overview was to map the evidence from systematic reviews (SR), examining the effects of interventions to improve chronic pain related to bruxism. The methodological quality of SRs was assessed using the AMSTAR-2 tool. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in April 2020, in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE, LILACS, BBO, and Epistemonikos. Nine SRs with critically low to high methodological quality were included. Considering the main findings, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) showed a significant pain and sleep bruxism frequency reduction when compared to placebo or conventional treatment (behavioral therapy, occlusal splints, and drugs), after 6 and 12 months. Occlusal splints combined to muscle massage showed some benefit in pain reduction. There was no difference in pain and bruxism frequency between biofeedback therapy and an inactive control group. Regarding drug therapy, there is no difference when amitriptyline, bromocriptine, clonidine, propranolol, and levodopa were compared to placebo. In conclusion, there is some evidence to support the use of occlusal splints plus massage, and BTX-A to reduce chronic pain related to SB. No evidence was provided to support the recommendation of biofeedback therapy and drug therapy. There is still a need for more methodologically rigorous randomized clinical trials (RCT) to be conducted on the efficacy and safety of different therapies for SB.

4.
Rev Bras Ortop (Sao Paulo) ; 55(4): 432-437, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904857

RESUMO

Objectives To analyze the results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with remnant-preserving versus remnant-resecting technique, concerning the return to pre-lesion activity level. Methods The present retrospective cohort study has assessed adults > 18 years old who underwent ACL anatomical reconstruction between 2010 and 2014. The main outcomes assessed were: level of physical activity (4-point scale), sports participation rate, ACL rerupture defined as documented lesion requiring revision surgery and the numeric pain scale rate (NPSR). Results A total of 83 individuals were included in the study, with a mean age of 31.8 years old and follow-up mean time of 4.2 years after the surgery. A total of 34 patients underwent ACL reconstruction with remnant-preserving technique, and 49 without remnant preservation. No statistically significant difference was found between groups in all outcomes assessed: level of physical activity before the lesion and after the surgery, ACL rerupture rates and postoperative pain level. Subgroup analysis has shown a statistically significant decrease in the activity level in both groups. The most practiced sport was football; 72% of patients in the remnant group have resumed football activity versus 52.6% of the control group. Conclusion Based in these findings, the comparison between ACL reconstruction with remnant preserving technique and remnant resecting technique has shown no differences concerning the return to prelesion activity level.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922366

RESUMO

A better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 virus behavior and possible risk factors implicated in poor outcome has become an urgent need. We performed a systematic review in order to investigate a possible association between body weight and prognosis among patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We searched in Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, WHO-Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease, OpenGrey, and Medrxiv. We used the ROBINS-I tool or Cross-Sectional/Prevalence Study Quality tool from AHRQ, to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. Nine studies (two prospective cohorts, four retrospective cohorts and three cross-sectional) were included and assessed the relationship between obesity and COVID-19 prognosis. Risk of bias of the included studies ranged from moderate to critical. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity among them precluded meta-analyses. Most of the included studies showed some degree of association to: (a) higher BMI and worse clinical presentation and (b) obesity and need of hospitalization. The results were inconsistent about the impact of obesity on mortality. Based on limited methodological quality studies, obesity seems to predict poor clinical evolution in patients with COVID-19. Further studies with appropriate prospective design are needed to reduce the uncertainty on this evidence.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 42(7): 427-435, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of Tribulus terrestris to treat female sexual dysfunction (FSD). DATA SOURCES: We performed unrestricted electronic searches in the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov and OpenGrey databases. SELECTION OF STUDIES: We included any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared T. terrestris versus inactive/active interventions. After the selection process, conducted by two reviewers, 5 RCTs (n = 279 participants) were included. DATA COLLECTION: Data extraction was performed by two reviewers with a preestablished data collection formulary. DATA SYNTHESIS: Due to lack of data and clinical heterogeneity, we could not perform meta-analyses. The risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool, and the certainty of evidence was assessed with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). RESULTS: After 1 to 3 months of treatment, premenopausal and postmenopausal women randomized to T. terrestris had a significant increase in sexual function scores. Three months of treatment with T. terrestris showed a significant increase in the serum testosterone levels of premenopausal women. There was no report of serious adverse events, and none of the studies assessed health-related quality of life. The certainty of the evidence was very low, which means that we have very little confidence in the effect estimates, and future studies are likely to change these estimates. CONCLUSION: More RCTs are needed to support or refute the use of T. terrestris. The decision to use this intervention should be shared with the patients, and the uncertainties around its effects should be discussed in the clinical decision-making process.Number of Protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42019121130.

7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(4): 432-437, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138055

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives To analyze the results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with remnant-preserving versus remnant-resecting technique, concerning the return to pre-lesion activity level. Methods The present retrospective cohort study has assessed adults > 18 years old who underwent ACL anatomical reconstruction between 2010 and 2014. The main outcomes assessed were: level of physical activity (4-point scale), sports participation rate, ACL rerupture defined as documented lesion requiring revision surgery and the numeric pain scale rate (NPSR). Results A total of 83 individuals were included in the study, with a mean age of 31.8 years old and follow-up mean time of 4.2 years after the surgery. A total of 34 patients underwent ACL reconstruction with remnant-preserving technique, and 49 without remnant preservation. No statistically significant difference was found between groups in all outcomes assessed: level of physical activity before the lesion and after the surgery, ACL rerupture rates and postoperative pain level. Subgroup analysis has shown a statistically significant decrease in the activity level in both groups. The most practiced sport was football; 72% of patients in the remnant group have resumed football activity versus 52.6% of the control group. Conclusion Based in these findings, the comparison between ACL reconstruction with remnant preserving technique and remnant resecting technique has shown no differences concerning the return to prelesion activity level.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar os resultados da reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA) com preservação do remanescente, comparada à técnica convencional, no retorno do paciente ao nível de atividade física pré-lesão. Métodos Estudo transversal retrospectivo, que avaliou indivíduos adultos submetidos à reconstrução anatômica do LCA no período de 2010 a 2014. Os desfechos analisados foram: nível de atividade física, taxa retorno ao esporte, relesão do LCA definida como lesão documentada que necessite de nova reconstrução ligamentar, e dor pela escala numérica de dor (EVN). Resultados Foram incluídos 83 indivíduos com média de 31,8 anos de idade e seguimento médio de 4,2 anos após a cirurgia, 34 submetidos à reconstrução do LCA com preservação do remanescente, e 49 à convencional. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos na frequência de atividade física pré-lesão e pós-operatória, na taxa de relesão do LCA reconstruído e na intensidade da dor no pós-operatório. Na análise intragrupos, houve uma queda estatisticamente significativa na frequência da prática de atividade física pós-operatória para ambos os grupos em comparação ao nível pré-lesão. O tipo de esporte mais praticado foi o futebol, onde 72% pacientes do grupo remanescente retornaram ao esporte comparado a 52,6% do grupo controle; porém, essa diferença não foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão Não foi possível observar diferenças entre os pacientes submetidos às técnicas cirúrgicas de reconstrução LCA com e sem a preservação do remanescente em relação ao retorno ao esporte, frequência de atividade física e intensidade da dor. Estudos futuros prospectivos são necessários.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória , Ruptura , Esportes , Exercício Físico , Incidência , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Volta ao Esporte , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Futebol Americano
8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(7): 427-435, July 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137856

RESUMO

Abstract Objective We performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of Tribulus terrestris to treat female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Data sources We performed unrestricted electronic searches in the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO,WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov and OpenGrey databases. Selection of studies We included any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared T. terrestris versus inactive/active interventions. After the selection process, conducted by two reviewers, 5 RCTs (n = 279 participants) were included. Data collection Data extraction was performed by two reviewers with a preestablished data collection formulary. Data synthesis Due to lack of data and clinical heterogeneity, we could not perform meta-analyses. The risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool, and the certainty of evidence was assessed with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Results After 1 to 3 months of treatment, premenopausal and postmenopausal women randomized to T. terrestris had a significant increase in sexual function scores. Three months of treatment with T. terrestris showed a significant increase in the serum testosterone levels of premenopausal women. There was no report of serious adverse events, and none of the studies assessed health-related quality of life. The certainty of the evidence was very low, whichmeans that we have very little confidence in the effect estimates, and future studies are likely to change these estimates. Conclusion MoreRCTs are needed to supportor refute the use of T. terrestris. The decision to use this intervention should be shared with the patients, and the uncertainties around its effects should be discussed in the clinical decision-making process. Number of Protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42019121130


Resumo Objetivo Nós realizamos uma revisão sistemática para avaliar a efetividade e a segurança do Tribulus terrestris no tratamento da disfunção sexual feminina (DSF). Fontes de dados Nós realizados uma busca eletrônica irrestrita nas seguintes bases de dados: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov, e OpenGrey. Seleção dos estudos Nós incluímos todos os ensaios clínico randomizados (ECR) que comparou T. terrestris com controles ativos/inativos. Após o processo de seleção, conduzido por 2 revisores, 5 ECRs (n = 279 participantes) foram incluídos. Extração de dados O processo de extração de dados foi realizado por dois revisores, utilizando-se um formulário de extração de dados pré-estabelecido. Síntese de dados Devido à falta de dados disponíveis e à heterogeneidade clínica entre os estudos incluídos, nós não realizamos meta-análises. O risco de viés foi avaliado pela tabela de risco de viés da Cochrane e, a certeza do corpo da evidência foi avaliada pelo Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Resultados Após 1 a três 3 meses de tratamento, mulheres na pré e pós-menopausa randomizadas ao T. terrestris tiveram um aumento significante nos escores de função sexual. O grupo com 3 meses de tratamento com T. terrestris exibiu um aumento significante dos níveis séricos de testosterona emmulheres pré-menopausa. Não houve relato de eventos adversos graves, e nenhum estudo avaliou qualidade de vida das participantes. A certeza da evidência foi considerada muito baixa, o que significa que existe pouca certeza na estimativa dos efeitos e que é provável que futuros estudos mudem estas estimativas. Conclusão Mais ECRs são importantes para apoiar ou refutar o uso do T. terrestris. A decisão de usar essa intervenção deve ser compartilhada com pacientes, e as incertezas sobre seus efeitos devem ser discutidas durante o processo de decisão clínica.

10.
Clin Rehabil ; 34(6): 713-722, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits and harms of low-level laser therapy for Achilles tendinopathy. DATA SOURCES: Search strategies were conducted (from inception to February 2020) in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde e do Caribe (LILACS), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), SPORTDiscus, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization (WHO)-ICTRP and OpenGrey databases, to retrieve all randomized controlled trials that compared laser therapy with inactive/active interventions. REVIEW METHODS: This study was reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of bias table. Meta-analyses were performed on dependence of homogeneity, otherwise results were reported narratively. The certainty of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: Four trials (119 participants) were analyzed. Laser therapy associated to eccentric exercises when compared to eccentric exercises and sham had very low to low certainty of evidence in pain and function assessment. Despite one trial favored laser therapy at two months (mean difference (MD) -2.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -3.87 to -1.23), the CIs did not include important differences between groups at 3 and 13 months. The function assessment showed an improvement favoring the placebo group at one month (MD 9.19, 95% CI -16.16 to -2.23) and non-significant difference between groups at 3 and 13 months. Adverse events were poorly reported but restricted to minor events related to the exercises. CONCLUSION: The certainty of evidence was low to very low, and the results are insufficient to support the routine use laser therapy for Achilles tendinopathy.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Tendinopatia/radioterapia , Humanos
11.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(3): 513-522, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982176

RESUMO

Several therapeutic strategies have been proposed to optimize the conventional treatment of fractures. Photobiomodulation (PBM) appears to help reduce pain and control inflammation, and it also accelerates bone repair. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PBM with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the bone fracture healing process. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of PBM with those of any other intervention in adults with lower or upper limb bone fractures. The primary outcomes investigated were pain reduction, radiographic healing, and adverse events. The searches were conducted in October 2018. Two RCTs were included that compared PBM to the placebo. A meta-analysis showed significant difference in favor of PBM for pain reduction (MD 1.19, 95% CI [0.61 to 1.77], 106 participants, two RCTs), but this difference was not clinically significant. One RCT (50 participants) showed a clinical and statistical improvement in physical function (MD - 14.60, 95% CI [- 21.39 to - 7.81]) and no difference in radiographic healing, regarding absence of fracture line (RR 1.00, 95% CI [0.93 to 1.08]) and visible bone callus (RR 0.33, 95% CI [0.01 to 7.81]). The certainty of evidence was classified as low to very low. Based on the evidence of low to very low certainty, PBM seems to be associated with the improvement of pain and function. Therefore, new RCTs are required that meet the recommendations of CONSORT to prove the effectiveness and safety of this intervention and support its recommendation in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/radioterapia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos da radiação , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Humanos
12.
J Pain ; 21(3-4): 281-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513934

RESUMO

This systematic review investigated the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for painful temporomandibular disorders. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in 10 databases, from inception to February 12, 2019 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, LILACS, BBO, Web of Science, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO and OpenGrey). We included 12 RCTs that compared BTX-A versus inactive or active interventions. BTX-A was slightly more effective than placebo for pain reduction at 1 month: mean difference -1.74 points (0-10 scale), 95% confidence interval -2.94 to -.54, 3 RCTs, 60 participants, I-square (I2) = 0%. However, there were no significant differences at 3 and 6 months. BTX-A was similar to no treatment for pain reduction at 3 and 6 months. BTX-A was more effective than conventional treatment and low-level laser therapy for pain reduction at 1, 6, and 12 months, but less effective than facial manipulation for pain reduction at 3 months. BTX-A was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of adverse events. The quality of the evidence was low, and results are insufficient to support the use of BTX-A for painful temporomandibular disorders. High-quality RCTs are needed to increase confidence in effect estimates. PERSPECTIVE: BTX-A for painful temporomandibular disorders appears to be well tolerated. For pain reduction, BTX-A is slightly more effective than placebo only at 1 month; conventional treatment and low-level laser at 1, 6, and 12 months. Low-quality evidence limits the applicability of these findings and precludes recommendations for practice.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17325, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain stemming from the placement of elastomeric separators and the exchanging of wires and accessories is the greatest reason for abandoning orthodontic treatment. Indeed, discomfort related to treatment exerts a negative impact on quality of life due to the difficulty chewing and biting. This paper proposes a study to evaluate the analgesic effects of photomiobodulation (PBM) on individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment. METHODS: The sample will be composed of 72 individuals who receiving elastomeric separators on the mesial and distal faces of the maxillary first molars. The patients will be randomly allocated to 2 groups: an experimental group irradiated with low-level laser and a sham group submitted to simulated laser irradiation. Upon the placement of the separators, the experimental group will receive a single application of PBM on the mesial and distal cervical portion and apical third of the molars. Perceived pain will be analyzed after one hour using the visual analog scale in both groups. Samples will be taken of the gingival crevice with absorbent paper for 30 seconds for the analysis of cytokines using ELISA and the results of the 2 groups will be compared. The patients will sign a statement of informed consent. Statistical analysis will be performed with the Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). DISCUSSION: The expectation is that the patients in the irradiated group will have a lower perception of pain and lower quantity of cytokines compared to those in the sham group. The purpose of the study is to establish an effective method for PBM with the use of low-level infrared laser (Ga-Al-As with a wavelength of 808 nm and output power of 100 mW) for reductions in pain and inflammatory cytokines related to orthodontic treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This protocol was registered in ClinicalTrial.gov, under number NCT03939988. It was first posted and last updated in May 6, 2019.


Assuntos
Elastômeros/efeitos adversos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Aparelhos Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Dor Processual/terapia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dente Molar , Medição da Dor , Dor Processual/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Diagn. tratamento ; 24(3): [119-125], jul - set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026704

RESUMO

Contexto: Estima-se que no Brasil 72% das pessoas ativas no mercado de trabalho apresentem algum problema relacionado ao estresse ocupacional, e aproximadamente 32% delas são diagnosticadas como tendo síndrome de burnout. Objetivo: Apresentar as evidências de revisões sistemáticas (RSs) Cochrane sobre eficácia e segurança das estratégias de tratamento e prevenção da síndrome de burnout. Métodos: RSs foram incluídas a partir de busca sistematizada realizada na Biblioteca Cochrane e após a adequação aos critérios de elegibilidade. O resumo e a certeza no corpo das evidências encontradas por cada revisão foram apresentados. Resultados: Foram incluídas seis RSs que avaliaram estratégias de prevenção e tratamento de burnout e outros sintomas relacionados ao desgaste emocional do trabalho em diferentes categorias profissionais. A certeza no corpo das evidências obtidas foi baixa ou muito baixa para a maioria dos desfechos. A única evidência com moderada certeza de seus resultados mostrou que técnicas de relaxamento, quando comparadas a nenhuma intervenção, parecem reduzir o estresse de profissionais da saúde. Conclusão: Apesar da elevada prevalência e das crescentes estimativas de incidência no Brasil e em todo o mundo, ainda há poucos estudos primários e RSs Cochrane avaliando os efeitos de intervenções com potencial de prevenir ou tratar a síndrome de burnout. Nenhuma das RSs identificadas aqui forneceu evidências robustas de alta certeza sobre intervenções para o manejo desta síndrome. RSs conduzidas sob o rigor da metodologia Cochrane precisam ainda esclarecer os efeitos (benefícios e riscos) de alternativas terapêuticas farmacológicas e não farmacológicas já usadas na prática clínica para promoção da saúde do trabalhador no sentido de prevenir e tratar a síndrome de burnout.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esgotamento Profissional , Revisão , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Tomada de Decisão Clínica
15.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266765

RESUMO

A review of systematic reviews (SRs) and a critical appraisal study was conducted at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). The objectives of this review are (1) to identify all published SRs comparing the effectiveness and safety of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) versus carotid artery stenting (CAS) for carotid artery stenosis, (2) to assess their methodological quality and (3) to compare the primary studies contained in each SR. We included 17 SRs published between 2005 and 2017. None of the SRs fulfilled all items of AMSTAR-2. The overall confidence in the results was graded as critically low for 16 SRs (94%) and low for 1 SR (6%). Five items were judged inadequate in all SRs: reference to a published protocol, explanation to the selection of study design, comprehensive search of the literature, methods for statistical combination of findings and consideration of the risk of bias on the results of meta-analysis. In total, 15 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included at least in one SR. The number of included RCTs in each SR was inconsistent (4 to 15) and was not related to the year of publication of the SR. Our study found redundant and low methodological quality SR comparing CAS versus CEA for carotid stenosis.

16.
J Child Neurol ; 34(11): 679-686, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179823

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment for children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review following the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported in accordance to PRISMA Statement. Through a comprehensive literature search we considered all randomized clinical trials that compared neurodevelopmental treatment with conventional physical therapy for children with cerebral palsy. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Table to assess the risk of bias of the included randomized clinical trial, and the GRADE approach to evaluate the certainty of the body of the evidence. RESULTS: We found 3 randomized clinical trials (2 published and 1 ongoing) comprising 66 children. Published randomized clinical trials presented methodological and reporting limitations and only 1 provided data for outcomes of interest. No difference between neurodevelopmental treatment and conventional physical therapy was found for gross motor function (mean difference 1.40; 95% confidence interval -5.47 to 8.27, low certainty evidence). CONCLUSION: This review found that the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment for children with cerebral palsy are still uncertain. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy and safety of neurodevelopmental treatment for this purpose and until there, current evidence do not support its routinely use in practice. Number of protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42017082817 (available from https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=82817 ).


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother ; 24(2): 165-174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814916

RESUMO

Aim: This systematic review was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) techniques for the treatment of breast cancer patients. Background: Numerous (APBI) techniques are available for clinical practice. Methods and materials: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of APBI versus whole breast irradiation (WBI). The data from APBI studies were extracted for the analyses. Indirect comparisons were used to compare different APBI techniques. Results: Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 4343 patients were included, most of them with tumor stage T1-T2 and N0. Regarding APBI techniques, six trials used external beam radiation therapy; one intraoperative electrons; one intraoperative low-energy photons; one brachytherapy; and one external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy. The indirect comparisons related to 5-years local control and 5-years overall survival were not significantly different between APBI techniques. Conclusions: Based on indirect comparisons, no differences in clinical outcomes were observed among diverse APBI techniques in published clinical trials that formally compared WBI to APBI. However wide confidence intervals and high risk of inconsistency precluded a sound conclusion. Further head-to-head clinical trials comparing different APBI techniques are required to confirm our findings. Studies comparing different techniques using individual participant data and/or real-life data from population-based studies/registries could also provide more robust results.

18.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(6): 579-585, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-991688

RESUMO

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is a frequent complaint that generates more than five million visits to doctors per year in the United States. This study summarizes all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that evaluated interventions to treat insomnia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A sensitive search was carried out in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify Cochrane SRs that assessed the effects of any type of intervention for people with insomnia. The results, main characteristics of the SRs and the certainty of the evidence obtained from them were synthesized and discussed. RESULTS: Seven SRs were included. They addressed the benefits and harm of acupuncture (n = 1), behavioral interventions (n = 1), music (n = 1), pharmacotherapy (n = 2), phototherapy (n = 1) and physical exercise (n = 1). The certainty of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture, music, physical exercise, paroxetine, doxepin, trimipramine and trazodone seem to present some benefit for patients with insomnia. However, the uncertainty around these results means that no robust and definitive recommendations for clinical practice can be made until the benefits and harms from each intervention for patients with insomnia have been confirmed through further studies.

19.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(5): 472-478, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of cannabinoid compounds have been the center of many investigations. This study provides a synthesis on all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that assessed the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A broad search was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to retrieve any Cochrane SRs that assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. The results and key characteristics of all reviews included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Eight SRs were included. They assessed the use of cannabinoids for the following types of conditions: neurological (two SRs), psychiatric (two SRs), rheumatological (one SR), infectious (one SR) and oncological (two SRs). There was moderate-quality evidence showing that the use of cannabinoids reduced nausea and vomiting among adults, compared with placebo. Additionally, there was moderate-quality evidence showing that there was no difference between cannabinoids and prochlorperazine regarding the number of participants who reported vomiting, in this same population. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified eight Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence of unknown to moderate quality regarding the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic intervention. Further studies are still imperative for solid conclusions to be reached regarding practical recommendations.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Fibromialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Tourette/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Diagn. tratamento ; 23(4): [141-146], out-dez 2018. tab, fig
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-987476

RESUMO

Introdução: Guidelines em saúde somente terão benefícios potenciais se tiverem sido planejadas e desenvolvidas com alto rigor metodológico. Objetivos: Apresentar e descrever os itens da ferramenta Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation, AGREE II. Métodos: Estudo descritivo realizado na Disciplina de Medicina Baseada em Evidências da Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). Resultados: Os 23 itens da ferramenta AGREE II foram apresentados em sua versão em português, assim como as recomendações para sua aplicação. Conclusão: O AGREE II é uma ferramenta internacional, já disponível em vários idiomas, e que avalia o rigor metodológico e a transparência com que uma guideline é desenvolvida. Pode ser aplicada a guidelines novas, já existentes ou atualizações de guidelines prévias. O uso do AGREE II no desenvolvimento de guidelines em saúde precisa ser disseminado, uma vez que tais guidelines somente terão benefícios potenciais se tiverem sido planejadas e desenvolvidas com alto rigor metodológico.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Metodologia
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