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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 67-71, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971935

RESUMO

Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital brain and eye abnormalities and is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities (1-3). In areas of the United States that experienced local Zika virus transmission, the prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy increased in the second half of 2016 compared with the first half (4). To update the previous report, CDC analyzed population-based surveillance data from 22 states and territories to estimate the prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of laboratory evidence of or exposure to Zika virus, among pregnancies completed during January 1, 2016-June 30, 2017. Jurisdictions were categorized as those 1) with widespread local transmission of Zika virus; 2) with limited local transmission of Zika virus; and 3) without local transmission of Zika virus. Among 2,004,630 live births, 3,359 infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy were identified (1.7 per 1,000 live births, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-1.7). In areas with widespread local Zika virus transmission, the prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy was significantly higher during the quarters comprising July 2016-March 2017 (July-September 2016 = 3.0; October-December 2016 = 4.0; and January-March 2017 = 5.6 per 1,000 live births) compared with the reference period (January-March 2016) (1.3 per 1,000). These findings suggest a fourfold increase (prevalence ratio [PR] = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1-8.4) in birth defects potentially related to Zika virus in widespread local transmission areas during January-March 2017 compared with that during January-March 2016, with the highest prevalence (7.0 per 1,000 live births) in February 2017. Population-based birth defects surveillance is critical for identifying infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus regardless of whether Zika virus testing was conducted, especially given the high prevalence of asymptomatic disease. These data can be used to inform follow-up care and services as well as strengthen surveillance.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Vigilância da População , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ilhas Virgens Americanas/epidemiologia
2.
Euphytica ; 215(7): 117, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274875

RESUMO

The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is a serious pest in rice affecting production in many rice growing areas. Natural host resistance is an attractive control strategy because the speed of the parasite's life cycle and the broad host range it attacks make other control measures challenging. Although resistance has been found in the domesticated African rice Oryza glaberrima and the wild rice species O. longistaminata, the introgression of resistance genes to Asian rice O. sativa is challenging. Resistance due to a major gene in O. sativa would greatly aid breeding. Recently two accessions resistant to M. graminicola have been identified in a screen of 332 diverse O. sativa cultivars. In this study, these two resistant cultivars, LD 24 (an indica from Sri Lanka) and Khao Pahk Maw (an aus from Thailand), were crossed with a moderately susceptible cultivar, Vialone Nano (a temperate japonica from Italy). Approximately 175 F2 progeny of both populations were screened for susceptibility to M. graminicola infection. Between 20 and 23 individuals with highest and lowest galls per plants were pooled to make susceptible and resistant bulks which were sequenced to conduct bulked segregant analysis using the QTL-seq method. This revealed a nematode resistance locus from 23 Mbp to the bottom of rice chromosome 11 in both crosses suggesting a rare introgression of the same locus is responsible for resistance in both cultivars. While this information can be used in marker-assisted breeding, analysis of available SNP data revealed candidate loci and genes worthy of further investigation for gene identification.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(7): 177-180, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789880

RESUMO

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome that can occur following prenatal exposure to opioids (1). NAS surveillance in the United States is based largely on diagnosis codes in hospital discharge data, without validation of these codes or case confirmation. During 2004-2014, reported NAS incidence increased from 1.5 to 8.0 per 1,000 U.S. hospital births (2), based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes identified in hospital discharge data, without case confirmation. However, little is known about how well these codes identify NAS or how the October 1, 2015, transition from ICD-9-CM to the tenth revision of ICD-CM (ICD-10-CM) codes affected estimated NAS incidence. This report describes a pilot project in Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont to use birth defects surveillance infrastructure to obtain state-level, population-based estimates of NAS incidence among births in 2015 (all three states) and 2016 (Illinois) using hospital discharge records and other sources (varied by state) with case confirmation, and to evaluate the validity of NAS diagnosis codes used by each state. Wide variation in NAS incidence was observed across the three states. In 2015, NAS incidence for Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont was 3.0, 7.5, and 30.8 per 1,000 births, respectively. Among evaluated diagnosis codes, those with the highest positive predictive values (PPVs) for identifying confirmed cases of NAS, based on a uniform case definition, were drug withdrawal syndrome in a newborn (ICD-9-CM code 779.5; state range = 58.6%-80.2%) and drug withdrawal, infant of dependent mother (ICD-10-CM code P96.1; state range = 58.5%-80.2%). The methods used to assess NAS incidence in this pilot project might help inform other states' NAS surveillance efforts.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Vermont/epidemiologia
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(2): 31-36, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653484

RESUMO

Prevalence of gastroschisis, a serious birth defect of the abdominal wall resulting in some of the abdominal contents extending outside the body at birth, has been increasing worldwide (1,2). Gastroschisis requires surgical repair after birth and is associated with digestive and feeding complications during infancy, which can affect development. Recent data from 14 U.S. states indicated an increasing prevalence of gastroschisis from 1995 to 2012 (1). Young maternal age has been strongly associated with gastroschisis, but research suggests that risk factors such as smoking, genitourinary infections, and prescription opioid use also might be associated (3-5). Data from 20 population-based state surveillance programs were pooled and analyzed to assess age-specific gastroschisis prevalence during two 5-year periods, 2006-2010 and 2011-2015, and an ecologic approach was used to compare annual gastroschisis prevalence by annual opioid prescription rate categories. Gastroschisis prevalence increased only slightly (10%) from 2006-2010 to 2011-2015 (prevalence ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.1), with the highest prevalence among mothers aged <20 years. During 2006-2015, the prevalence of gastroschisis was 1.6 times higher in counties with high opioid prescription rates (5.1 per 10,000 live births; CI = 4.9-5.3) and 1.4 times higher where opioid prescription rates were medium (4.6 per 10,000 live births; CI = 4.4-4.8) compared with areas with low prescription rates (3.2 per 10,000 live births; CI = 3.1-3.4). Public health research is needed to understand factors contributing to the association between young maternal age and gastroschisis and assess the effect of prescription opioid use during pregnancy on this pregnancy outcome.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Gastrosquise/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastrosquise/etnologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(3): 91-96, 2018 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370151

RESUMO

Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1). Population-based birth defects surveillance systems are critical to monitor all infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of known exposure or laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. CDC analyzed data from 15 U.S. jurisdictions conducting population-based surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.* Jurisdictions were stratified into the following three groups: those with 1) documented local transmission of Zika virus during 2016; 2) one or more cases of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents; and 3) less than one case of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents. A total of 2,962 infants and fetuses (3.0 per 1,000 live births; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-3.2) (2) met the case definition.† In areas with local transmission there was a non-statistically significant increase in total birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection from 2.8 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 3.0 cases in the second half (p = 0.10). However, when neural tube defects and other early brain malformations (NTDs)§ were excluded, the prevalence of birth defects strongly linked to congenital Zika virus infection increased significantly, from 2.0 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 2.4 cases in the second half, an increase of 29 more cases than expected (p = 0.009). These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection and the need for continued monitoring in areas at risk for Zika.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Vigilância da População , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 13(5): e1006405, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542620

RESUMO

Most fungal pathogens of humans display robust protective oxidative stress responses that contribute to their pathogenicity. The induction of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an essential component of these responses. We showed previously that ectopic expression of the heme-containing catalase enzyme in Candida albicans enhances resistance to oxidative stress, combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress, and phagocytic killing. Clearly ectopic catalase expression confers fitness advantages in the presence of stress, and therefore in this study we tested whether it enhances fitness in the absence of stress. We addressed this using a set of congenic barcoded C. albicans strains that include doxycycline-conditional tetON-CAT1 expressors. We show that high basal catalase levels, rather than CAT1 induction following stress imposition, reduce ROS accumulation and cell death, thereby promoting resistance to acute peroxide or combinatorial stress. This conclusion is reinforced by our analyses of phenotypically diverse clinical isolates and the impact of stochastic variation in catalase expression upon stress resistance in genetically homogeneous C. albicans populations. Accordingly, cat1Δ cells are more sensitive to neutrophil killing. However, we find that catalase inactivation does not attenuate C. albicans virulence in mouse or invertebrate models of systemic candidiasis. Furthermore, our direct comparisons of fitness in vitro using isogenic barcoded CAT1, cat1Δ and tetON-CAT1 strains show that, while ectopic catalase expression confers a fitness advantage during peroxide stress, it confers a fitness defect in the absence of stress. This fitness defect is suppressed by iron supplementation. Also high basal catalase levels induce key iron assimilatory functions (CFL5, FET3, FRP1, FTR1). We conclude that while high basal catalase levels enhance peroxide stress resistance, they place pressure on iron homeostasis through an elevated cellular demand for iron, thereby reducing the fitness of C. albicans in iron-limiting tissues within the host.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/enzimologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Candida albicans/genética , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Feminino , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo
7.
Public Health Rep ; 124(3): 442-6, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19445421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2006, the Vermont Department of Health was asked to respond to a potential cluster of sarcoidosis cases related to a Vermont office building. Sarcoidosis prevalence has not been formally described for the United States. A range of < 1-40/100,000 is commonly reported; however, we have not identified primary sources supporting this conclusion. Because of the wide prevalence range and lack of a local estimate, confirming existence of a cluster was difficult. METHODS: We ascertained the prevalence of sarcoidosis cases in Vermont by using insurance claims data to determine whether or not a cluster of sarcoidosis cases was related to the office building. We calculated county and state annual prevalence proportions for sarcoidosis for 2004 and 2005 and annual building prevalences for 1992-2006. RESULTS: The pooled sarcoidosis case prevalence for Vermont was 66.1/100,000. The pooled building annual prevalence (1,128/100,000) was statistically different from the county in which the building is located (odds ratio = 15.5, 95% confidence interval 3.0, 50.3). CONCLUSIONS: We reported the first statewide sarcoidosis prevalence in the United States. This prevalence exceeded previous limited and unsubstantiated U.S. reports. Even with Vermont's elevated sarcoidosis prevalence, the presence of a cluster in this building was apparent.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro , Sarcoidose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vermont/epidemiologia
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