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2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(20): 3391-3405, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363758

RESUMO

Reversible detyrosination of tubulin, the building block of microtubules, is crucial for neuronal physiology. Enzymes responsible for detyrosination were recently identified as complexes of vasohibins (VASHs) one or two with small VASH-binding protein (SVBP). Here we report three consanguineous families, each containing multiple individuals with biallelic inactivation of SVBP caused by truncating variants (p.Q28* and p.K13Nfs*18). Affected individuals show brain abnormalities with microcephaly, intellectual disability and delayed gross motor and speech development. Immunoblot testing in cells with pathogenic SVBP variants demonstrated that the encoded proteins were unstable and non-functional, resulting in a complete loss of VASH detyrosination activity. Svbp knockout mice exhibit drastic accumulation of tyrosinated tubulin and a reduction of detyrosinated tubulin in brain tissue. Similar alterations in tubulin tyrosination levels were observed in cultured neurons and associated with defects in axonal differentiation and architecture. Morphological analysis of the Svbp knockout mouse brains by anatomical magnetic resonance imaging showed a broad impact of SVBP loss, with a 7% brain volume decrease, numerous structural defects and a 30% reduction of some white matter tracts. Svbp knockout mice display behavioural defects, including mild hyperactivity, lower anxiety and impaired social behaviour. They do not, however, show prominent memory defects. Thus, SVBP-deficient mice recapitulate several features observed in human patients. Altogether, our data demonstrate that deleterious variants in SVBP cause this neurodevelopmental pathology, by leading to a major change in brain tubulin tyrosination and alteration of microtubule dynamics and neuron physiology.

3.
Clin Genet ; 95(6): 693-703, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859559

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterised by distinctive facial features, heart defects, variable degrees of intellectual disability and other phenotypic manifestations. Although the mode of inheritance is typically dominant, recent studies indicate LZTR1 may be associated with both dominant and recessive forms. Seeking to describe the phenotypic characteristics of LZTR1-associated NS, we searched for likely pathogenic variants using two approaches. First, scrutiny of exomes from 9624 patients recruited by the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDDs) study uncovered six dominantly-acting mutations (p.R97L; p.Y136C; p.Y136H, p.N145I, p.S244C; p.G248R) of which five arose de novo, and three patients with compound-heterozygous variants (p.R210*/p.V579M; p.R210*/p.D531N; c.1149+1G>T/p.R688C). One patient also had biallelic loss-of-function mutations in NEB, consistent with a composite phenotype. After removing this complex case, analysis of human phenotype ontology terms indicated significant phenotypic similarities (P = 0.0005), supporting a causal role for LZTR1. Second, targeted sequencing of eight unsolved NS-like cases identified biallelic LZTR1 variants in three further subjects (p.W469*/p.Y749C, p.W437*/c.-38T>A and p.A461D/p.I462T). Our study strengthens the association of LZTR1 with NS, with de novo mutations clustering around the KT1-4 domains. Although LZTR1 variants explain ~0.1% of cases across the DDD cohort, the gene is a relatively common cause of unsolved NS cases where recessive inheritance is suspected.

4.
Science ; 362(6419): 1161-1164, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409806

RESUMO

We estimated the genome-wide contribution of recessive coding variation in 6040 families from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. The proportion of cases attributable to recessive coding variants was 3.6% in patients of European ancestry, compared with 50% explained by de novo coding mutations. It was higher (31%) in patients with Pakistani ancestry, owing to elevated autozygosity. Half of this recessive burden is attributable to known genes. We identified two genes not previously associated with recessive developmental disorders, KDM5B and EIF3F, and functionally validated them with mouse and cellular models. Our results suggest that recessive coding variants account for a small fraction of currently undiagnosed nonconsanguineous individuals, and that the role of noncoding variants, incomplete penetrance, and polygenic mechanisms need further exploration.

5.
Nature ; 562(7726): 268-271, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258228

RESUMO

There are thousands of rare human disorders that are caused by single deleterious, protein-coding genetic variants1. However, patients with the same genetic defect can have different clinical presentations2-4, and some individuals who carry known disease-causing variants can appear unaffected5. Here, to understand what explains these differences, we study a cohort of 6,987 children assessed by clinical geneticists to have severe neurodevelopmental disorders such as global developmental delay and autism, often in combination with abnormalities of other organ systems. Although the genetic causes of these neurodevelopmental disorders are expected to be almost entirely monogenic, we show that 7.7% of variance in risk is attributable to inherited common genetic variation. We replicated this genome-wide common variant burden by showing, in an independent sample of 728 trios (comprising a child plus both parents) from the same cohort, that this burden is over-transmitted from parents to children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Our common-variant signal is significantly positively correlated with genetic predisposition to lower educational attainment, decreased intelligence and risk of schizophrenia. We found that common-variant risk was not significantly different between individuals with and without a known protein-coding diagnostic variant, which suggests that common-variant risk affects patients both with and without a monogenic diagnosis. In addition, previously published common-variant scores for autism, height, birth weight and intracranial volume were all correlated with these traits within our cohort, which suggests that phenotypic expression in individuals with monogenic disorders is affected by the same variants as in the general population. Our results demonstrate that common genetic variation affects both overall risk and clinical presentation in neurodevelopmental disorders that are typically considered to be monogenic.

6.
Mol Biol Evol ; 35(5): 1238-1252, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688544

RESUMO

The platypus is an egg-laying mammal which, alongside the echidna, occupies a unique place in the mammalian phylogenetic tree. Despite widespread interest in its unusual biology, little is known about its population structure or recent evolutionary history. To provide new insights into the dispersal and demographic history of this iconic species, we sequenced the genomes of 57 platypuses from across the whole species range in eastern mainland Australia and Tasmania. Using a highly improved reference genome, we called over 6.7 M SNPs, providing an informative genetic data set for population analyses. Our results show very strong population structure in the platypus, with our sampling locations corresponding to discrete groupings between which there is no evidence for recent gene flow. Genome-wide data allowed us to establish that 28 of the 57 sampled individuals had at least a third-degree relative among other samples from the same river, often taken at different times. Taking advantage of a sampled family quartet, we estimated the de novo mutation rate in the platypus at 7.0 × 10-9/bp/generation (95% CI 4.1 × 10-9-1.2 × 10-8/bp/generation). We estimated effective population sizes of ancestral populations and haplotype sharing between current groupings, and found evidence for bottlenecks and long-term population decline in multiple regions, and early divergence between populations in different regions. This study demonstrates the power of whole-genome sequencing for studying natural populations of an evolutionarily important species.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 3869-3882, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016847

RESUMO

The discovery of genetic variants influencing sleep patterns can shed light on the physiological processes underlying sleep. As part of a large clinical sequencing project, WGS500, we sequenced a family in which the two male children had severe developmental delay and a dramatically disturbed sleep-wake cycle, with very long wake and sleep durations, reaching up to 106-h awake and 48-h asleep. The most likely causal variant identified was a novel missense variant in the X-linked GRIA3 gene, which has been implicated in intellectual disability. GRIA3 encodes GluA3, a subunit of AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs). The mutation (A653T) falls within the highly conserved transmembrane domain of the ion channel gate, immediately adjacent to the analogous residue in the Grid2 (glutamate receptor) gene, which is mutated in the mouse neurobehavioral mutant, Lurcher. In vitro, the GRIA3(A653T) mutation stabilizes the channel in a closed conformation, in contrast to Lurcher. We introduced the orthologous mutation into a mouse strain by CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis and found that hemizygous mutants displayed significant differences in the structure of their activity and sleep compared to wild-type littermates. Typically, mice are polyphasic, exhibiting multiple sleep bouts of sleep several minutes long within a 24-h period. The Gria3A653T mouse showed significantly fewer brief bouts of activity and sleep than the wild-types. Furthermore, Gria3A653T mice showed enhanced period lengthening under constant light compared to wild-type mice, suggesting an increased sensitivity to light. Our results suggest a role for GluA3 channel activity in the regulation of sleep behavior in both mice and humans.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação Puntual , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 898-908, 2016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27132594

RESUMO

Spontaneous dizygotic (DZ) twinning occurs in 1%-4% of women, with familial clustering and unknown physiological pathways and genetic origin. DZ twinning might index increased fertility and has distinct health implications for mother and child. We performed a GWAS in 1,980 mothers of spontaneous DZ twins and 12,953 control subjects. Findings were replicated in a large Icelandic cohort and tested for association across a broad range of fertility traits in women. Two SNPs were identified (rs11031006 near FSHB, p = 1.54 × 10(-9), and rs17293443 in SMAD3, p = 1.57 × 10(-8)) and replicated (p = 3 × 10(-3) and p = 1.44 × 10(-4), respectively). Based on ∼90,000 births in Iceland, the risk of a mother delivering twins increased by 18% for each copy of allele rs11031006-G and 9% for rs17293443-C. A higher polygenic risk score (PRS) for DZ twinning, calculated based on the results of the DZ twinning GWAS, was significantly associated with DZ twinning in Iceland (p = 0.001). A higher PRS was also associated with having children (p = 0.01), greater lifetime parity (p = 0.03), and earlier age at first child (p = 0.02). Allele rs11031006-G was associated with higher serum FSH levels, earlier age at menarche, earlier age at first child, higher lifetime parity, lower PCOS risk, and earlier age at menopause. Conversely, rs17293443-C was associated with later age at last child. We identified robust genetic risk variants for DZ twinning: one near FSHB and a second within SMAD3, the product of which plays an important role in gonadal responsiveness to FSH. These loci contribute to crucial aspects of reproductive capacity and health.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Ansiedade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/genética , Família , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Gravidez
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 830-842, 2016 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087319

RESUMO

Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome with a significant risk of gastric, but not colorectal, adenocarcinoma. We mapped the gene to 5q22 and found loss of the wild-type allele on 5q in fundic gland polyps from affected individuals. Whole-exome and -genome sequencing failed to find causal mutations but, through Sanger sequencing, we identified point mutations in APC promoter 1B that co-segregated with disease in all six families. The mutations reduced binding of the YY1 transcription factor and impaired activity of the APC promoter 1B in luciferase assays. Analysis of blood and saliva from carriers showed allelic imbalance of APC, suggesting that these mutations lead to decreased allele-specific expression in vivo. Similar mutations in APC promoter 1B occur in rare families with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Promoter 1A is methylated in GAPPS and sporadic FGPs and in normal stomach, which suggests that 1B transcripts are more important than 1A in gastric mucosa. This might explain why all known GAPPS-affected families carry promoter 1B point mutations but only rare FAP-affected families carry similar mutations, the colonic cells usually being protected by the expression of the 1A isoform. Gastric polyposis and cancer have been previously described in some FAP-affected individuals with large deletions around promoter 1B. Our finding that GAPPS is caused by point mutations in the same promoter suggests that families with mutations affecting the promoter 1B are at risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, regardless of whether or not colorectal polyps are present.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Pólipos Adenomatosos/genética , Éxons/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Desequilíbrio Alélico/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Ligação Genética/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Linhagem , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7846, 2015 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26242864

RESUMO

Several studies have reported that the number of crossovers increases with maternal age in humans, but others have found the opposite. Resolving the true effect has implications for understanding the maternal age effect on aneuploidies. Here, we revisit this question in the largest sample to date using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-chip data, comprising over 6,000 meioses from nine cohorts. We develop and fit a hierarchical model to allow for differences between cohorts and between mothers. We estimate that over 10 years, the expected number of maternal crossovers increases by 2.1% (95% credible interval (0.98%, 3.3%)). Our results are not consistent with the larger positive and negative effects previously reported in smaller cohorts. We see heterogeneity between cohorts that is likely due to chance effects in smaller samples, or possibly to confounders, emphasizing that care should be taken when interpreting results from any specific cohort about the effect of maternal age on recombination.


Assuntos
Troca Genética , Idade Materna , Recombinação Genética , Aneuploidia , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Genéticos
11.
Clin Immunol ; 160(2): 301-14, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26122175

RESUMO

Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVIDs) are the most prevalent cause of primary antibody failure. CVIDs are highly variable and a genetic causes have been identified in <5% of patients. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 34 CVID patients (94% sporadic) and combined them with transcriptomic profiling (RNA-sequencing of B cells) from three patients and three healthy controls. We identified variants in CVID disease genes TNFRSF13B, TNFRSF13C, LRBA and NLRP12 and enrichment of variants in known and novel disease pathways. The pathways identified include B-cell receptor signalling, non-homologous end-joining, regulation of apoptosis, T cell regulation and ICOS signalling. Our data confirm the polygenic nature of CVID and suggest individual-specific aetiologies in many cases. Together our data show that WGS in combination with RNA-sequencing allows for a better understanding of CVIDs and the identification of novel disease associated pathways.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Genoma/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Receptor do Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Genet ; 47(7): 717-726, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25985138

RESUMO

To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies for variant calling, filtering, annotation and prioritization. We found that jointly calling variants across samples, filtering against both local and external databases, deploying multiple annotation tools and using familial transmission above biological plausibility contributed to accuracy. Overall, we identified disease-causing variants in 21% of cases, with the proportion increasing to 34% (23/68) for mendelian disorders and 57% (8/14) in family trios. We also discovered 32 potentially clinically actionable variants in 18 genes unrelated to the referral disorder, although only 4 were ultimately considered reportable. Our results demonstrate the value of genome sequencing for routine clinical diagnosis but also highlight many outstanding challenges.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Sequência de Bases , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Cell Rep ; 9(5): 1661-1672, 2014 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25482562

RESUMO

Disease-causing mutations in ion channels generally alter intrinsic gating properties such as activation, inactivation, and voltage dependence. We examined nine different mutations of the KCNT1 (Slack) Na(+)-activated K(+) channel that give rise to three distinct forms of epilepsy. All produced many-fold increases in current amplitude compared to the wild-type channel. This could not be accounted for by increases in the intrinsic open probability of individual channels. Rather, greatly increased opening was a consequence of cooperative interactions between multiple channels in a patch. The degree of cooperative gating was much greater for all of the mutant channels than for the wild-type channel, and could explain increases in current even in a mutant with reduced unitary conductance. We also found that the same mutation gave rise to different forms of epilepsy in different individuals. Our findings indicate that a major consequence of these mutations is to alter channel-channel interactions.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Canais de Potássio/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Mutação Puntual , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos , Xenopus laevis
14.
Genome Biol ; 15(3): R51, 2014 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24629056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind to mRNAs and target them for translational inhibition or transcriptional degradation. It is thought that most miRNA-mRNA interactions involve the seed region at the 5' end of the miRNA. The importance of seed sites is supported by experimental evidence, although there is growing interest in interactions mediated by the central region of the miRNA, termed centered sites. To investigate the prevalence of these interactions, we apply a biotin pull-down method to determine the direct targets of ten human miRNAs, including four isomiRs that share centered sites, but not seeds, with their canonical partner miRNAs. RESULTS: We confirm that miRNAs and their isomiRs can interact with hundreds of mRNAs, and that imperfect centered sites are common mediators of miRNA-mRNA interactions. We experimentally demonstrate that these sites can repress mRNA activity, typically through translational repression, and are enriched in regions of the transcriptome bound by AGO. Finally, we show that the identification of imperfect centered sites is unlikely to be an artifact of our protocol caused by the biotinylation of the miRNA. However, the fact that there was a slight bias against seed sites in our protocol may have inflated the apparent prevalence of centered site-mediated interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that centered site-mediated interactions are much more frequent than previously thought. This may explain the evolutionary conservation of the central region of miRNAs, and has significant implications for decoding miRNA-regulated genetic networks, and for predicting the functional effect of variants that do not alter protein sequence.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Genoma Humano , Células HEK293 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(12): 3200-11, 2014 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24463883

RESUMO

In severe early-onset epilepsy, precise clinical and molecular genetic diagnosis is complex, as many metabolic and electro-physiological processes have been implicated in disease causation. The clinical phenotypes share many features such as complex seizure types and developmental delay. Molecular diagnosis has historically been confined to sequential testing of candidate genes known to be associated with specific sub-phenotypes, but the diagnostic yield of this approach can be low. We conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on six patients with severe early-onset epilepsy who had previously been refractory to molecular diagnosis, and their parents. Four of these patients had a clinical diagnosis of Ohtahara Syndrome (OS) and two patients had severe non-syndromic early-onset epilepsy (NSEOE). In two OS cases, we found de novo non-synonymous mutations in the genes KCNQ2 and SCN2A. In a third OS case, WGS revealed paternal isodisomy for chromosome 9, leading to identification of the causal homozygous missense variant in KCNT1, which produced a substantial increase in potassium channel current. The fourth OS patient had a recessive mutation in PIGQ that led to exon skipping and defective glycophosphatidyl inositol biosynthesis. The two patients with NSEOE had likely pathogenic de novo mutations in CBL and CSNK1G1, respectively. Mutations in these genes were not found among 500 additional individuals with epilepsy. This work reveals two novel genes for OS, KCNT1 and PIGQ. It also uncovers unexpected genetic mechanisms and emphasizes the power of WGS as a clinical tool for making molecular diagnoses, particularly for highly heterogeneous disorders.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Canais de Potássio/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Patologia Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/genética , Dissomia Uniparental , Adulto Jovem
16.
RNA ; 19(12): 1767-80, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24158791

RESUMO

Metastasis is a complex, multistep process involved in the progression of cancer from a localized primary tissue to distant sites, often characteristic of the more aggressive forms of this disease. Despite being studied in great detail in recent years, the mechanisms that govern this process remain poorly understood. In this study, we identify a novel role for miR-139-5p in the inhibition of breast cancer progression. We highlight its clinical relevance by reviewing miR-139-5p expression across a wide variety of breast cancer subtypes using in-house generated and online data sets to show that it is most frequently lost in invasive tumors. A biotin pull-down approach was then used to identify the mRNA targets of miR-139-5p in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. Functional enrichment analysis of the pulled-down targets showed significant enrichment of genes in pathways previously implicated in breast cancer metastasis (P < 0.05). Further bioinformatic analysis revealed a predicted disruption to the TGFß, Wnt, Rho, and MAPK/PI3K signaling cascades, implying a potential role for miR-139-5p in regulating the ability of cells to invade and migrate. To corroborate this finding, using the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, we show that overexpression of miR-139-5p results in suppression of these cellular phenotypes. Furthermore, we validate the interaction between miR-139-5p and predicted targets involved in these pathways. Collectively, these results suggest a significant functional role for miR-139-5p in breast cancer cell motility and invasion and its potential to be used as a prognostic marker for the aggressive forms of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/secundário , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Replicação do DNA , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
17.
RNA ; 19(2): 230-42, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23249749

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are noncoding regulators of gene expression, which act by repressing protein translation and/or degrading mRNA. Many have been shown to drive tumorigenesis in cancer, but functional studies to understand their mode of action are typically limited to single-target genes. In this study, we use synthetic biotinylated miRNA to pull down endogenous targets of miR-182-5p. We identified more than 1000 genes as potential targets of miR-182-5p, most of which have a known function in pathways underlying tumor biology. Specifically, functional enrichment analysis identified components of both the DNA damage response pathway and cell cycle to be highly represented in this target cohort. Experimental validation confirmed that miR-182-5p-mediated disruption of the homologous recombination (HR) pathway is a consequence of its ability to target multiple components in that pathway. Although there is a strong enrichment for the cell cycle ontology, we do not see primary proliferative defects as a consequence of miR-182-5p overexpression. We highlight targets that could be responsible for miR-182-5p-mediated disruption of other biological processes attributed in the literature so far. Finally, we show that miR-182-5p is highly expressed in a panel of human breast cancer samples, highlighting its role as a potential oncomir in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HeLa , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Regulação para Cima
18.
Mol Biol Evol ; 29(7): 1747-56, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22319167

RESUMO

Expression variation is widespread between species. The ability to distinguish regulatory change driven by natural selection from the consequences of neutral drift remains a major challenge in comparative genomics. In this work, we used observations of mRNA expression and promoter sequence to analyze signatures of selection on groups of functionally related genes in Saccharomycete yeasts. In a survey of gene regulons with expression divergence between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus, we found that most were subject to variation in trans-regulatory factors that provided no evidence against a neutral model. However, we identified one regulon of membrane protein genes controlled by unlinked cis- and trans-acting determinants with coherent effects on gene expression, consistent with a history of directional, nonneutral evolution. For this membrane protein group, S. paradoxus alleles at regulatory loci were associated with elevated expression and altered stress responsiveness relative to other yeasts. In a phylogenetic comparison of promoter sequences of the membrane protein genes between species, the S. paradoxus lineage was distinguished by a short branch length, indicative of strong selective constraint. Likewise, sequence variants within the S. paradoxus population, but not across strains of other yeasts, were skewed toward low frequencies in promoters of genes in the membrane protein regulon, again reflecting strong purifying selection. Our results support a model in which a distinct expression program for the membrane protein genes in S. paradoxus has been preferentially maintained by negative selection as the result of an increased importance to organismal fitness. These findings illustrate the power of integrating expression- and sequence-based tests of natural selection in the study of evolutionary forces that underlie regulatory change.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Saccharomyces/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
19.
Genome Biol ; 12(12): R126, 2011 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22208850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants of microRNAs (miRNAs), called isomiRs, are commonly reported in deep-sequencing studies; however, the functional significance of these variants remains controversial. Observational studies show that isomiR patterns are non-random, hinting that these molecules could be regulated and therefore functional, although no conclusive biological role has been demonstrated for these molecules. RESULTS: To assess the biological relevance of isomiRs, we have performed ultra-deep miRNA-seq on ten adult human tissues, and created an analysis pipeline called miRNA-MATE to align, annotate, and analyze miRNAs and their isomiRs. We find that isomiRs share sequence and expression characteristics with canonical miRNAs, and are generally strongly correlated with canonical miRNA expression. A large proportion of isomiRs potentially derive from AGO2 cleavage independent of Dicer. We isolated polyribosome-associated mRNA, captured the mRNA-bound miRNAs, and found that isomiRs and canonical miRNAs are equally associated with translational machinery. Finally, we transfected cells with biotinylated RNA duplexes encoding isomiRs or their canonical counterparts and directly assayed their mRNA targets. These studies allow us to experimentally determine genome-wide mRNA targets, and these experiments showed substantial overlap in functional mRNA networks suppressed by both canonical miRNAs and their isomiRs. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results find isomiRs to be biologically relevant and functionally cooperative partners of canonical miRNAs that act coordinately to target pathways of functionally related genes. This work exposes the complexity of the miRNA-transcriptome, and helps explain a major miRNA paradox: how specific regulation of biological processes can occur when the specificity of miRNA targeting is mediated by only 6 to 11 nucleotides.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sequência de Bases , Biotinilação , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , MicroRNAs/classificação , MicroRNAs/isolamento & purificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Ribonuclease III/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transcriptoma , Transfecção
20.
Nat Genet ; 42(1): 62-7, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19966804

RESUMO

Studies of the genetics of gene expression can identify expression SNPs (eSNPs) that explain variation in transcript abundance. Here we address the robustness of eSNP associations to environmental geography and population structure in a comparison of 194 Arab and Amazigh individuals from a city and two villages in southern Morocco. Gene expression differed between pairs of locations for up to a third of all transcripts, with notable enrichment of transcripts involved in ribosomal biosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation. Robust associations were observed in the leukocyte samples: cis eSNPs (P < 10(-08)) were identified for 346 genes, and trans eSNPs (P < 10(-11)) for 10 genes. All of these associations were consistent both across the three sample locations and after controlling for ancestry and relatedness. No evidence of large-effect trans-acting mediators of the pervasive environmental influence was found; instead, genetic and environmental factors acted in a largely additive manner.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Árabes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Geografia , Humanos , Marrocos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Componente Principal
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