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1.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111710, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308931

RESUMO

Reducing harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie, situated between the United States and Canada, requires implementing best management practices to decrease nutrient loading from upstream sources. Bi-national water quality targets have been set for total and dissolved phosphorus loads, with the ultimate goal of reaching these targets in 9-out-of-10 years. Row crop agriculture dominates the land use in the Western Lake Erie Basin thus requiring efforts to mitigate nutrient loads from agricultural systems. To determine the types and extent of agricultural management practices needed to reach the water quality goals, we used five independently developed Soil and Water Assessment Tool models to evaluate the effects of 18 management scenarios over a 10-year period on nutrient export. Guidance from a stakeholder group was provided throughout the project, and resulted in improved data, development of realistic scenarios, and expanded outreach. Subsurface placement of phosphorus fertilizers, cover crops, riparian buffers, and wetlands were among the most effective management options. But, only in one realistic scenario did a majority (3/5) of the models predict that the total phosphorus loading target would be met in 9-out-of-10 years. Further, the dissolved phosphorus loading target was predicted to meet the 9-out-of-10-year goal by only one model and only in three scenarios. In all scenarios evaluated, the 9-out-of-10-year goal was not met based on the average of model predictions. Ensemble modeling revealed general agreement about the effects of several practices although some scenarios resulted in a wide range of uncertainty. Overall, our results demonstrate that there are multiple pathways to approach the established water quality goals, but greater adoption rates of practices than those tested here will likely be needed to attain the management targets.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Agricultura , Canadá , Eutrofização , Fósforo/análise , Qualidade da Água
2.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111803, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341725

RESUMO

Coastal eutrophication is a leading cause of degraded water quality around the world. Identifying the sources and their relative contributions to impaired downstream water quality is an important step in developing management plans to address water quality concerns. Recent mass-balance studies of Total Phosphorus (TP) loads of the Maumee River watershed highlight the considerable phosphorus contributions of non-point sources, including agricultural sources, degrading regional downstream water quality. This analysis builds upon these mass-balance studies by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate the movement of phosphorus from manure, inorganic fertilizer, point sources, and soil sources, and respective loads of TP and Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus (DRP). This yields a more explicit estimation of source contribution from the watershed. Model simulations indicate that inorganic fertilizers contribute a greater proportion of TP (45% compared to 8%) and DRP (58% compared to 12%) discharged from the watershed than manure sources in the March-July period, the season driving harmful algal blooms. Although inorganic fertilizers contributed a greater mass of TP and DRP than manure sources, the two sources had similar average delivery fractions of TP (2.7% for inorganic fertilizers vs. 3.0% for manure sources) as well as DRP (0.7% for inorganic fertilizers vs. 1.2% for manure sources). Point sources contributed similar proportions of TP (5%) and DRP (12%) discharged in March-July as manure sources. Soil sources of phosphorus contributed over 40% of the March-July TP load and 20% of the March-July DRP load from the watershed to Lake Erie. Reductions of manures and inorganic fertilizers corresponded to a greater proportion of phosphorus delivered from soil sources of phosphorus, indicating that legacy phosphorus in soils may need to be a focus of management efforts to reach nutrient load reduction goals. In agricultural watersheds aground the world, including the Maumee River watershed, upstream nutrient management should not focus solely on an individual nutrient source; rather a comprehensive approach involving numerous sources should be undertaken.


Assuntos
Lagos , Fósforo , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fósforo/análise , Rios , Qualidade da Água
3.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111248, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891029

RESUMO

The discharge of excess nutrients to surface waters causes eutrophication, resulting in algal blooms, hypoxia, degraded water quality, reduced and contaminated fisheries, threats to potable water supplies, and decreases in tourism, cultural activities, and coastal economies. An understanding of the contribution of urban runoff to eutrophication is needed to inform management strategies. More broadly, the seasonality in nutrient concentrations and loads in urban runoff needs further analysis since algal blooms and hypoxia are seasonal in nature. This study quantifies the variation of nutrients and sediment in stormwater runoff across seasons from four urban residential sewersheds located in Columbus, Ohio, USA. An average of 62 runoff events at each sewershed were sampled using automated samplers during stormflow and analyzed for nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS). Spring total nitrogen concentrations had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher median concentration (2.19 mg/L) than fall (1.55 mg/L) and summer (1.50 mg/L). Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher in spring (0.22 mg/L) and fall (0.23 mg/L) than summer (0.15 mg/L). TSS concentrations were significantly higher in the spring (74.5 mg/L) and summer (56.5 mg/L) than the fall (34.0 mg/L). In contrast, seasonal loading differences for nutrients or sediment were rare because runoff volume varied in such a way as to offset significant concentration differences and significant seasonality in rainfall intensity. Annual pollutant loadings were similar in magnitude to other residential and even some agricultural runoff studies. Although nutrient loads are the key indicator for determining algal biomass, nutrient concentrations are important for real-time algal growth. Future research efforts should be focused not only on understanding how seasonal urban concentrations and loads impact coastal eutrophication, but also developing improved watershed management focused on critical periods. Improved designs for stormwater control measures need to account for seasonality in pollutant discharge.


Assuntos
Chuva , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Ohio , Fósforo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141112, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791405

RESUMO

How anticipated climate change might affect long-term outcomes of present-day agricultural conservation practices remains a key uncertainty that could benefit water quality and biodiversity conservation planning. To explore this issue, we forecasted how the stream fish communities in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) would respond to increasing amounts of agricultural conservation practice (ACP) implementation under two IPCC future greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP4.5: moderate reductions; RCP8.5: business-as-usual conditions) during 2020-2065. We used output from 19 General Circulation Models to drive linked agricultural land use (APEX), watershed hydrology (SWAT), and stream fish distribution (boosted regression tree) models, subsequently analyzing how projected changes in habitat would influence fish community composition and functional trait diversity. Our models predicted both positive and negative effects of climate change and ACP implementation on WLEB stream fishes. For most species, climate and ACPs influenced species in the same direction, with climate effects outweighing those of ACP implementation. Functional trait analysis helped clarify the varied responses among species, indicating that more extreme climate change would reduce available habitat for large-bodied, cool-water species with equilibrium life-histories, many of which also are of importance to recreational fishing (e.g., northern pike, smallmouth bass). By contrast, available habitat for warm-water, benthic species with more periodic or opportunistic life-histories (e.g., northern hogsucker, greater redhorse, greenside darter) was predicted to increase. Further, ACP implementation was projected to hasten these shifts, suggesting that efforts to improve water quality could come with costs to other ecosystem services (e.g., recreational fishing opportunities). Collectively, our findings demonstrate the need to consider biological outcomes when developing strategies to mitigate water quality impairment and highlight the value of physical-biological modeling approaches to agricultural and biological conservation planning in a changing climate.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Agricultura , Animais , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Hidrologia
6.
Harmful Algae ; 77: 1-10, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005796

RESUMO

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV-absorbing metabolites found in cyanobacteria. While their protective role from UV in Microcystis has been studied in a laboratory setting, a full understanding of the ecology of MAA-producing versus non-MAA-producing Microcystis in natural environments is lacking. This study presents a new tool for quantifying MAA-producing Microcystis and applies it to obtain insight into the dynamics of MAA-producing and non-MAA-producing Microcystis in Lake Erie. This study first developed a sensitive, specific TaqMan real-time PCR assay that targets MAA synthetase gene C (mysC) of Microcystis (quantitative range: 1.7 × 101 to 1.7 × 107 copies/assay). Using this assay, Microcystis was quantified with a MAA-producing genotype (mysC+) in water samples (n = 96) collected during March-November 2013 from 21 Lake Erie sites (undetectable - 8.4 × 106 copies/ml). The mysC+ genotype comprised 0.3-37.8% of the Microcystis population in Lake Erie during the study period. The proportion of the mysC+ genotype during high solar UV irradiation periods (mean = 18.8%) was significantly higher than that during lower UV periods (mean = 9.7%). Among the MAAs, shinorine (major) and porphyra (minor) were detected with HPLC-PDA-MS/MS from the Microcystis isolates and water samples. However, no significant difference in the MAA concentrations existed between higher and lower solar UV periods when the MAA concentrations were normalized with Microcystis mysC abundance. Collectively, this study's findings suggest that the MAA-producing Microcystis are present in Lake Erie, and they may be ecologically advantageous under high UV conditions, but not to the point that they exclusively predominate over the non-MAA-producers.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Lagos/microbiologia , Microcystis/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Microcystis/genética , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ohio , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
Food Res Int ; 102: 234-245, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29195944

RESUMO

Microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin that can adversely affect human health, has become more prevalent in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, owing to an increase in toxic cyanobacteria blooms. While consumption of water and fish are well-documented exposure pathways of MCs to humans, less is known about the potential transfer to humans through consumption of vegetables that have been irrigated with MC-contaminated water. Likewise, the impact of MC on the performance of food crops is understudied. To help fill these information gaps, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment in which we exposed lettuce, carrots, and green beans to environmentally relevant concentrations of MC-LR (0, 1, 5, and 10µg/L) via two irrigation methods (drip and spray). We used ELISA and LC-MS/MS to quantify MC-LR concentrations and in different parts of the plant (edible vs. inedible fractions), measured plant performance (e.g., size, mass, edible leaves, color), and calculated human exposure risk based on accumulation patterns. MC-LR accumulation was positively dose-dependent, with it being greater in the plants (2.2-209.2µg/kg) than in soil (0-19.4µg/kg). MC-LR accumulation varied among vegetable types, between plant parts, and between irrigation methods. MC-LR accumulation led to reduced crop growth and quality, with MC-LR persisting in the soil after harvest. Observed toxin accumulation patterns in edible fractions of plants also led to estimates of daily MC-LR intake that exceeded both the chronic reference dose (0.003µg/kg of body weight) and total daily intake guidelines (0.04µg/kg of body weight). Because the use of MC-contaminated water is common in many parts of the world, our collective findings highlight the need for guidelines concerning the use of MC-contaminated water in irrigation, as well as consumption of these crops.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Microcistinas/análise , Saúde Pública , Microbiologia do Solo , Verduras/microbiologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Cianobactérias , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluição da Água
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 101(12): 4362-70, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20153173

RESUMO

A co-digestion investigation was conducted using small-scale digesters in Costa Rica to optimize their ability to treat animal wastewater and produce renewable energy. Increases in methane production were quantified when swine manure was co-digested with used cooking grease in plug-flow digesters that operated at ambient temperate without mixing. The co-digestion experiments were conducted on 12 field-scale digesters (250 L each) using three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure and no waste oil, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. The T2.5 treatment had the greatest methane (CH(4)) production (45 L/day), a 124% increase from the control, with a total biogas production of 67.3 L/day and 66.9% CH(4) in the produced biogas. Increasing the grease concentration beyond T2.5 produced biogas with a lower percentage of CH(4), and thus, did not result in any additional benefits. A batch study showed that methane production could be sustained for three months in digesters that co-digested swine manure and used cooking grease without daily inputs. The investigation proved that adding small amounts of grease to the influent is a simple way to double energy production without affecting other digester benefits.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/análise , Temperatura Alta , Esterco/análise , Metano/biossíntese , Óleos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Animais , Culinária , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Esgotos , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Ecol Appl ; 19(1): 254-66, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19323187

RESUMO

Indigenous groups have designed and managed their ecosystems for generations, resulting in biodiversity protection while producing for their family's needs. Here we describe the agroecosystem of the Lacandon Maya, an indigenous group who live in Chiapas, Mexico. The Lacandon practice a form of swidden agriculture that conserves the surrounding rain forest ecosystem while cycling the majority of their land through five successional stages. These stages include an herbaceous stage, two shrub stages, and two forest stages. A portion of their land is kept in primary forest. This study presents the Lacandon traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) for agroforestry and quantitatively describes the plant community and the associated soil ecology of each successional stage. Also documented is the knowledge of the Lacandon regarding the immediate use of plant species and plant species useful for soil fertility enhancement. Woody plant diversity increases during the successional stages of the Lacandon system, and by the beginning of the first forest stage, the diversity is similar to that of the primary forest. In all stages, Lacandon use 60% of the available plant species for food, medicine, and raw materials. Approximately 45% of the woody plant species present in each fallow stage were thought by the Lacandon to enhance soil fertility. Total soil nitrogen and soil organic matter increased with successional stage and with time from intentional burn. Nutrient and soil nematode dynamics in shrub stages related to the presence of introduced and managed plants, indicating engineered soil enhancement by the Lacandon. The effects on biodiversity and soil ecology coupled with productivity for agricultural subsistence indicate that Lacandon TEK may offer tools for environmental conservation that would provide for a family's basic needs while maintaining a biodiverse rain forest ecosystem. Tools such as these may offer options for regional restoration and conservation efforts such as the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in Mexico and Central America, where attainment of environmental goals must include methods to provide resources to local inhabitants.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , América Central , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/metabolismo , Grupos Populacionais , Solo
10.
J Environ Qual ; 37(1): 272-9, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18178901

RESUMO

Ecological treatment systems can provide a sustainable, plant-based alternative to traditional wastewater treatment. One factor essential to the success of these systems is ensuring their ability to reduce coliform concentrations in wastewater. Wastewater is the primary source of fecal contamination in aquatic ecosystems, containing total and fecal coliforms on the order of 10(8)-10(10) and 10(7)-10(9) CFU L(-1), respectively. This study assessed the ability of an ecological treatment system to reduce concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from dairy wastewater. Low strength wastewater was pumped into the system during July of 2005 and high strength in September 2005. Wastewater passes through a series of anaerobic, aerobic, and clarifier reactors and wetland cells before exiting the system. Regardless of wastewater strength, average total coliform and E. coli concentrations were consistently reduced by at least 99% from influent to effluent, with the majority of the reduction (76%) occurring in the first two reactors. Relationships between internal concentrations of solids and coliforms indicated that increased reduction of solids may further reduce coliform concentrations. Although U.S. Environmental Protection Agency discharge requirements for E. coli were not always met, the substantial reductions achieved indicate that ecological treatment systems have the potential to successfully reduce coliforms in wastewater to meet discharge limits. The results from this study will be used to guide design and management of future ecological treatment systems, so that larger and more consistent coliform reductions can be achieved.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Ecologia , Feminino , Ohio , Microbiologia da Água
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 99(13): 5881-90, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18036816

RESUMO

Seven low-cost digesters in Costa Rica were studied to determine the potential of these systems to treat animal wastewater and produce renewable energy. The effluent water has a significantly lower oxygen demand (COD decreased from 2,968 mg/L to 472 mg/L) and higher dissolved nutrient concentration (NH(4)-N increased by 78.3% to 82.2mg/L) than the influent water, which increases the usefulness of the effluent as an organic fertilizer and decreases its organic loading on surface waters. On average, methane constituted 66% of the produced biogas, which is consistent with industrial digesters. Through principle component analysis, COD, turbidity, NH(4)-N, TKN, and pH were determined to be the most useful parameters to characterize wastewater. The results suggest that the systems have the ability to withstand fluctuations in the influent water quality. This study revealed that small-scale agricultural digesters can produce methane at concentrations useful for cooking, while improving the quality of the livestock wastewater.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esterco , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Amônia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Costa Rica , Resíduos Industriais , Oxigênio , Soluções , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
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