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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) co-occur with bipolar disorder (BD) relatively frequently. Individuals with BD often report symptoms of mania and hypomania during adolescence, prior to the age of onset for BD. It is unknown whether these symptoms are associated with ASDs. We examined whether diagnoses of ASDs and autistic traits were associated with hypomania in a large, population-based Swedish twin sample. METHODS: Parental structured interviews assessed autistic traits, and were used to assign screening diagnoses of ASDs, when twins were aged 9 or 12 (N = 13 533 pairs). Parents then completed questionnaires assessing hypomania when the twins were aged 15 and 18 (N = 3852 pairs at age 15, and 3013 pairs at age 18). After investigating the phenotypic associations between these measures, we used the classical twin design to test whether genetic and environmental influences on autistic traits influence variation in adolescent hypomania. RESULTS: Autistic traits and ASD diagnoses in childhood were associated with elevated scores on the measures of adolescent hypomania. Twin analyses indicated that 6-9% of the variance in hypomania was explained by genetic influences that were shared with autistic traits in childhood. When repeating these analyses for specific autistic trait domains, we found a stronger association between social interaction difficulties and hypomania than for other autistic trait domains. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a genetic link between autistic traits and hypomania in adolescence. This adds to the growing evidence base of genetic factors associated with ASDs showing links with psychiatric outcomes across childhood and into adulthood.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7353, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795730

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrates a high level of comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD). One possible contributor to this is that the two disorders show high genetic correlation. However, the specific regions of the genome that may be responsible for this overlap are unclear. To identify variants associated with both ADHD and MDD, we performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of ADHD and MDD. All genome wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) SNPs in the meta-analysis that were also strongly associated (p < 5 × 10-4) independently with each disorder were followed up. These putatively pleiotropic SNPs were tested for additional associations across a broad range of phenotypes. Fourteen linkage disequilibrium-independent SNPs were associated with each disorder separately (p < 5 × 10-4) and in the cross-disorder meta-analysis (p < 5 × 10-8). Nine of these SNPs had not been highlighted previously in either individual GWAS. Evidence supported nine of the fourteen SNPs acting as eQTL and two as brain eQTL. Index SNPs and their genomic regions demonstrated associations with other mental health phenotypes. Through conducting meta-analysis on ADHD and MDD only, our results build upon the previously observed genetic correlation between ADHD and MDD and reveal novel genomic regions that may be implicated in this overlap.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814023

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). In this narrative review, we summarize recent advances in quantitative and molecular genetic research from the past 5-10 years. Combined with large-scale international collaboration, these advances have resulted in fast-paced progress in understanding the etiology of ADHD and how genetic risk factors map on to clinical heterogeneity. Studies are converging on a number of key insights. First, ADHD is a highly polygenic NDD with a complex genetic architecture encompassing risk variants across the spectrum of allelic frequencies, which are implicated in neurobiological processes. Second, genetic studies strongly suggest that ADHD diagnosis shares a large proportion of genetic risks with continuously distributed traits of ADHD in the population, with shared genetic risks also seen across development and sex. Third, ADHD genetic risks are shared with those implicated in many other neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and somatic phenotypes. As sample sizes and the diversity of genetic studies continue to increase through international collaborative efforts, we anticipate further success with gene discovery, characterization of how the ADHD phenotype relates to other human traits and growing potential to use genomic risk factors for understanding clinical trajectories and for precision medicine approaches.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of sex differences in prevalence and presentation of neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits is largely unknown. Given established genetic contributions and correlations, we tested for a sex-differentiated genetic architecture within and between traits. METHODS: Using European ancestry genome-wide association summary statistics for 20 neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits, we tested for sex differences in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlation (rg < 1). For each trait, we computed per-SNP z scores from sex-stratified regression coefficients and identified genes with sex-differentiated effects using a gene-based approach. We calculated correlation coefficients between z scores to test for shared sex-differentiated effects. Finally, we tested for sex differences in across-trait genetic correlations. RESULTS: We observed no consistent sex differences in SNP-based heritability. Between-sex, within-trait genetic correlations were high, although <1 for educational attainment and risk-taking behavior. We identified 4 genes with significant sex-differentiated effects across 3 traits. Several trait pairs shared sex-differentiated effects. The top genes with sex-differentiated effects were enriched for multiple gene sets, including neuron- and synapse-related sets. Most between-trait genetic correlation estimates were not significantly different between sexes, with exceptions (educational attainment and risk-taking behavior). CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in the common autosomal genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric and behavioral phenotypes are small and polygenic and unlikely to fully account for observed sex-differentiated attributes. Larger sample sizes are needed to identify sex-differentiated effects for most traits. For well-powered studies, we identified genes with sex-differentiated effects that were enriched for neuron-related and other biological functions. This work motivates further investigation of genetic and environmental influences on sex differences.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci significantly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from the GWAS, can be used to assess genetic overlap between ADHD and other traits. Using ADHD samples from several international sites, we derived PRS for ADHD from the recent GWAS to test whether genetic variants that contribute to ADHD also influence two cognitive functions that show strong association with ADHD: attention regulation and response inhibition, captured by reaction time variability (RTV) and commission errors (CE). METHODS: The discovery GWAS included 19 099 ADHD cases and 34 194 control participants. The combined target sample included 845 people with ADHD (age: 8-40 years). RTV and CE were available from reaction time and response inhibition tasks. ADHD PRS were calculated from the GWAS using a leave-one-study-out approach. Regression analyses were run to investigate whether ADHD PRS were associated with CE and RTV. Results across sites were combined via random effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: When combining the studies in meta-analyses, results were significant for RTV (R2 = 0.011, ß = 0.088, p = 0.02) but not for CE (R2 = 0.011, ß = 0.013, p = 0.732). No significant association was found between ADHD PRS and RTV or CE in any sample individually (p > 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: We detected a significant association between PRS for ADHD and RTV (but not CE) in individuals with ADHD, suggesting that common genetic risk variants for ADHD influence attention regulation.

6.
Psychooncology ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend systematic evaluation of distress screening and referral for cancer patients. Implementation remains a notable gap for cancer centers serving disadvantaged communities. We present the implementation of a distress screening program within a Veterans Affairs hospital oncology clinic, serving a majority African American (AA) male population of low socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: The Coleman Foundation funded this program supporting a palliative care physician and psychologist to implement screening in a phased approach as follows: (1) Organizing key stakeholders, (2) educating clinical staff, (3) delivering distress screening, (4) generating documentation, and (5) implementing clinical action and referral pathways. We utilized validated measures in the "Patient Screening Questions for Supportive Care" screening tool. RESULTS: This program was unsuccessful in screening all veterans with cancer; however, we were able to implement 3 years of longitudinal screening. In distress screens from the initial program period (n = 253), patients were primarily males (95.6%) of older age (m = 70, standard deviation = 9.45), AA (76.4%), with various cancers of advanced disease (69%). Males reported moderate psychosocial distress and elevated financial needs. For males with elevated psychosocial distress (n = 63, PHQ-4 ≥3), 36% were previously connected with psychosocial services. Following screening, engagement increased as the majority (77%) established psychosocial care. CONCLUSIONS: This screening program had mixed success. Centralized program staff and available supportive care referrals were critical for program implementation. Screening may have increased engagement in social work/mental health services for males of low SES. Screening programs should be tailored to the needs of underserved communities with accessible housing/food subsidies.

7.
PeerJ ; 8: e9409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765965

RESUMO

Background: The high burden of infectious disease and associated antimicrobial use likely contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We aimed to develop and apply context-specific tools to audit antimicrobial use in the remote primary healthcare setting. Methods: We adapted the General Practice version of the National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey (GP NAPS) tool to audit antimicrobial use over 2-3 weeks in 15 remote primary healthcare clinics across the Kimberley region of Western Australia (03/2018-06/2018), Top End of the Northern Territory (08/2017-09/2017) and far north Queensland (05/2018-06/2018). At each clinic we reviewed consecutive clinic presentations until 30 presentations where antimicrobials had been used were included in the audit. Data recorded included the antimicrobials used, indications and treating health professional. We assessed the appropriateness of antimicrobial use and functionality of the tool. Results: We audited the use of 668 antimicrobials. Skin and soft tissue infections were the dominant treatment indications (WA: 35%; NT: 29%; QLD: 40%). Compared with other settings in Australia, narrow spectrum antimicrobials like benzathine benzylpenicillin were commonly given and the appropriateness of use was high (WA: 91%; NT: 82%; QLD: 65%). While the audit was informative, non-integration with practice software made the process manually intensive. Conclusions: Patterns of antimicrobial use in remote primary care are different from other settings in Australia. The adapted GP NAPS tool functioned well in this pilot study and has the potential for integration into clinical care. Regular stewardship audits would be facilitated by improved data extraction systems.

8.
BJPsych Open ; 6(4): e65, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric disorders show gender differences in prevalence. Recent studies suggest that female patients diagnosed with anxiety and depression carry more genetic risks related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with affected males. AIMS: In this register-based study, we aimed to test whether female patients who received clinical diagnoses of anxiety, depressive, bipolar and eating disorders are at higher familial risk for ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders, compared with diagnosed male patients. METHOD: We analysed data from a record-linkage of several Swedish national registers, including 151 025 sibling pairs from 103 941 unique index individuals diagnosed with anxiety, depressive, bipolar or eating disorders, as well as data from 646 948 cousin pairs. We compared the likelihood of having a relative diagnosed with ADHD/neurodevelopmental disorders in index males and females. RESULTS: Female patients with anxiety disorders were more likely than affected males to have a brother with ADHD (odd ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% CI 1.05-1.22). Results for broader neurodevelopmental disorders were similar and were driven by ADHD diagnoses. Follow-up analyses revealed similar point estimates for several categories of anxiety disorders, with the strongest effect observed for agoraphobia (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.12-2.39). No significant associations were found in individuals with depressive, bipolar or eating disorders, or in cousins. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide modest support for the possibility that familial/genetic risks for ADHD may show gender-specific phenotypic expression. Alternatively, there could be gender-specific biases in diagnoses of anxiety and ADHD. These factors could play a small role in the observed gender differences in prevalence of ADHD and anxiety.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 135, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398668

RESUMO

Recent case-control genetic studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have implicated common and rare genetic risk alleles, highlighting the polygenic and complex aetiology of this neurodevelopmental disorder. Studies of other neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Tourette disorder, developmental delay/intellectual disability and schizophrenia indicate that identification of specific risk alleles and additional insights into disorder biology can be gained by studying non-inherited de novo variation. In this study, we aimed to identify large de novo copy number variants (CNVs) in children with ADHD. Children with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD and their parents were genotyped and included in this sample. We used PennCNV to call large (>200 kb) CNVs and identified those calls that were present in the proband and absent in both biological parents. In 305 parent-offspring trios, we detected 14 de novo CNVs in 13 probands, giving a mutation rate of 4.6% and a per individual rate of 4.3%. This rate is higher than published reports in controls and similar to those observed for ASD, schizophrenia and Tourette disorder. We also identified de novo mutations at four genomic loci (15q13.1-13.2 duplication, 16p13.11 duplication, 16p12.2 deletion and 22q11.21 duplication) that have previously been implicated in other neurodevelopmental disorders, two of which (16p13.11 and 22q11.21) have also been implicated in case-control ADHD studies. Our study complements ADHD case-control genomic analyses and demonstrates the need for larger parent-offspring trio genetic studies to gain further insights into the complex aetiology of ADHD.

10.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(11): 1581-1591, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932968

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that childhood Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) elevates risk of later depression, but the mechanisms behind this association are unclear. We investigated the relationship between childhood ADHD symptoms and late-adolescent depressive symptoms in a population cohort, and examined whether academic attainment and peer problems mediated this association. ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) is an ongoing prospective longitudinal population-based UK cohort that has collected data since September 1990. 2950 individuals with data on parent-reported ADHD symptoms in childhood (7.5 years) and self-reported depressive symptoms in late adolescence (17.5 years) were included in analyses. 2161 individuals with additional data at age 16 years on parent-reported peer problems as an indicator of peer relationships and formal examination results (General Certificate of Secondary Education; GCSE) as an indicator of academic attainment were included in mediation analyses. Childhood ADHD symptoms were associated with higher depressive symptoms (b = 0.49, SE = 0.11, p < 0.001) and an increased odds of clinically significant depressive symptoms in adolescence (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.15-1.41, p < 0.001). The association with depressive symptoms was mediated in part by peer problems and academic attainment which accounted for 14.68% and 20.13% of the total effect, respectively. Childhood ADHD is associated with increased risk of later depression. The relationship is mediated in part by peer relationships and academic attainment. This highlights peer relationships and academic attainment as potential targets of depression prevention and intervention in those with ADHD. Future research should investigate which aspects of peer relationships are important in conferring later risk for depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Depressão/etiologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 59(3): 626-636, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711969

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Unrelieved cancer pain at the end of life interferes with achieving patient-centered goals. OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of usual hospice care and PAINRelieveIt® on pain outcomes in patients and their lay caregivers. METHODS: In a five-step, stepped-wedge randomized, controlled study, 234 patients (49% male, 18% Hispanic, 51% racial minorities) and 231 lay caregivers (26% male, 20% Hispanic, 54% racial minorities) completed pre-pain/post-pain measures. They received usual hospice care with intervention components that included a summary of the patient's pain data, decision support for hospice nurses, and multimedia education tailored to the patient's and lay caregiver's misconceptions about pain. RESULTS: The intervention effect on analgesic adherence (primary outcome) was not significant. Post-test worst pain intensity was significantly higher for the experimental group, but the difference (0.70; CI = [0.12, 1.27]) was not clinically meaningful. There was nearly universal availability of prescriptions for strong opioids and adjuvant analgesics for neuropathic pain in both groups. Lay caregivers' pain misconceptions (0-5 scale) were significantly lower in the experimental group than the usual care group (mean difference controlling for baseline is 0.38; CI = [0.08, 0.67]; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: This randomized controlled trial was a negative trial for the primary study outcomes but positive for a secondary outcome. The trial is important for clearly demonstrating the feasibility of implementing the innovative set of interventions.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(8): 1809-1821, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934545

RESUMO

Common genetic risk variants have been implicated in the etiology of clinical attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses and symptoms in the general population. However, given the extensive comorbidity across ADHD and other psychiatric conditions, the extent to which genetic variants associated with ADHD also influence broader psychopathology dimensions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between ADHD polygenic risk scores (PRS) and a broad range of childhood psychiatric symptoms, and to quantify the extent to which such associations can be attributed to a general factor of childhood psychopathology. We derived ADHD PRS for 13,457 children aged 9 or 12 from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, using results from an independent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of ADHD diagnosis and symptoms. We estimated associations between ADHD PRS, a general psychopathology factor, and several dimensions of neurodevelopmental, externalizing, and internalizing symptoms, using structural equation modeling. Higher ADHD PRS were statistically significantly associated with elevated neurodevelopmental, externalizing, and depressive symptoms (R2 = 0.26-1.69%), but not with anxiety. After accounting for a general psychopathology factor, on which all symptoms loaded positively (mean loading = 0.50, range = 0.09-0.91), an association with specific hyperactivity/impulsivity remained significant. ADHD PRS explained ~ 1% (p value < 0.0001) of the variance in the general psychopathology factor and ~ 0.50% (p value < 0.0001) in specific hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our results suggest that common genetic risk variants associated with ADHD, and captured by PRS, also influence a general genetic liability towards broad childhood psychopathology in the general population, in addition to a specific association with hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms.

13.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(8): 964-977, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genomic discoveries should be investigated in generalizable child psychiatric samples in order to justify and inform studies that will evaluate their use for specific clinical purposes. In youth consecutively referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation, we examined 1) the convergent and discriminant validity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) polygenic risk scores (PRSs) in relation to DSM-based ADHD phenotypes; 2) the association of ADHD PRSs with phenotypes beyond ADHD that share its liability and have implications for outcome; and 3) the extent to which youth with high ADHD PRSs manifest a distinctive clinical profile. METHOD: Participants were 433 youth, ages 7-18 years, from the Longitudinal Study of Genetic Influences on Cognition. We used logistic/linear regression and mixed effects models to examine associations with ADHD-related polygenic variation from the largest ADHD genome-wide association study to date. We replicated key findings in 5,140 adult patients from a local health system biobank. RESULTS: Among referred youth, ADHD PRSs were associated with ADHD diagnoses, cross-diagnostic ADHD symptoms and academic impairment (odds ratios ∼1.4; R2 values ∼2%-3%), as well as cross-diagnostic variation in aggression and working memory. In adults, ADHD PRSs were associated with ADHD and phenotypes beyond the condition that have public health implications. Finally, youth with a high ADHD polygenic burden showed a more severe clinical profile than youth with a low burden (ß coefficients ∼.2). CONCLUSION: Among child and adolescent outpatients, ADHD polygenic risk was associated with ADHD and related phenotypes as well as clinical severity. These results extend the scientific foundation for studies of ADHD polygenic risk in the clinical setting and highlight directions for further research.

14.
Behav Genet ; 50(4): 213-220, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828458

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders show phenotypic as well as genetic overlaps. There are however also marked developmental changes throughout childhood. We investigated the extent to which, for a full range of early childhood psychopathology, a general "p" factor was explained by genetic liability, as indexed by multiple different psychiatric polygenic risk scores (PRS) and whether these relationships altered with age. The sample was a UK, prospective, population-based cohort with psychopathology data at age 7 (N = 8161) and age 13 (N = 7017). PRS were generated from large published genome-wide association studies. At both ages, we found evidence for a childhood "p" factor as well as for specific factors. Schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) PRS were associated with this general "p" factor at both ages but depression and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) PRS were not. We also found some evidence of associations between schizophrenia, ADHD and depression PRS with specific factors, but these were less robust and there was evidence for developmental changes.

15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(8): 577-586, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs) frequently co-occur, little is known about the shared etiology. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the genetic association between ADHD and various EDs, including anorexia nervosa (AN) and other EDs such as bulimia nervosa. METHODS: We applied different genetically informative designs to register-based information of a Swedish nationwide population (N = 3,550,118). We first examined the familial coaggregation of clinically diagnosed ADHD and EDs across multiple types of relatives. We then applied quantitative genetic modeling in full-sisters and maternal half-sisters to estimate the genetic correlations between ADHD and EDs. We further tested the associations between ADHD polygenic risk scores and ED symptoms, and between AN polygenic risk scores and ADHD symptoms, in a genotyped population-based sample (N = 13,472). RESULTS: Increased risk of all types of EDs was found in individuals with ADHD (any ED: odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.81, 4.14; AN: OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.15, 2.86; other EDs: OR = 4.66, 95% CI = 4.47, 4.87; bulimia nervosa: OR = 5.01, 95% CI = 4.63, 5.41) and their relatives compared with individuals without ADHD and their relatives. The magnitude of the associations decreased as the degree of relatedness decreased, suggesting shared familial liability between ADHD and EDs. Quantitative genetic models revealed stronger genetic correlation of ADHD with other EDs (.37, 95% CI = .31, .42) than with AN (.14, 95% CI = .05, .22). ADHD polygenic risk scores correlated positively with ED symptom measures overall and with the subscales Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction despite small effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: We observed stronger genetic association with ADHD for non-AN EDs than for AN, highlighting specific genetic correlation beyond a general genetic factor across psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 431-444, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804558

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 63-75, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478444

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new information about the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes and around brain-expressed regulatory marks. Analyses of three replication studies: a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, a self-reported ADHD sample and a meta-analysis of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population, support these findings while highlighting study-specific differences on genetic overlap with educational attainment. Strong concordance with GWAS of quantitative population measures of ADHD symptoms supports that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of continuous heritable traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Risco
18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(3): 280-289, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566181

RESUMO

Importance: Psychiatric traits associated with categorically defined psychiatric disorders are heritable and present to varying degrees in the general population. It is commonly assumed that diagnoses represent the extreme end of continuously distributed traits in the population, but this assumption has yet to be robustly tested for many psychiatric phenotypes. Objective: To assess whether genetic risk factors associated with psychiatric disorders are also associated with continuous variation in milder population traits. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study combined a novel twin analytic approach with polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses in a large population-based twin sample. Phenotypic and genetic data were available from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. Inpatient data were available for January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2014, and outpatient data for January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013. The last day of follow-up was December 31, 2014. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2017, to September 30, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Questionnaires that assessed traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning difficulties, tic disorders (TDs), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, major depressive disorder (MDD), mania, and psychotic experiences were administered to a large Swedish twin sample. Individuals with clinical psychiatric diagnoses were identified using the Swedish National Patient Register. Joint categorical/continuous twin modeling was used to estimate genetic correlations between psychiatric diagnoses and continuous traits. The PRSs for psychiatric disorders were calculated based on independent discovery genetic data. The association between PRSs for each disorder and associated continuous traits was tested. Results: Phenotype data were available for 13 923 twin pairs (35.1% opposite sex and 31.7% same-sex females) at 9 years of age, 5165 pairs (36.9% opposite sex and 34.0% same-sex females) at 15 years of age, and 4273 pairs (36.5% opposite sex and 34.4% same-sex females) at 18 years of age. Genetic data were available for 13 412 individuals (50.2% females). Twin genetic correlations between numerous psychiatric diagnoses and corresponding traits ranged from 0.31 to 0.69. Disorder PRSs were associated with related population traits for ASD (ß [SE] = 0.04 [0.01] at 9 years of age), ADHD (ß [SE] = 0.27 [0.03] at 9 years of age), TDs (ß [SE] = 0.02 [0.004] at 9 years of age), OCD (ß [SE] = 0.13 [0.05] at 18 years of age), anxiety (ß [SE] = 0.18 [0.08] at 9 years of age; ß [SE] = 0.07 [0.02] at 15 years of age; and ß [SE] = 0.40 [0.17] at 18 years of age), MDD (ß [SE] = 0.10 [0.03] at 9 years of age; ß [SE] = 0.11 [0.02] at 15 years of age; and ß [SE] = 0.41 [0.10] at 18 years of age), and schizophrenia (ß [SE] = 0.02 [0.01] at 18 years of age). Polygenic risk scores for depressive symptoms were associated with MDD diagnoses (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32). Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that genetic factors associated with psychiatric disorders are also associated with milder variation in characteristic traits throughout the general population for many psychiatric phenotypes. This study suggests that many psychiatric disorders are likely to be continuous phenotypes rather than the categorical entities currently defined in diagnostic manuals, which has strong implications for genetic research in particular.


Assuntos
Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Gêmeos/genética , Gêmeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(6): 341-350, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307693

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental problems (NPs) are more common in males, whereas anxiety and depression are more common in females. Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between rare CNVs with NPs, anxiety, and depression in a childhood population sample, as well as to examine sex-specific effects. We analyzed a sample of N = 12,982 children, of whom 5.3% had narrowly defined NPs (clinically diagnosed), 20.9% had broadly defined NPs (based on validated screening measures, but no diagnosis), and 3.0% had clinically diagnosed anxiety or depression. Rare (<1% frequency) CNVs were categorized by size (100-500 kb or > 500 kb), type, and putative relevance to NPs. We tested for association of CNV categories with outcomes and examined sex-specific effects. Medium deletions (OR[CI] = 1.18[1.05-1.33], p = .0053) and large duplications (OR[CI] = 1.45[1.19-1.75], p = .00017) were associated with broadly defined NPs. Large deletions (OR[CI] = 1.85[1.14-3.01], p = .013) were associated with narrowly defined NPs. There were no significant sex differences in CNV burden in individuals with NPs. Although CNVs were not associated with anxiety/depression in the whole sample, in individuals diagnosed with these disorders, females were more likely to have large CNVs (OR[CI] = 3.75[1.45-9.68], p = .0064). Rare CNVs are associated with both narrowly and broadly defined NPs in a general population sample of children. Our results also suggest that large, rare CNVs may show sex-specific phenotypic effects.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Ansiedade/genética , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Criança , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(4): 481-489, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097723

RESUMO

In youth, ADHD is more commonly diagnosed in males than females, but higher male-to-female ratios are found in clinical versus population-based samples, suggesting a sex bias in the process of receiving a clinical diagnosis of ADHD. This study investigated sex differences in the severity and presentation of ADHD symptoms, conduct problems, and learning problems in males and females with and without clinically diagnosed ADHD. We then investigated whether the predictive associations of these symptom domains on being diagnosed and treated for ADHD differed in males and females. Parents of 19,804 twins (50.64% male) from the Swedish population completed dimensional assessments of ADHD symptoms and co-occurring traits (conduct and learning problems) when children were aged 9 years. Children from this population sample were linked to Patient Register data on clinical ADHD diagnosis and medication prescriptions. At the population level, males had higher scores for all symptom domains (inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, conduct, and learning problems) compared to females, but similar severity was seen in clinically diagnosed males and females. Symptom severity for all domains increased the likelihood of receiving an ADHD diagnosis in both males and females. Prediction analyses revealed significant sex-by-symptom interactions on diagnostic and treatment status for hyperactivity/impulsivity and conduct problems. In females, these behaviours were stronger predictors of clinical diagnosis (hyperactivity/impulsivity: OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.15; conduct: OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09, 1.87), and prescription of pharmacological treatment (hyperactivity/impulsivity: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02, 1.50; conduct: OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.05, 4.63). Females with ADHD may be more easily missed in the ADHD diagnostic process and less likely to be prescribed medication unless they have prominent externalising problems.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Caracteres Sexuais , Gêmeos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Gêmeos/psicologia
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