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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1636, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005927

RESUMO

Both the three-dimensional internal structure and elemental distribution of near-field radioactive fallout particulate material released during the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is analysed using combined high-resolution laboratory and synchrotron radiation x-ray techniques. Results from this study allow for the proposition of the likely formation mechanism of the particles, as well as the potential risks associated with their existence in the environment, and the likely implications for future planned reactor decommissioning. A suite of particles is analyzed from a locality 2 km from the north-western perimeter of the site - north of the primary contaminant plume in an area formerly attributed to being contaminated by fallout from reactor Unit 1. The particles are shown to exhibit significant structural similarities; being amorphous with a textured exterior, and containing inclusions of contrasting compositions, as well as an extensive internal void volume - bimodal in its size distribution. A heterogeneous distribution of the various elemental constituents is observed inside a representative particle, which also exhibited a Fukushima-derived radiocesium (134Cs, 135Cs and 137Cs) signature with negligible natural Cs. We consider the structure and composition of the particle to suggest it formed from materials associated with the reactor Unit 1 building explosion, with debris fragments embedded into the particles surface. Such a high void ratio, comparable to geological pumice, suggests such material formed during a rapid depressurisation and is potentially susceptible to fragmentation through attrition.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2080, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034188

RESUMO

The causes of infections in pediatric populations differ between age groups and settings, particularly in the tropics. Such differences in epidemiology may lead to misdiagnosis and ineffective empirical treatment. Here, we investigated the current spectrum of pathogens causing febrile diseases leading to pediatric hospitalization in Lambaréné, Gabon. From August 2015 to March 2016, we conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in a provincial hospital. Patients were children ≤ 15 years with fever ≥ 38 °C and required hospitalization. A total of 600 febrile patients were enrolled. Malaria was the main diagnosis found in 52% (311/600) patients. Blood cultures revealed septicemia in 3% (17/593), among them four cases of typhoid fever. The other causes of fever were heterogeneously distributed between both bacteria and viruses. Severe infections identified by Lambaréné Organ Dysfunction Score (LODS) were also most often caused by malaria, but children with danger signs did not have more coinfections than others. In 6% (35/600) of patients, no pathogen was isolated. In Gabon, malaria is still the major cause of fever in children, followed by a bacterial and viral disease. Guidelines for both diagnosis and management should be tailored to the spectrum of pathogens and resources available locally.

3.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 45, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective communication between patients-clinicians, supervisors-learners and facilitators-participants within a simulation is a key priority in health profession education. There is a plethora of frameworks and recommendations to guide communication in each of these contexts, and they represent separate discourses with separate communities of practice and literature. Finding common ground within these frameworks has the potential to minimise cognitive load and maximise efficiency, which presents an opportunity to consolidate messages, strategies and skills throughout a communication curriculum and the possibility of expanding the research agenda regarding communication, feedback and debriefing in productive ways. METHODS: A meta-synthesis of the feedback, debriefing and clinical communication literature was conducted to achieve these objectives. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that the concepts underlying the framework can be usefully categorised as stages, goals, strategies, micro-skills and meta-skills. Guidelines for conversations typically shared a common structure, and strategies aligned with a stage. Core transferrable communication skills (i.e., micro-skills) were identified across various types of conversation, and the major differences between frameworks were related to the way that power was distributed in the conversation and the evolution of conversations along the along the path of redistributing power. As part of the synthesis, an overarching framework "prepare-EMPOWER enact" was developed to capture these shared principles across discourses. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting frameworks for work-based communication that promote dialogue and empower individuals to contribute may represent an important step towards learner-centred education and person-centred care for patients.

4.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928023

RESUMO

The therapeutic alliance predicts dropout from psychological therapy, and ruptures in the therapeutic alliance may also predict dropout, yet there is a dearth of research with adolescents. This study investigated whether markers of rupture-repair in the alliance were indicative of different types of treatment ending in adolescents receiving psychological treatment for depression. Data were from the IMPACT study, a trial investigating the effectiveness of therapies for adolescent depression. Participants were randomly allocated to receive a brief psychosocial intervention, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The sample (N = 35) comprised adolescents who had either completed their treatment (n = 14) or dropped out (n = 21) according to their therapist. Dropout cases were further classified as dissatisfied (n = 14) or got-what-they-needed (n = 7) based on posttherapy interviews with the adolescent and therapist. Selected recordings of therapy sessions were rated using the Rupture Resolution Rating System and Working Alliance Inventory (observer version). Therapeutic alliance and rupture-repair during therapy were similar for completers and got-what-they-needed dropouts, whereas dissatisfied dropouts had poorer therapeutic alliance, more ruptures, ruptures that were frequently unresolved, and greater therapist contribution to ruptures. Qualitative analysis of sessions led to the construction of three categories of therapist contribution to ruptures: therapist minimal response, persisting with a therapeutic activity, and focus on risk. Results suggest that ruptures, especially when unresolved, could be warning signs of disengagement and dropout from therapy. Future research should investigate how ruptures may be effectively identified and resolved in treatment with adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(3-4): 416-428, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715040

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The proposed study aimed to answer the following question: What communication issues do nurses find challenging when caring for people with life-limiting illness? BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that attitudes, skills and knowledge about how nurses communicate effectively with patients and their families could be improved. However, the literature predominantly focuses on nurses working in oncology and the medical profession. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive design was used. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 nurses from three wards within a regional healthcare organisation in Victoria, Australia. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. The COREQ checklist was used to document reporting of the study. RESULTS: In their view, nurses have the potential to develop a strong bond with patients and their families. Three key themes were identified: (a) feeling unskilled to have difficult conversations with patients who have life-limiting illness; (b) interacting with family members adds complexity to care of patients who have life-limiting illness; and (c) organisational factors impede nurses' capacity to have meaningful conversations with patients and their families. CONCLUSIONS: Caring for individuals with life-limiting illness is complex and often occurs in an emotionally charged environment. However, nurses report being hampered by time restraints and lack of information about the patient's condition and goals of care. Limitations in conversation structure and a comprehensive range of core communication skills affect their ability to confidently engage in conversations, particularly when they are responding to prognostic questions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Whilst nurses are responsible for performing technical skills, they can maximise care by developing a trusting relationship with patients and their relatives. Increased acuity limits the time nurses have to talk with patients. In addition, they lack confidence to deal with difficult questions. Specific training may increase nurses' confidence and efficiency when communicating with patients and their families.

7.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(1): 179-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the incidence of PSP and CBS in the population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of and trends in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) in a population-based cohort of residents of Olmsted County, MN. METHODS: We used the 1991-2005 population-based, Olmsted County Parkinsonism-cohort study, defined via the Rochester Epidemiology Project. A movement-disorder specialist reviewed medical records, to confirm PSP and CBS diagnoses. RESULTS: We identified 21 patients with these diagnoses 1991-2005 : 18 (85.7%), PSP; 3 (14.3%), CBS. The median diagnosis age was 78 (range: 66-88). 13/21 (62.0%) were male. MRI was performed pre-diagnosis in 11 patients (8 PSP and 3 CBD); 10 showed atrophy consistent with clinical diagnoses. We observed concordance between clinical and pathological diagnoses in two PSP patients who underwent autopsy. Combined incidence for PSP and CBS in Olmsted County was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years (2.6 per 100,000 person-years, PSP; 0.4 per 100,000 person-years, CBS). Incidence was higher in men (4.5, 95% CI, 2.0-7.0) than women (1.8, 95% CI, 0.5-2.9). A combined, significant trend of increasing incidence was observed between 1991 and 2005 (B=0.69, 95% CI 0.42, 0.96, p<0.001). Median time from symptom onset to death among both groups was 6 years (range PSP, 1-10 years; range CBS, 3-8 years). CONCLUSIONS: The combined incidence for PSP and CBS was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years, higher in men than women. We observed a significant increase in both PSP and CBS, likely due to advancing imaging technology and improved diagnostic ability among physicians.

8.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 73-83, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic circumstances can influence access to healthcare, the standard of care provided, and a variety of outcomes. This study aimed to determine the association between crude and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality and socioeconomic group after emergency laparotomy, measure differences in meeting relevant perioperative standards of care, and investigate whether variation in hospital structure or process could explain any difference in mortality between socioeconomic groups. METHODS: This was an observational study of 58 790 patients, with data prospectively collected for the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit in 178 National Health Service hospitals in England between December 1, 2013 and November 31, 2016, linked with national administrative databases. The socioeconomic group was determined according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile of each patient's usual place of residence. RESULTS: Overall, the crude 30-day mortality was 10.3%, with differences between the most-deprived (11.2%) and least-deprived (9.8%) quintiles (P<0.001). The more-deprived patients were more likely to have multiple comorbidities, were more acutely unwell at the time of surgery, and required a more-urgent surgery. After risk adjustment, the patients in the most-deprived quintile were at significantly higher risk of death compared with all other quintiles (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: Q1 [most deprived]: reference; Q2: 0.83 [0.76-0.92]; Q3: 0.84 [0.76-0.92]; Q4: 0.87 [0.79-0.96]; Q5 [least deprived]: 0.77 [0.70-0.86]). We found no evidence that differences in hospital-level structure or patient-level performance in standards of care explained this association. CONCLUSIONS: More-deprived patients have higher crude and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality after emergency laparotomy, but this is not explained by differences in the standards of care recorded within the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória/economia , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Pobreza , Risco Ajustado , Medicina Estatal , Adulto Jovem
9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frontotemporal dementia disorders (FTDs) are heterogeneous phenotypical behavioral and language disorders usually associated with frontal and/or temporal lobe degeneration. We investigated their incidence in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Using a records-linkage system, we identified all patients with a diagnostic code for dementia in Olmsted County, MN, 1995-2010, and confirmed the diagnosis of FTD. A behavioral neurologist verified the clinical diagnosis and determined phenotypes. RESULTS: We identified 35 FTDs cases. Overall, the incidence of FTDs was 4.3/100,000/year (95% CI: 2.9, 5.7). Incidence was higher in men (6.3/100,000, 95% CI 3.6, 9.0) than women (2.9/100,000; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.5); we observed an increased trend over time (B = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11, P < .001). At autopsy, clinical diagnosis was confirmed in eight (72.7%) cases. DISCUSSION: We observed an increased incidence and trends of FTDs over time. This may reflect a better recognition by clinicians and improvement of clinical criteria and diagnostic tools.

10.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 577, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa carries most of the global burden of schistosomiasis. To optimize disease control and reduce morbidity, precise data are needed for control measures adapted to the local epidemiological situation. The objective of this study is to provide baseline information on schistosomiasis dynamics, including praziquantel (PZQ) treatment outcome in children and young adults living in the vicinity of Lambaréné, Gabon. METHODS: Eligible volunteers were included into a prospective longitudinal study. Urine filtration technique was used to detect eggs in urine for schistosomiasis diagnosis. Subjects were treated with 60 mg of PZQ once per month for three consecutive months, and the outcome was assessed by cure rate (CR) and egg reduction rate (ERR). RESULTS: A total of 328 volunteers were enrolled in the study with a mean (± SD) age of 12.2 ± 4.7 years-old. The female-to-male ratio was 0.99. Out of 258 participants in total, 45% had schistosomiasis during the survey and 43% presented with heavy infections. The incidences of haematuria and schistosomiasis were 0.11 and 0.17 person-years, respectively. After the first and third dose of PZQ, overall ERR of 93% and 95% were found, respectively; while the CR were 78% and 88%, respectively. Both ERR (100 vs 88%) and CR (90 vs 68%) were higher among females than males after the first dose. The CR increased for both groups after the third dose to 95% and 80%, respectively. After the first PZQ dose, ERR was higher for heavy compared to light infections (94 vs 89%), while the CR was higher for light than for heavy infections (87 vs 59%). After the third PZQ dose, ERR increased only for light infections to 99%, while CR increased to 98% and 75% for light and for heavy infections, respectively. The reinfection rate assessed at a mean of 44.6 weeks post-treatment was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of schistosomiasis is moderate in communities living in the vicinity of Lambaréné, where a subpopulation with a high risk of reinfection bears most of the burden of the disease. To improve schistosomiasis control in this scenario, we suggest education of these high-risk groups to seek themselves a one-year PZQ treatment. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT02769103. Registered 11 May 2016, retrospectively registered. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02769013.

11.
Cortex ; 124: 33-43, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830664

RESUMO

Primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) is a term used to describe a neurodegenerative condition in which apraxia of speech (AOS; a planning and/or programming deficit) occurs in the absence of aphasia (a language deficit). PPAOS is strongly associated with 4-repeat tau pathology. Elevated flortaucipir ([18F]AV-1451; FTP) uptake has been observed cross-sectionally in patients with PPAOS and those with aphasia. Here, we evaluated longitudinal changes in previously-identified regions of uptake and their relationship with clinical presentation. Thirteen patients who were diagnosed with PPAOS (5 female) at presentation underwent FTP PET imaging at two visits (mean 1 year interval). Median age was 72, with a median of 4 years disease duration at initial testing. Beta-amyloid status was assessed with Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), where a global PiB ratio>1.48 was deemed amyloid positive (n = 4). FTP uptake was assessed as cortical to cerebellar crus ratios (SUVr) in cortical regions of interest. A single hierarchical linear model (HLM) compared PPAOS patients to 52 cognitively unimpaired controls of similar age and sex. Annualized SUVr change was the outcome, predicted by region, clinical status, and age. Person-specific effects accounted for intra-patient correlations and contralateral regions were included as repeated measures. Changes in clinical measures were assessed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests; statistically significant changes in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MDS-UPDRS, motor section, and PSP Rating Scale were noted between visits. Changes in FTP SUVr were greater for patients than controls. The strongest changes in PPAOS patients were in the precentral gyrus, pallidum, and mid and superior frontal gyri, per the HLM. Qualitatively, larger changes were seen in patients who had developed aphasia by the time of their baseline scan (n = 5). While the biological mechanisms of FTP signal in non-AD tauopathies are unknown, this study demonstrates the utility of FTP in tracking disease progression in 4R tauopathies.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ClinicalTrials.gov is used by clinicians and patients to identify clinical trials. We assessed the ease with which users could identify relevant trials related to lymphoma using the short and official titles. We hypothesized that lymphoma titles frequently lack important information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 2 searches on ClinicalTrials.gov. The first search was performed before June 2017, when ClinicalTrials.gov underwent updates to improve usability. The second was performed after 2017. We assessed whether the short and official titles of each trial provided information on the study phase, eligible disease status, lymphoma histologic subtype, study intervention, primary objective, and the presence of randomization and placebo control. RESULTS: Of the pre-overhaul lymphoma trials, the official versus short titles included information regarding study intervention (99% vs. 96%), study phase (82% vs. 14%), lymphoma histologic subtype (78% vs. 72%), disease status (46% vs. 35%), randomization (13% vs. 2%), presence of placebo (6% vs. 2%), and primary objective (38% vs. 26%). Of the post-overhaul trials, the official versus short titles included information regarding study intervention (97% vs. 96%), lymphoma histologic subtype (83% vs. 78%), study phase (78% vs. 8%), disease status (64% vs. 50%), primary objective (38% vs. 23%), presence of placebo (11% vs. 0%), and randomization (18% vs. 0%). CONCLUSION: The official titles were more informative than were the short titles on ClinicalTrials.gov. However, the short and official titles both often lacked the basic information needed to understand a clinical trial. This has persisted despite updates to the platform. These results highlight the need for standardization of the format and content included in study titles.

13.
Blood ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876911

RESUMO

Therapeutic targeting of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) has dramatically improved survival outcomes for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL). Acalabrutinib is an oral, highly selective BTK inhibitor that allows for twice-daily dosing due to its selectivity. In this phase 1b/2 study, 134 patients with relapsed/refractory CLL or SLL (median age, 66 years [range, 42-85]; median prior therapies, 2 [range, 1-13]) received acalabrutinib 100 mg twice daily for a median of 41 months (range, 0.2-58). Median trough BTK occupancy at steady-state was 97%. Most adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate and were most commonly diarrhea (52%) and headache (51%). Grade {greater than or equal to}3 AEs (occurring in {greater than or equal to}5% of patients) were neutropenia (14%), pneumonia (11%), hypertension (7%), anemia (7%), and diarrhea (5%). Atrial fibrillation and major bleeding AEs (all grades) occurred in 7% and 5% of patients, respectively. Most patients (56%) remain on treatment; the primary reasons for discontinuation were progressive disease (21%) and AEs (11%). The overall response rate, including partial response with lymphocytosis, with acalabrutinib was 94%; responses were similar regardless of genomic features (presence of del(11)(q22.3), del(17)(p13.1), complex karyotype, or immunoglobulin variable region heavy chain mutation status). Median duration of response and progression-free survival (PFS) have not been reached; the estimated 45-month PFS was 62% (95% CI, 51%-71%). BTK mutation was detected in 6/9 (67%) patients at relapse. This updated and expanded study confirms the efficacy, durability of response, and long-term safety of acalabrutinib, justifying its further investigation in previously untreated and treated patients with CLL/SLL. (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02029443).

14.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(48): 10131-10141, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693365

RESUMO

Direct time-domain simulation of continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra from molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories has become increasingly popular, especially for proteins labeled with nitroxide spin labels. Due to the time-consuming nature of simulating adequately long MD trajectories, two approximate methods have been developed to reduce the MD-trajectory length required for modeling EPR spectra: hindered Brownian diffusion (HBD) and hidden Markov models (HMMs). Here, we assess the accuracy of these two approximate methods relative to direct simulations from MD trajectories for three spin-labeled protein systems (a simple helical peptide, a soluble protein, and a membrane protein) and two nitroxide spin labels with differing mobilities (R1 and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (TOAC)). We find that the HMMs generally outperform HBD. Although R1 dynamics partially resembles hindered Brownian diffusion, HMMs accommodate the multiple dynamic time scales for the transitions between rotameric states of R1 that cannot be captured accurately by a HBD model. The MD trajectories of the TOAC-labeled proteins show that its dynamics closely resembles slow multisite exchange between twist-boat and chair ring puckering states. This motion is modeled well by HMM but not by HBD. All MD-trajectory data processing, stochastic trajectory simulations, and CW EPR spectral simulations are implemented in EasySpin, a free software package for MATLAB.

15.
J Palliat Med ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633432

RESUMO

Background: The prognosis of an aggressive lymphoma can change dramatically following failure of first-line treatment. This sudden shift is challenging for the promotion of illness understanding and advance care planning (ACP). Yet, little is known about illness understanding and ACP in patients with aggressive lymphomas. Objective: To examine illness understanding, rates of engagement in ACP, and reasons for lack of ACP engagement in patients with advanced B cell lymphomas. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Setting/Subjects: Patients (n = 27) with aggressive B cell lymphomas that relapsed after first- or second-line treatment treated at a single urban academic medical center. Measurements: Participants were administered structured surveys by trained staff to obtain self-report measures of illness understanding (i.e., aggressiveness, terminality, curability) and ACP (i.e., discussions of care preferences, completion of advance directives). Results: The majority of patients reported discussing curability (92.6%), prognosis (77.8%), and treatment goals (88.9%) with their medical team. Yet, less than one-third of patients reported being terminally ill (29.6%) and having incurable disease (22.2%). Most patients had a health care proxy (81.5%) and had decided about do-not-resuscitate status (63%), but the majority had not completed a living will (65.4%) or discussed their care preferences with others (55.6%). Conclusions: The accuracy of lymphoma patients' illness understanding following first-line treatment is difficult to determine due to the potential for cure following transplant. However, this study suggests that a large proportion of patients with advanced B cell lymphomas may underestimate the severity of their illness, despite discussing illness severity with their medical team. Providing patients with information on prognosis, and the ACP process may increase engagement in ACP.

16.
Support Care Cancer ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578643

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cachexia is a wasting condition affecting approximately 50% of cancer patients, associated with decreased quality of life and survival. Barwon Health's Cachexia and Nutrition Support Service provides person-centred interdisciplinary care to assist the management of cachexia symptoms. This study describes a novel and effective service model established in a regional cachexia clinic and the patient population it serves. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective longitudinal study was conducted of records from patients attending Barwon Health between 2008 and 2013 (n = 175), alongside the description of service refinement over this time. Patients with ≥ 2 attendance dates were assessed for anthropometric measures, follow-up intervals, and muscle function outcomes to describe patient trajectory during clinic involvement. RESULTS: This is the first detailed description of a successful interdisciplinary clinic specific to cancer cachexia management, where patients are seen outside established 8- to 12-week structured programs which prevail in other cachexia clinics. Seventy-five patients (43%) attended one appointment only, with almost half of these (n = 33) first attending within 60 days of death. Of the 99 patients with two or more appointments, 49% displayed positive outcomes with > 2-kg weight gain between two consecutive appointments, and > 50% improved functional strength between two consecutive appointments. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients attending clinic multiple times maintained or increased weight and functional status during their involvement with the service. However, successes of care provision were muted by high attrition, primarily due to delayed referral and expected high mortality within the study cohort. Planned future analyses with greater patient numbers and cancer stratification will establish cachectic populations most likely to benefit from this novel mode of interdisciplinary care. The Cachexia and Nutrition Support Service provides an effective and efficient service model for the provision of specialist cachexia care to community-dwelling patients in regional Australia.

17.
Brain ; 142(11): 3621-3635, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562527

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been recognized as a major protein in normal and pathological ageing, increasing the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. In conditions distinct from the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, TDP-43 appears to progress in a stereotypical pattern. In the present study, we aimed at providing a better understanding of the effects of TDP-43 and other age-related neuropathologies on cross-sectional grey matter volume in a cohort of non-FTLD subjects. We included 407 individuals with an antemortem MRI and post-mortem brain tissue from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry, or the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. All individuals were assigned pathological stages for TDP-43, tau, amyloid-ß, Lewy bodies, argyrophilic grain disease and vascular pathologies. Robust regressions were performed in regions of interest and voxel-wise to explore the relationships between TDP-43 stages and grey matter volume while controlling for other pathologies. Grey matter volumes adjusted for pathological and demographic variables were also computed for each TDP-43-positive case to further characterize the sequential involvement of brain structures associated with TDP-43, irrespective of the TDP-43 staging scheme. Robust regressions showed that the extent of TDP-43 pathology was associated with the extent of grey matter atrophy. Specifically, we found that the volume in medial temporal regions (i.e. amygdala, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus) decreased progressively with advancing TDP-43 stages. Importantly, these effects were of similar magnitude to those related to tau stages. Additional analyses using adjusted grey matter volume demonstrated a sequential pattern of volume loss associated with TDP-43, starting within the medial temporal lobe, followed by early involvement of the temporal pole, and eventually encompassing additional temporal and frontal regions. Altogether, this study demonstrates the major and independent contribution of TDP-43 pathology on neurodegeneration and provides further insight into the regional distribution of TDP-43 in non-FTLD subjects. Along with previous studies, these findings emphasized the importance of targeting TDP-43 in future clinical trials to prevent its detrimental effect on grey matter volume and, eventually, cognition.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487922

RESUMO

In response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, there has occurred the unabated growth in the number of airborne platforms developed to perform radiation mapping-each utilising various designs of a low-altitude uncrewed aerial vehicle. Alongside the associated advancements in the airborne system transporting the radiation detection payload, from the earliest radiological analyses performed using gas-filled Geiger-Muller tube detectors, modern radiation detection and mapping platforms are now based near-exclusively on solid-state scintillator detectors. With numerous varieties of such light-emitting crystalline materials now in existence, this combined desk and computational modelling study sought to evaluate the best-available detector material compatible with the requirements for low-altitude autonomous radiation detection, localisation and subsequent high spatial-resolution mapping of both naturally occurring and anthropogenically-derived radionuclides. The ideal geometry of such detector materials is also evaluated. While NaI and CsI (both elementally doped) are (and will likely remain) the mainstays of radiation detection, LaBr3 scintillation detectors were determined to possess not only a greater sensitivity to incident gamma-ray radiation, but also a far superior spectral (energy) resolution over existing and other potentially deployable detector materials. Combined with their current competitive cost, an array of three such composition cylindrical detectors were determined to provide the best means of detecting and discriminating the various incident gamma-rays.

19.
Brain Lang ; 197: 104676, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419589

RESUMO

Many patients who meet core/root criteria for Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) are not classifiable as a recognized variant and are often excluded from neuroimaging studies. Here, we detail neurological, neuropsychological, speech and language assessments, and anatomic and molecular neuroimaging (MRI, PiB-PET, and FDG-PET) for fifteen (8 female) clinically unclassifiable PPA patients. Median age of onset was 64 years old with median 3 years disease duration at exam. Three patients were amyloid positive on PiB-PET. 14/15 patients had abnormal FDG-PETs with left predominant hypometabolism, affecting frontal, temporal, parietal, and even occipital lobes. Patients had mild to severe clinical presentations. Visualization of the FDG-PETs principal component analysis revealed patterns of hypometabolism similar to those seen in the PPA variants and suggests the brain regions affected in unclassifiable PPA patients are no different from those who are more easily classifiable. These findings may inform future modifications to the diagnostic criteria to improve diagnostic classification.

20.
NPJ Digit Med ; 2: 67, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396561

RESUMO

We developed a digitally enabled care pathway for acute kidney injury (AKI) management incorporating a mobile detection application, specialist clinical response team and care protocol. Clinical outcome data were collected from adults with AKI on emergency admission before (May 2016 to January 2017) and after (May to September 2017) deployment at the intervention site and another not receiving the intervention. Changes in primary outcome (serum creatinine recovery to ≤120% baseline at hospital discharge) and secondary outcomes (30-day survival, renal replacement therapy, renal or intensive care unit (ICU) admission, worsening AKI stage and length of stay) were measured using interrupted time-series regression. Processes of care data (time to AKI recognition, time to treatment) were extracted from casenotes, and compared over two 9-month periods before and after implementation (January to September 2016 and 2017, respectively) using pre-post analysis. There was no step change in renal recovery or any of the secondary outcomes. Trends for creatinine recovery rates (estimated odds ratio (OR) = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.00-1.08, p = 0.038) and renal or ICU admission (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.90-1.00, p = 0.044) improved significantly at the intervention site. However, difference-in-difference analyses between sites for creatinine recovery (estimated OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.90-1.00, p = 0.053) and renal or ICU admission (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98-1.16, p = 0.140) were not significant. Among process measures, time to AKI recognition and treatment of nephrotoxicity improved significantly (p < 0.001 and 0.047 respectively).

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