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1.
Epidemiology ; 33(1): 7-16, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, previous studies focused on a priori time intervals such as trimesters reported inconsistent associations. OBJECTIVES: We investigated time-varying vulnerability of birth weight to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using flexible time intervals. METHODS: We analyzed 1,300 live, full-term births from Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals, a Canadian prospective pregnancy cohort spanning 10 cities (2008-2011). Daily PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations were estimated from ground-level monitoring, satellite models, and land-use regression, and assigned to participants from pre-pregnancy through delivery. We developed a flexible two-stage modeling method-using a Bayesian Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and empirical density threshold-to identify time-dependent vulnerability to air pollution without specifying exposure periods a priori. This approach identified critical windows with varying lengths (2-363 days) and critical windows that fell within, or straddled, predetermined time periods (i.e., trimesters). We adjusted the models for detailed infant and maternal covariates. RESULTS: Critical windows associated with reduced birth weight were identified during mid- to late-pregnancy for both PM2.5 and NO2: -6 g (95% credible interval: -11, -1 g) and -5 g (-10, -0.1 g) per µg/m3 PM2.5 during gestational days 91-139 and 249-272, respectively; and -3 g (-5, -1 g) per ppb NO2 during days 55-145. DISCUSSION: We used a novel, flexible selection method to identify critical windows when maternal exposures to air pollution were associated with decrements in birth weight. Our results suggest that air pollution impacts on fetal development may not be adequately captured by trimester-based analyses.

2.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111975, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478722

RESUMO

We used a large national cohort in Canada to assess the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke hospitalizations in association with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3). The study population comprised 2.7 million respondents from the 2006 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), followed for incident hospitalizations of AMI or stroke between 2006 and 2016. We estimated 10-year moving average estimates of PM2.5, NO2, and O3, annually. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the associations adjusting for various covariates. For AMI, each interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure was found to be associated with a hazard ratio of 1.026 (95% CI: 1.007-1.046) for PM2.5, 1.025 (95% CI: 1.001-1.050) for NO2, and 1.062 (95% CI: 1.041-1.084) for O3, respectively. Similarly, for stroke, an IQR increase in exposure was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.078 (95% CI: 1.052-1.105) for PM2.5, 0.995 (95% CI: 0.965-1.030) for NO2, and 1.055 (95% CI: 1.028-1.082) for O3, respectively. We found consistent evidence of positive associations between long-term exposures to PM2.5, and O3, and to a lesser degree NO2, with incident AMI and stroke hospitalizations.

3.
Geohealth ; 5(11): e2021GH000431, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765851

RESUMO

Air pollution levels are uneven within cities, contributing to persistent health disparities between neighborhoods and population sub-groups. Highly spatially resolved information on pollution levels and disease rates is necessary to characterize inequities in air pollution exposure and related health risks. We leverage recent advances in deriving surface pollution levels from satellite remote sensing and granular data in disease rates for one city, Washington, DC, to assess intra-urban heterogeneity in fine particulate matter (PM2.5)- attributable mortality and morbidity. We estimate PM2.5-attributable cases of all-cause mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, stroke, and asthma emergency department (ED) visits using epidemiologically derived health impact functions. Data inputs include satellite-derived annual mean surface PM2.5 concentrations; age-resolved population estimates; and statistical neighborhood-, zip code- and ward-scale disease counts. We find that PM2.5 concentrations and associated health burdens have decreased in DC between 2000 and 2018, from approximately 240 to 120 cause-specific deaths and from 40 to 30 asthma ED visits per year (between 2014 and 2018). However, remaining PM2.5-attributable health risks are unevenly and inequitably distributed across the District. Higher PM2.5-attributable disease burdens were found in neighborhoods with larger proportions of people of color, lower household income, and lower educational attainment. Our study adds to the growing body of literature documenting the inequity in air pollution exposure levels and pollution health risks between population sub-groups, and highlights the need for both high-resolution disease rates and concentration estimates for understanding intra-urban disparities in air pollution-related health risks.

4.
Environ Int ; 158: 106969, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass has been associated with adverse health effects. However, the health effects of PM2.5 components have been less studied. There is a pressing need to better understand the relative contribution of components of PM2.5, which can lay the scientific basis for designing effective policies and targeted interventions. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study, comprising all Medicare enrollees aged 65 or older in the southeastern United States from 2000 to 2016, to explore the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 major components and all-cause mortality among the elderly. Based on well-validated prediction models, we estimated ZIP code-level annual mean concentrations for five major PM2.5 components, including black carbon (BC), nitrate (NIT), organic matter (OM), sulfate (SO4), and soil particles. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 13,590,387 Medicare enrollees and a total of 107,191,652 person-years. In single-component models, all five major PM2.5 components were significantly associated with elevated all-cause mortality. The hazard ratios (HR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure were 1.027 (95% CI: 1.025-1.030), 1.012 (95% CI: 1.010-1.013), 1.018 (95% CI: 1.017-1.020), 1.021 (95% CI: 1.017-1.024), and 1.004 (95% CI: 1.003-1.006) for BC, NIT, OM, SO4, and soil particles, respectively. While the effect estimate of soil component was statistically significant, it is much smaller than those of combustion-related components. CONCLUSION: Our study provides epidemiological evidence that long-term exposure to major PM2.5 components is significantly associated with elevated mortality.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(22): 15287-15300, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724610

RESUMO

Annual global satellite-based estimates of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are widely relied upon for air-quality assessment. Here, we develop and apply a methodology for monthly estimates and uncertainties during the period 1998-2019, which combines satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth, chemical transport modeling, and ground-based measurements to allow for the characterization of seasonal and episodic exposure, as well as aid air-quality management. Many densely populated regions have their highest PM2.5 concentrations in winter, exceeding summertime concentrations by factors of 1.5-3.0 over Eastern Europe, Western Europe, South Asia, and East Asia. In South Asia, in January, regional population-weighted monthly mean PM2.5 concentrations exceed 90 µg/m3, with local concentrations of approximately 200 µg/m3 for parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In East Asia, monthly mean PM2.5 concentrations have decreased over the period 2010-2019 by 1.6-2.6 µg/m3/year, with decreases beginning 2-3 years earlier in summer than in winter. We find evidence that global-monitored locations tend to be in cleaner regions than global mean PM2.5 exposure, with large measurement gaps in the Global South. Uncertainty estimates exhibit regional consistency with observed differences between ground-based and satellite-derived PM2.5. The evaluation of uncertainty for agglomerated values indicates that hybrid PM2.5 estimates provide precise regional-scale representation, with residual uncertainty inversely proportional to the sample size.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Incerteza
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(46)2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753820

RESUMO

The COVID-19 global pandemic and associated government lockdowns dramatically altered human activity, providing a window into how changes in individual behavior, enacted en masse, impact atmospheric composition. The resulting reductions in anthropogenic activity represent an unprecedented event that yields a glimpse into a future where emissions to the atmosphere are reduced. Furthermore, the abrupt reduction in emissions during the lockdown periods led to clearly observable changes in atmospheric composition, which provide direct insight into feedbacks between the Earth system and human activity. While air pollutants and greenhouse gases share many common anthropogenic sources, there is a sharp difference in the response of their atmospheric concentrations to COVID-19 emissions changes, due in large part to their different lifetimes. Here, we discuss several key takeaways from modeling and observational studies. First, despite dramatic declines in mobility and associated vehicular emissions, the atmospheric growth rates of greenhouse gases were not slowed, in part due to decreased ocean uptake of CO2 and a likely increase in CH4 lifetime from reduced NO x emissions. Second, the response of O3 to decreased NO x emissions showed significant spatial and temporal variability, due to differing chemical regimes around the world. Finally, the overall response of atmospheric composition to emissions changes is heavily modulated by factors including carbon-cycle feedbacks to CH4 and CO2, background pollutant levels, the timing and location of emissions changes, and climate feedbacks on air quality, such as wildfires and the ozone climate penalty.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Atmosfera/química , COVID-19/psicologia , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Modelos Teóricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Metano , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Ozônio
7.
BMJ ; 375: n2368, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between changes in long term residential exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and premature mortality in Canada. DESIGN: Population based quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 663 100 respondents to the 1996, 2001, and 2006 Canadian censuses aged 25-89 years who had consistently lived in areas with either high or low PM2.5 levels over five years preceding census day and moved during the ensuing five years. INTERVENTIONS: Changes in long term exposure to PM2.5 arising from residential mobility. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was deaths from natural causes. Secondary outcomes were deaths from any cardiometabolic cause, any respiratory cause, and any cancer cause. All outcomes were obtained from the national vital statistics database. RESULTS: Using a propensity score matching technique with numerous personal, socioeconomic, health, and environment related covariates, each participant who moved to a different PM2.5 area was matched with up to three participants who moved within the same PM2.5 area. In the matched groups that moved from high to intermediate or low PM2.5 areas, residential mobility was associated with a decline in annual PM2.5 exposure from 10.6 µg/m3 to 7.4 and 5.0 µg/m3, respectively. Conversely, in the matched groups that moved from low to intermediate or high PM2.5 areas, annual PM2.5 increased from 4.6 µg/m3 to 6.7 and 9.2 µg/m3. Five years after moving, individuals who experienced a reduction in exposure to PM2.5 from high to intermediate levels showed a 6.8% (95% confidence interval 1.7% to 11.7%) reduction in mortality (2510 deaths in 56 025 v 4925 deaths in 101 960). A greater decline in mortality occurred among those exposed to a larger reduction in PM2.5. Increased mortality was found with exposure to PM2.5 from low to high levels, and to a lesser degree from low to intermediate levels. Furthermore, the decreases in PM2.5 exposure were most strongly associated with reductions in cardiometabolic deaths, whereas the increases in PM2.5 exposure were mostly related to respiratory deaths. No strong evidence was found for the changes in PM2.5 exposure with cancer related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In Canada, decreases in PM2.5 were associated with lower mortality, whereas increases in PM2.5 were associated with higher mortality. These results were observed at PM2.5 levels considerably lower than many other countries, providing support for continuously improving air quality.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Censos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Environ Int ; 156: 106739, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and infant mortality in developing countries, especially for the health effects of specific PM2.5 constituents. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association of long-term exposure to specific PM2.5 constituents with infant mortality in 15 African countries from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: Based on the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) dataset, we included birth history records from 15 countries in Africa and conducted a multicountry cross-sectional study to examine the associations between specific PM2.5 constituents and infant mortality. We estimated annual residential exposure using satellite-derived PM2.5 for mass and a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) for its six constituents, including organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and soil dust (DUST). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed by fitting single-constituent models, the constituent-PM2.5 models, and the constituent-residual models. We also conducted stratified analyses by potential effect modifiers and examined the specific associations for each country. RESULTS: We found positive and significant associations between PM2.5 total mass and most of its constituents with infant mortality. In the single-constituent model, for an IQR increase in pollutant concentrations, the odds ratio (OR) of infant mortality was 1.03 (95 %CI; 1.01, 1.06) for PM2.5 total mass, and was 1.04 (95 %CI: 1.02, 1.06), 1.04 (95 %CI: 1.02, 1.05), 1.02 (95 %CI: 1.00, 1.03), 1.04 (1.01, 1.06) for BC, OM, SO42-, and DUST, respectively. The associations of BC, OM, and SO42- remained significant in the other two models. We observed larger estimates in subgroups with older maternal age, living in urban areas, using unclean cooking energy, and with access to piped water. The associations varied among countries, and by different constituents. CONCLUSIONS: The carbonaceous fractions and sulfate play a major important role among PM2.5 constituents on infant mortality. Our findings have certain policy implications for implementing effective measures for targeted reduction in specific sources (fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning) of PM2.5 constituents against the risk of infant mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , África/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(14): 9750-9760, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241996

RESUMO

Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is a leading contributor to the overall global burden of disease. Traditionally, outdoor PM2.5 has been characterized using mass concentrations which treat all particles as equally harmful. Oxidative potential (OP) (per µg) and oxidative burden (OB) (per m3) are complementary metrics that estimate the ability of PM2.5 to cause oxidative stress, which is an important mechanism in air pollution health effects. Here, we provide the first national estimates of spatial variations in multiple measures (glutathione, ascorbate, and dithiothreitol depletion) of annual median outdoor PM2.5 OB across Canada. To do this, we combined a large database of ground-level OB measurements collected monthly prospectively across Canada for 2 years (2016-2018) with PM2.5 components estimated using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and satellite aerosol observations. Our predicted ground-level OB values of all three methods were consistent with ground-level observations (cross-validation R2 = 0.63-0.74). We found that forested regions and urban areas had the highest OB, predicted primarily by black carbon and organic carbon from wildfires and transportation sources. Importantly, the dominant components associated with OB were different than those contributing to PM2.5 mass concentrations (secondary inorganic aerosol); thus, OB metrics may better indicate harmful components and sources on health than the bulk PM2.5 mass, reinforcing that OB estimates can complement the existing PM2.5 data in future national-level epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análise
10.
Environ Int ; 156: 106707, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182192

RESUMO

The associations of long-term exposure to various constituents of fine particulate matter (≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) air pollution with lung function were not clearly elucidated in developing countries. The aim was to evaluate the associations of long-term exposure to main constituents of PM2.5 with lung function in China. This is a nationwide, cross-sectional analysis among 50,991 study participants from the China Pulmonary Health study. Multivariable linear regression models were used to obtain differences of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of exhaled FVC (FEF25-75%) associated with an interquartile range (IQR) change of PM2.5 or its constituents. Residential annual PM2.5 levels varied from 26 µg/m3 to 92 µg/m3 (average: 53 µg/m3). An IQR increase of PM2.5 concentrations was associated with lower FEV1 (19.82 mL, 95% CI: 11.30-28.33), FVC (17.45 mL, 95% CI: 7.16-27.74), PEF (86.64 mL/s, 95% CI: 59.77-113.52), and FEF25-75% (31.93 mL/s, 95% CI: 16.64-47.22). Black carbon, organic matter, ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate were negatively associated with most lung function indicators, with organic matter and nitrate showing consistently larger magnitude of associations than PM2.5 mass. This large-scale study provides first-hand epidemiological evidence that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and some constituents, especially organic matter and nitrate, were associated with lower large- and small- airway function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3594, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127654

RESUMO

Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is the world's leading environmental health risk factor. Reducing the PM2.5 disease burden requires specific strategies that target dominant sources across multiple spatial scales. We provide a contemporary and comprehensive evaluation of sector- and fuel-specific contributions to this disease burden across 21 regions, 204 countries, and 200 sub-national areas by integrating 24 global atmospheric chemistry-transport model sensitivity simulations, high-resolution satellite-derived PM2.5 exposure estimates, and disease-specific concentration response relationships. Globally, 1.05 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.74-1.36) million deaths were avoidable in 2017 by eliminating fossil-fuel combustion (27.3% of the total PM2.5 burden), with coal contributing to over half. Other dominant global sources included residential (0.74 [0.52-0.95] million deaths; 19.2%), industrial (0.45 [0.32-0.58] million deaths; 11.7%), and energy (0.39 [0.28-0.51] million deaths; 10.2%) sectors. Our results show that regions with large anthropogenic contributions generally had the highest attributable deaths, suggesting substantial health benefits from replacing traditional energy sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Combustíveis Fósseis , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar , Doença , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Indústrias , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Sci Adv ; 7(26)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162552

RESUMO

Lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine the effects of human activity on air quality. The effects on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are of particular interest, as PM2.5 is the leading environmental risk factor for mortality globally. We map global PM2.5 concentrations for January to April 2020 with a focus on China, Europe, and North America using a combination of satellite data, simulation, and ground-based observations. We examine PM2.5 concentrations during lockdown periods in 2020 compared to the same periods in 2018 to 2019. We find changes in population-weighted mean PM2.5 concentrations during the lockdowns of -11 to -15 µg/m3 across China, +1 to -2 µg/m3 across Europe, and 0 to -2 µg/m3 across North America. We explain these changes through a combination of meteorology and emission reductions, mostly due to transportation. This work demonstrates regional differences in the sensitivity of PM2.5 to emission sources.

13.
Environ Res ; 201: 111554, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including disease aggravation in Parkinson's disease (PD), but associations with specific PM2.5 components have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association between specific PM2.5 components and PD first hospitalization, a surrogate for disease aggravation. METHODS: We obtained data on hospitalizations from the New York Department of Health Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (2000-2014) to calculate annual first PD hospitalization counts in New York State per county. We used well-validated prediction models at 1 km2 resolution to estimate county level population-weighted annual black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), nitrate, sulfate, sea salt (SS), and soil particle concentrations. We then used a multi-pollutant mixed quasi-Poisson model with county-specific random intercepts to estimate rate ratios (RR) of one-year exposure to each PM2.5 component and PD disease aggravation. We evaluated potential nonlinear exposure-outcome relationships using penalized splines and accounted for potential confounders. RESULTS: We observed a total of 197,545 PD first hospitalizations in NYS from 2000 to 2014. The annual average count per county was 212 first hospitalizations. The RR (95% confidence interval) for PD aggravation was 1.06 (1.03, 1.10) per one standard deviation (SD) increase in nitrate concentrations and 1.06 (1.04, 1.09) for the corresponding increase in OM concentrations. We also found a nonlinear inverse association between PD aggravation and BC at concentrations above the 96th percentile. We found a marginal association with SS and no association with sulfate or soil exposure. CONCLUSION: In this study, we detected associations between the PM2.5 components OM and nitrate with PD disease aggravation. Our findings support that PM2.5 adverse effects on PD may vary by particle composition.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença de Parkinson , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia
14.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130740, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162086

RESUMO

Few cohort studies explored the associations of long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) and its chemical constituents with mortality risk in rural China. We conducted a 12-year prospective study of 28,793 adults in rural Deqing, China from 2006 to 2018. Annual mean PM2.5 and its constituents, including black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), and soil dust were measured at participants' addresses at enrollment from a satellite-based exposure predicting model. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of long-term exposure to PM2.5 for mortality. A total of 1960 deaths were identified during the follow-up. We found PM2.5, BC, OC, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- were significantly associated with an increased risk of non-accidental mortality. The HR for non-accidental mortality was 1.17 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.28) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5. As for constituents, the strongest association was found for BC (HR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.11, 1.33), followed by NO3-, NH4+, SO42-, and OC (HR = 1.14-1.17 per interquartile range). A non-linear relationship was found between PM2.5 and non-accidental mortality. Similar associations were found for cardio-cerebrovascular and cancer mortality. Associations were stronger among men and ever smokers. Conclusively, we found long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and its chemical constituents (especially BC and NO3-) increased mortality risk. Our results suggested the importance of adopting effective targeted emission control to improve air quality for health protection in rural East China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Environ Int ; 154: 106564, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecologic analyses suggest that living in areas with higher levels of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Studies accounting for individual-level health characteristics are lacking. METHODS: We leveraged the breadth and depth of the US Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare databases and built a national cohort of 169,102 COVID-19 positive United States Veterans, enrolled between March 2, 2020 and January 31, 2021, and followed them through February 15, 2021. Annual average 2018 PM2.5 exposure, at an approximately 1 km2 resolution, was linked with residential street address at the year prior to COVID-19 positive test. COVID-19 hospitalization was defined as first hospital admission between 7 days prior to, and 15 days after, the first COVID-19 positive date. Adjusted Poisson regression assessed the association of PM2.5 with risk of hospitalization. RESULTS: There were 25,422 (15.0%) hospitalizations; 5,448 (11.9%), 5,056 (13.0%), 7,159 (16.1%), and 7,759 (19.4%) were in the lowest to highest PM2.5 quartile, respectively. In models adjusted for State, demographic and behavioral factors, contextual characteristics, and characteristics of the pandemic a one interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (1.9 µg/m3) was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 8%-12%) increase in risk of hospitalization. The association of PM2.5 and risk of hospitalization among COVID-19 individuals was present in each wave of the pandemic. Models of non-linear exposure-response suggested increased risk at PM2.5 concentrations below the national standard 12 µg/m3. Formal effect modification analyses suggested higher risk of hospitalization associated with PM2.5 in Black people compared to White people (p = 0.045), and in those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to higher levels of PM2.5 was associated with increased risk of hospitalization among COVID-19 infected individuals. The risk was evident at PM2.5 levels below the regulatory standards. The analysis identified those of Black race and those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods as population groups that may be more susceptible to the untoward effect of PM2.5 on risk of hospitalization in the setting of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Res ; 199: 111302, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019894

RESUMO

Owing to their greater outdoor activity and ongoing lung development, children are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, the effects of PM2.5 components are poorly understood. This study aimed to use a longitudinal birth cohort of children with physician-diagnosed incident asthma to investigate the effect of PM2.5 components at birth on morbidity measured by health services utilization. Of 1277 Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire (T-CHEQ) participants, the study population included 362 children diagnosed with asthma who were followed for a mean of 13 years from birth until March 31, 2016, or loss-to-follow-up. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its components were assigned based on participants' postal codes at birth. Study outcomes included counts of asthma, asthma-related, and all-cause health services use. Poisson regression in single-, two-, and multi-pollutant models was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase of exposures. Covariates were included in all models to further adjust for potential confounding. The adjusted RR for sulfate (SO4) and all-cause hospitalizations was statistically significant with RR = 2.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.96) in a multi-pollutant model with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). In multi-pollutant models with oxidants, the adjusted RRs for SO4 of all-cause hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits were also statistically significant with RR = 2.31 (95% CI: 1.32-4.03) and RR = 1.39 (95% CI: 1.02-1.90), respectively. While unadjusted single-pollutant RRs for asthma-specific and asthma-related health services use with the SO4 component of PM2.5 were above one, none were statistically significant. This study found significant associations with exposure to SO4 in PM2.5 and all-cause acute care, chiefly for hospitalizations, in children with asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
17.
Environ Int ; 154: 106570, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with increased mortality. However, updated evidence from cohort studies with detailed information on various risk factors is needed, especially in regions with low air pollution levels. We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality in a prospective cohort. METHODS: We studied 88,615 participants aged ≥30 years from an ongoing cohort study in Ontario, Canada from 2009 to 2017. Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated at participants' residence. Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the associations between air pollution and non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, adjusted for a wide array of individual-level and contextual covariates. Potential effect modification by socio-demographic and behavioral factors was also examined in exploratory stratified analyses. RESULTS: The fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) per 1 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 were 1.037 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.018, 1.057]¸ 1.083 (95% CI: 1.040, 1.128) and 1.109 (95% CI: 1.035, 1.187) for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Positive associations were also found for NO2; the corresponding HRs per 1 ppb increment were 1.027 (95% CI: 1.021, 1.034), 1.032 (95% CI: 1.019, 1.046) and 1.044 (95% CI: 1.020, 1.068). We found suggestive evidence of stronger associations in physically active participants, smokers, and those with lower household income. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 was associated with increased risks for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, suggesting potential benefits of further improvement in air quality even in low-exposure environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Environ Int ; 154: 106580, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) might be associated with adverse birth outcomes in offspring. However, evidence with regard to the effects of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and, especially, its main chemical constituents on offspring's weight in childhood is limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to examine associations of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 total mass and its chemical constituents in each trimester with children's weight from birth to 6 years of age using data from Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort Study. METHODS: A total of 1,084 mother-infant pairs were included with both PM2.5 exposure data and at least one measurement of weight and height. Weight-for-Length (WLZ), BMI-for-Age (BMIz), and Weight-for-Age (WAZ) z-scores were generated according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Exposure to PM2.5 total mass and its chemical constituents [organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), and soil dust (SOIL)] during pregnancy was estimated from a satellite based modelling framework. We used multiple informant model to estimate the associations of trimester-specific PM2.5 total mass and its specific constituents concentrations with WLZ/BMIz and WAZ of offspring at birth and 1, 4, and 6 years of age. RESULTS: In multiple informant model, we observed consistent patterns of associations between exposure to PM2.5 total mass, OC, BC, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and decreased WLZ/BMIz and WAZ at 1, 4, and 6 years of age in boys. We observed associations between prenatal exposure to PM2.5 total mass, NH4+, and NO3- during the 1st and 2nd trimesters and increased WLZ/BMIz and WAZ in girls at birth. However, there were null associations at 1 and 4 years of age and inverse associations at 6 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to PM2.5 total mass and its main chemical constituents was associated with decreased weight in boys from 1 to 6 years of age, with increased weight at birth and decreased weight at 6 years of age in girls. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and its chemical constituents may have a lasting effect on offspring's weight in childhood.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47003, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence and studies of children and adolescents suggest that ambient fine particulate matter [particulate matter ≤2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] air pollution may be obesogenic, but the relationship between PM2.5 and the risk of body weight gain and obesity in adults is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to characterize the association between PM2.5 and the risks of weight gain and obesity. METHODS: We followed 3,902,440 U.S. Veterans from 2010 to 2018 (median 8.1 y, interquartile range: 7.3-8.4) and assigned time-updated PM2.5 exposures by linking geocoded residential street addresses with satellite-based estimates of surface-level PM2.5 mass (at ∼1-km2 resolution). Associations with PM2.5 were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models for incident obesity [body mass index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2] and a 10-lb increase in weight relative to baseline and linear mixed models for associations with intra-individual changes in BMI and weight. RESULTS: A 10-µg/m3 higher average annual PM2.5 concentration was associated with risk of incident obesity [n=2,325,769; hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.11)] and the risk of a 10-lb (4.54 kg) increase in weight [HR=1.07 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.08)] and with higher intra-individual changes in BMI [0.140 kg/m2 per year (95% CI: 0.139, 0.142)] and weight [0.968 lb/y (95% CI: 0.955, 0.981)]. Nonlinear exposure-response models indicated associations at PM2.5 concentrations below the national standard of 12 µg/m3. As expected, a negative exposure control (ambient air sodium) was not associated with obesity or weight gain. Associations were consistent in direction and magnitude across sensitivity analyses that included alternative outcomes and exposures assigned at different spatial resolutions. DISCUSSION: PM2.5 air pollution was associated with the risk of obesity and weight gain in a large predominantly male cohort of U.S. Veterans. Discussions about health effects of PM2.5 should include its association with obesity, and deliberations about the epidemiology of obesity should consider its association with PM2.5. Investigation in other cohorts will deepen our understanding of the relationship between PM2.5 and weight gain and obesity. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7944.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Veteranos , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso
20.
Environ Int ; 152: 106486, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have found positive associations between outdoor fine particulate air pollution (≤2.5 µm, PM2.5) and childhood asthma incidence. However, the impact of PM2.5 composition on children's respiratory health remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether joint exposure to PM2.5 mass concentrations and its major chemical components was associated with childhood asthma development. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study by identifying 1,130,855 singleton live births occurring between 2006 and 2014 in the province of Ontario, Canada. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its seven major chemical components were assigned to participants based on their postal codes using chemical transport models and remote sensing. The joint impact of outdoor PM2.5 concentrations and its major components and childhood asthma incidence (up to age 6) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, allowing for potential nonlinearity. RESULTS: We identified 167,080 children who developed asthma before age 6. In adjusted models, outdoor PM2.5 mass concentrations during childhood were associated with increased incidence of childhood asthma (Hazard Ratio (HR) for each 1 µg/m3 increase = 1.026, 95% CI: 1.021-1.031). We found that the joint effects of PM2.5 and its components on childhood asthma incidence may be 24% higher than the conventional approach. Specific components/source markers such as black carbon, ammonium, and nitrate appeared to play an important role. CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure to PM2.5 and its chemical components is associated with an increased risk of asthma development in children. The heterogeneous nature of PM2.5 should be considered in future health risk assessments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Ontário/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
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