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1.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Challenges can exist when framing the decision question in a cost-effectiveness analysis, particularly when there is disagreement among experts on relevant comparators. Using prostate cancer screening and recent developments in risk stratification, early-detection biomarkers, and diagnostic technologies as a case study, we report a modified Delphi approach to handle decision-question uncertainty. METHODS: The study involved two rounds of anonymous online questionnaires to identify the prostate cancer screening strategies that international researchers, clinicians and decision makers felt important to consider in a cost-effectiveness model. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit experts. The questionnaire was based on a review of the literature and was piloted for language, comprehension and ease of use prior to dissemination. In Round 1, respondents indicated their preferred screening strategy (including no screening) through a series of multiple-choice questions. The responses informed a set of 13 consensus statements, which respondents ranked their agreement with on a 9-point Likert scale (Round 2). Consensus was considered reached if > 70% of participants indicated agreement and < 15% indicated disagreement. RESULTS: Twenty participants completed Round 1 and 17 completed Round 2. Consensus was shown towards comparing no formal screening, age-based, and risk-based strategies. The risk-based approaches included screening only higher-risk men, using shorter screening intervals for higher-risk men, screening higher-risk men at an earlier age, and tailoring screening intervals based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at a previous test. There was agreement that inclusion of MRI in the pathway should be considered, but disagreement on the inclusion of new biomarkers. CONCLUSION: In disease areas where technologies are rapidly evolving, a modified Delphi approach provides a useful tool to identify relevant comparators in an economic evaluation.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 365, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 40% of cancer cases in the UK in 2015 were attributable to cancer risk behaviours. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and unprotected sexual intercourse are known causes of cancer and there is strong evidence that physical inactivity is associated with cancer. These cancer risk behaviours co-occur however little is known about how they pattern longitudinally across adolescence and early adulthood. Using data from ALSPAC, a prospective population-based UK birth cohort study, we explored patterns of adolescent cancer risk behaviours and their associations with cancer risk behaviours in early adulthood. METHODS: Six thousand three hundred fifty-one people (46.0% of ALSPAC participants) provided data on all cancer risk behaviours at one time during adolescence, 1951 provided data on all cancer risk behaviours at all time points. Our exposure measure was quartiles of a continuous score summarising cumulative exposure to cancer risk behaviours and longitudinal latent classes summarising distinct categories of adolescents exhibiting similar patterns of behaviours, between age 11 and 18 years. Using both exposure measures, odds of harmful drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C ≥ 8),daily tobacco smoking, nicotine dependence (Fagerström test ≥4), obesity (BMI ≥30), high waist circumference (females: ≥80 cm and males: ≥94 cm, and high waist-hip ratio (females: ≥0.85 and males: ≥1.00) at age 24 were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We found distinct groups of adolescents characterised by consistently high and consistently low engagement in cancer risk behaviours. After adjustment, adolescents in the top quartile had greater odds of all outcomes in early adulthood: nicotine dependency (odds ratio, OR = 5.37, 95% confidence interval, CI = 3.64-7.93); daily smoking (OR = 5.10, 95% CI =3.19-8.17); obesity (OR = 4.84, 95% CI = 3.33-7.03); high waist circumference (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.94-3.16); harmful drinking (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.57-2.65); and high waist-hip ratio (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.30-2.71), compared to the bottom quartile. In latent class analysis, adolescents characterised by consistently high-risk behaviours throughout adolescence were at higher risk of all cancer risk behaviours at age 24, except harmful drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to adolescent cancer risk behaviours greatly increased the odds of cancer risk behaviours in early adulthood. Interventions to reduce these behaviours should target multiple rather than single risk behaviours and should focus on adolescence.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited. OBJECTIVES: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (ß-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: Two-sample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions. RESULTS: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B-12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetically predicted concentrations of ß-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin B-6 were not associated with disease risk. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest possible causal associations of circulating iron and vitamin B-12 (positively) and selenium (inversely) with risk of colon cancer.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational evidence has shown that smoking is a risk factor for breast and colorectal cancer. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine causal associations between smoking and risks of breast and colorectal cancer. METHODS: Genome-wide association study summary data were used to identify genetic variants associated with lifetime amount of smoking (n=126 variants) and ever having smoked regularly (n=112 variants). Using two-sample MR, we examined these variants in relation to incident breast (122,977 cases/105,974 controls) and colorectal cancer (52,775 cases/45,940 controls). RESULTS: In inverse-variance weighted models, a genetic predisposition to higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with breast cancer risk [odds ratio [OR] per 1-standard deviation (SD) increment: 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.26); P: 0.04]; although heterogeneity was observed. Similar associations were found for estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with colorectal cancer [OR per 1-SD increment: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.04-1.40); P: 0.01], colon cancer [OR: 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11-1.55); P: <0.01], and rectal cancer [OR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07-1.73); P: 0.01]. Ever having smoked regularly was not associated with risks of breast [OR: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.90-1.14); P: 0.85] or colorectal cancer [OR: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.86-1.10); P: 0.68]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with prior observational evidence and support a causal role of higher lifetime smoking amount in the development of breast and colorectal cancer. IMPACT: The results from this comprehensive MR analysis indicate that lifetime smoking is a causal risk factor for these common malignancies.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669311

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the second major cause of male cancer deaths. Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer risk are linked. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is involved in numerous cellular events, including proliferation and survival. The IGF-II gene shares its locus with the lncRNA, H19. IGF-II/H19 was the first gene to be identified as being "imprinted"-where the paternal copy is not transcribed-a silencing phenomenon lost in many cancer types. We disrupted imprinting behaviour in vitro by altering metabolic conditions and quantified it using RFLP, qPCR and pyrosequencing; changes to peptide were measured using RIA. Prostate tissue samples were analysed using ddPCR, pyrosequencing and IHC. We compared with in silico data, provided by TGCA on the cBIO Portal. We observed disruption of imprinting behaviour, in vitro, with a significant increase in IGF-II and a reciprocal decrease in H19 mRNA; the increased mRNA was not translated into peptides. In vivo, most specimens retained imprinting status apart from a small subset which showed reduced imprinting. A positive correlation was seen between IGF-II and H19 mRNA expression, which concurred with findings of larger Cancer Genome Atlas (TGCA) cohorts. This positive correlation did not affect IGF-II peptide. Our findings show that type 2 diabetes and/or obesity, can directly affect regulation growth factors involved in carcinogenesis, indirectly suggesting a modification of lifestyle habits may reduce cancer risk.

6.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(2): 135-140, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685875

RESUMO

The use of big data containing millions of primary care medical records provides an opportunity for rapid research to help inform patient care and policy decisions during the first and subsequent waves of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Routinely collected primary care data have previously been used for national pandemic surveillance, quantifying associations between exposures and outcomes, identifying high risk populations, and examining the effects of interventions at scale, but there is no consensus on how to effectively conduct or report these data for COVID-19 research. A COVID-19 primary care database consortium was established in April 2020 and its researchers have ongoing COVID-19 projects in overlapping data sets with over 40 million primary care records in the United Kingdom that are variously linked to public health, secondary care, and vital status records. This consensus agreement is aimed at facilitating transparency and rigor in methodological approaches, and consistency in defining and reporting cases, exposures, confounders, stratification variables, and outcomes in relation to the pharmacoepidemiology of COVID-19. This will facilitate comparison, validation, and meta-analyses of research during and after the pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Consenso , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Big Data , Humanos , Farmacoepidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12783, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caesarean delivery has been associated with later adiposity, perhaps via early programming or perhaps because of residual confounding by maternal or birth characteristics. OBJECTIVES: Examine associations of caesarean delivery with adiposity and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. METHODS: Observational analysis of 15 069 children in the PROBIT cohort in Belarus. We examined measures of child anthropometry and blood pressure at 6.5, 11.5 and 16 years and fasting blood (11.5 years). RESULTS: Caesarean-delivered children were slightly heavier at 6.5 (mean BMI 15.8 vs. 15.6 kg/m2 ), 11.5 (18.4 vs. 18.2) and 16 years (21.5 vs. 21.3). After adjustment for prenatal characteristics including maternal third trimester BMI, however, we observed no association of caesarean versus vaginal delivery with child BMI (ß 0.05 kg/m2 ; 95%CI: -0.03, 0.14), sum of skinfolds (0.14 mm; -0.13, 0.42), waist circumference (-0.07 cm; -0.23, 0.10), obesity (OR 0.99; 0.76, 1.29), or systolic (-0.20 mmHg; -0.70, 0.30) or diastolic (-0.17 mmHg, -0.60, 0.26) blood pressure at 6.5 years; results were similar at 11.5 and 16 years. At 11.5 years, we observed a modest association of caesarean delivery with fasting insulin (0.33 mU/L; 0.00, 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: Caesarean delivery had little or no association with adiposity or related cardio-metabolic biomarkers in childhood. Adjustment for maternal BMI attenuated all outcome effect estimates.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1236, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623038

RESUMO

Genetic models for cancer have been evaluated using almost exclusively European data, which could exacerbate health disparities. A polygenic hazard score (PHS1) is associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis and improves screening accuracy in Europeans. Here, we evaluate performance of PHS2 (PHS1, adapted for OncoArray) in a multi-ethnic dataset of 80,491 men (49,916 cases, 30,575 controls). PHS2 is associated with age at diagnosis of any and aggressive (Gleason score ≥ 7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥ 10 ng/mL, or nodal/distant metastasis) cancer and prostate-cancer-specific death. Associations with cancer are significant within European (n = 71,856), Asian (n = 2,382), and African (n = 6,253) genetic ancestries (p < 10-180). Comparing the 80th/20th PHS2 percentiles, hazard ratios for prostate cancer, aggressive cancer, and prostate-cancer-specific death are 5.32, 5.88, and 5.68, respectively. Within European, Asian, and African ancestries, hazard ratios for prostate cancer are: 5.54, 4.49, and 2.54, respectively. PHS2 risk-stratifies men for any, aggressive, and fatal prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic dataset.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Invasividade Neoplásica , Autorrelato
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044420, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To confirm the association of previously reported prognostic factors with future progression of localised prostate cancer using primary care data and identify new potential prognostic factors for further assessment in prognostic model development and validation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study, employing Cox proportional hazards regression controlling for age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), and Gleason score, was stratified by diagnostic stage. SETTING: Primary care in England. PARTICIPANTS: Males with localised prostate cancer diagnosedbetween 01/01/1987 and 31/12/2016 within the Clinical Practice ResearchDatalink database, with linked data from the National Cancer Registration andAnalysis Service and Office for National Statistics. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Primary outcome measure was prostate cancer mortality. Secondary outcome measures were all-cause mortality and commencing systemic therapy. Up-staging after diagnosis was not used as a secondary outcome owing to significant missing data. RESULTS: 10 901 men (mean age 74.38±9.03 years) with localised prostate cancer were followed up for a mean of 14.12 (±6.36) years. 2331 (21.38%) men underwent systemic therapy and 3450 (31.65%) died, including 1250 (11.47%) from prostate cancer. Factors associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer mortality included age; high PSA; current or ex-smoker; ischaemic heart disease; high C reactive protein; high ferritin; low haemoglobin; high blood glucose and low albumin. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified several new potential prognostic factors for prostate cancer progression, as well as confirming some known prognostic factors, in an independent primary care data set. Further research is needed to develop and validate a prognostic model for prostate cancer progression.

10.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(3): 29, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582975

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Repurposing established medicines for a new therapeutic indication potentially has important global and societal impact. The high costs and slow pace of new drug development have increased interest in more cost-effective repurposed drugs, particularly in the cancer arena. The conventional drug development pathway and evidence framework are not designed for drug repurposing and there is currently no consensus on establishing the evidence base before embarking on a large, resource intensive, potential practice changing phase III randomised controlled trial (RCT). Numerous observational studies have suggested a potential role for statins as a repurposed drug for cancer chemoprevention and therapy, and we review the strength of the cumulative evidence here. RECENT FINDINGS: In the setting of cancer, a potential repurposed drug, like statins, typically goes through a cyclical history, with initial use for several years in another disease setting, prior to epidemiological research identifying a possible chemo-protective effect. However, further information is required, including review of RCT data in the initial disease setting with exploration of cancer outcomes. Additionally, more contemporary methods should be considered, such as Mendelian randomization and pharmaco-epidemiological research with "target" trial design emulation using electronic health records. Pre-clinical and traditional observational data potentially support the role of statins in the treatment of cancer; however, randomised trial evidence is not supportive. Evaluation of contemporary methods provides little added support for the use of statin therapy in cancer. We provide complementary evidence of alternative study designs to enable a robust critical appraisal from a number of sources of the go/no-go decision for a prospective phase III RCT of statins in the treatment of cancer.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 320, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431998

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of advanced, recurrent and fatal prostate cancer. Adipokines may mediate this relationship. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of associations of leptin and adiponectin with overall and aggressive prostate cancer. Bibliographic databases were systematically searched up to 1st April 2017. Log Odds Ratios (ORs) per 2.5 unit increase in adiponectin or leptin levels were derived and pooled. All analyses were stratified by study type (cross-sectional/prospective). 746 papers were retrieved, 34 eligible studies identified, 31 of these could be included in the meta-analysis. Leptin was not consistently associated with overall prostate cancer (pooled OR 1.00, 95%CI 0.98-1.02, per 2.5 ng/ml increase, prospective study OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99, cross-sectional study OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.13-1.26) and there was weak evidence of a positive association with aggressive disease (OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.00-1.06). There was also weak evidence of a small inverse association of adiponectin with overall prostate cancer (OR 0.96, 95%CI 0.93-0.99, per 2.5 µg/ml increase), but less evidence of an association with aggressive disease (OR 0.98, 95%CI 0.94-1.01). The magnitude of any effects are small, therefore levels of circulating adiponectin or leptin alone are unlikely to be useful biomarkers of risk or prognosis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0236904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported either null or weak protective associations for coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to evaluate the relationship between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk using 33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coffee consumption from a genome-wide association (GWA) study on 212,119 female UK Biobank participants of White British ancestry. Risk estimates for breast cancer were retrieved from publicly available GWA summary statistics from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) on 122,977 cases (of which 69,501 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 21,468 ER-negative) and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. Random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) MR analyses were performed along with several sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential MR assumption violations. RESULTS: One cup per day increase in genetically predicted coffee consumption in women was not associated with risk of total (IVW random-effects; odds ratio (OR): 0.91, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.80-1.02, P: 0.12, P for instrument heterogeneity: 7.17e-13), ER-positive (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02, P: 0.09) and ER-negative breast cancer (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.75-1.03, P: 0.12). Null associations were also found in the sensitivity analyses using MR-Egger (total breast cancer; OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.80-1.25), weighted median (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.05) and weighted mode (OR: 1.00, CI: 0.93-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this large MR study do not support an association of genetically predicted coffee consumption on breast cancer risk, but we cannot rule out existence of a weak association.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2329, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504897

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered 27 loci associated with glioma risk. Whether these loci are causally implicated in glioma risk, and how risk differs across tissues, has yet to be systematically explored. We integrated multi-tissue expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and glioma GWAS data using a combined Mendelian randomisation (MR) and colocalisation approach. We investigated how genetically predicted gene expression affects risk across tissue type (brain, estimated effective n = 1194 and whole blood, n = 31,684) and glioma subtype (all glioma (7400 cases, 8257 controls) glioblastoma (GBM, 3112 cases) and non-GBM gliomas (2411 cases)). We also leveraged tissue-specific eQTLs collected from 13 brain tissues (n = 114 to 209). The MR and colocalisation results suggested that genetically predicted increased gene expression of 12 genes were associated with glioma, GBM and/or non-GBM risk, three of which are novel glioma susceptibility genes (RETREG2/FAM134A, FAM178B and MVB12B/FAM125B). The effect of gene expression appears to be relatively consistent across glioma subtype diagnoses. Examining how risk differed across 13 brain tissues highlighted five candidate tissues (cerebellum, cortex, and the putamen, nucleus accumbens and caudate basal ganglia) and four previously implicated genes (JAK1, STMN3, PICK1 and EGFR). These analyses identified robust causal evidence for 12 genes and glioma risk, three of which are novel. The correlation of MR estimates in brain and blood are consistently low which suggested that tissue specificity needs to be carefully considered for glioma. Our results have implicated genes yet to be associated with glioma susceptibility and provided insight into putatively causal pathways for glioma risk.

16.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 65-75, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398198

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6071, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247085

RESUMO

The independent effects of smoking and alcohol in head and neck cancer are not clear, given the strong association between these risk factors. Their apparent synergistic effect reported in previous observational studies may also underestimate independent effects. Here we report multivariable Mendelian randomization performed in a two-sample approach using summary data on 6,034 oral/oropharyngeal cases and 6,585 controls from a recent genome-wide association study. Our results demonstrate strong evidence for an independent causal effect of smoking on oral/oropharyngeal cancer (IVW OR 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 3.9 per standard deviation increase in lifetime smoking behaviour) and an independent causal effect of alcohol consumption when controlling for smoking (IVW OR 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 3.8 per standard deviation increase in drinks consumed per week). This suggests the possibility that the causal effect of alcohol may have been underestimated. However, the extent to which alcohol is modified by smoking requires further investigation.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252839

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and testosterone have been implicated in prostate cancer aetiology. Using data from a large prospective full-cohort with standardised assays and repeat blood measurements, and genetic data from an international consortium, we investigated the associations of circulating IGF-I, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total and calculated free testosterone concentrations with prostate cancer incidence and mortality. For prospective analyses, risk was estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression in 199,698 male UK Biobank participants. Hazard ratios (HRs) were corrected for regression dilution bias using repeat hormone measurements from a subsample. 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis of IGF-I and risk used genetic instruments identified from UK Biobank men and genetic outcome data from the PRACTICAL consortium (79,148 cases and 61,106 controls). We used cis- and all (cis and trans) SNP MR approaches. 5,402 men were diagnosed with and 295 died from prostate cancer (mean follow-up 6.9 years). Higher circulating IGF-I was associated with elevated prostate cancer diagnosis (HR per 5 nmol/L increment=1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.12) and mortality (HR per 5 nmol/L increment=1.15,1.02-1.29). MR analyses also supported the role of IGF-I in prostate cancer diagnosis (cis-MR odds ratio per 5 nmol/L increment=1.34,1.07-1.68). In observational analyses, higher free testosterone was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer (HR per 50 pmol/L increment=1.10,1.05-1.15). Higher SHBG was associated with a lower risk (HR per 10 nmol/L increment=0.95,0.94-0.97), neither was associated with prostate cancer mortality. Total testosterone was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings implicate IGF-I and free testosterone in prostate cancer development and/or progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Addiction ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are the most commonly used medications to quit smoking. Given their widespread use, monitoring adverse risks remains important. This study aimed to estimate the neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular risks associated with varenicline and NRT as used in routine UK care. DESIGN: Case crossover study. SETTING: UK based electronic primary care records in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2006 to 2015 linked to hospital and mortality datasets. PARTICIPANTS: Adult smokers (n=?) observed in periods when exposed and not exposed to either varenicline or NRT. MEASUREMENTS: Main outcomes included suicide, self-harm, myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause death and cause-specific death (MI, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). In primary analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to compare the chance of varenicline or NRT exposure in the risk period (90 days prior to the event) with the chance of exposure in an earlier single reference period (91-180 days prior to the event) or multiple 90-day reference periods to increase statistical power. FINDINGS: In the primary analyses, findings were inconclusive for the associations between varenicline and the main outcomes using a single reference period, whilst NRT was associated with MI (Odds ratio (OR) 1.40, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.18-1.67). Using multiple reference periods, varenicline was associated with an increased risk of self-harm (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12-1.56) and suicide (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.32-9.60) but a reduction in all-cause death (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93). NRT was associated with MI (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.36-1.74), self-harm (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.18-1.44), and deaths from MI (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.10), COPD (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.56) and all causes (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.40) when using multiple reference periods. CONCLUSIONS: There appear to be positive associations between 1) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and myocardial infarction, death, and risk of self-harm and 2) varenicline and increased risk of self-harm and suicide, as well as a negative association between varenicline and all-cause death. The associations may not be causal. They may reflect health changes at the time of smoking cessation (NRT is prescribed for people with cardiac problems) or be associated with quit attempts (exposure to both medicines was associated with self-harm).

20.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235315

RESUMO

Growing data from epidemiological studies highlight the association between excess body fat and cancer incidence, but good indicative evidence demonstrates that intentional weight loss, as well as increasing physical activity, offers much promise as a cost-effective approach for reducing the cancer burden. However, clear gaps remain in our understanding of how changes in body fat or levels of physical activity are mechanistically linked to cancer, and the magnitude of their impact on cancer risk. It is important to investigate the causal link between programmes that successfully achieve short-term modest weight loss followed by weight-loss maintenance and cancer incidence. The longer-term impact of weight loss and duration of overweight and obesity on risk reduction also need to be fully considered in trial design. These gaps in knowledge need to be urgently addressed to expedite the development and implementation of future cancer-control strategies. Comprehensive approaches to trial design, Mendelian randomisation studies and data-linkage opportunities offer real possibilities to tackle current research gaps. In this paper, we set out the case for why non-pharmacological weight-management trials are urgently needed to support cancer-risk reduction and help control the growing global burden of cancer.

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