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1.
Chest ; 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supervised exercise training improves outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The effect of an unsupervised activity intervention has not been tested. RESEARCH QUESTION: Can a text-based mobile health intervention increase step counts in patients with PAH? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a randomized, parallel arm, single-blind clinical trial. We randomized patients to usual care or a text message-based intervention for 12 weeks. The intervention arm received three automated text messages per day with real-time step count updates and encouraging messages rooted in behavioral change theory. Individual step targets increased by 20% every four weeks. MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint was mean Week 12 step counts. Secondary endpoints included the six minute walk test, quality of life, right ventricular function, and body composition. RESULTS: Among 42 randomized participants, the change in raw steps between baseline and Week 12 was higher in the intervention group (1409 steps (IQR -32, 2220) vs. -149 steps (IQR -1010, 735); p=0.02), which persisted after adjustment for age, sex, baseline step counts, and functional class (model estimated difference 1250 steps, P = 0.03). The intervention arm took a higher average number of steps on all days between days 9 to 84 (P <0.05 all days). There was no difference in Week 12 six minute walk distance. Analysis of secondary endpoints suggested improvements in the emPHasis-10 score (adjusted change -4.2, P =0.046), a reduction in visceral fat volume (adjusted change -170ml, p=0.023), and nearly significant improvement in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (Model estimated difference 1.2mm, P = 0.051). INTERPRETATION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of an automated text message-based intervention to increase physical activity in patients with PAH. Additional studies are warranted to examine the effect of the intervention on clinical outcomes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872757

RESUMO

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide and has been characterized as a chronic immunoinflammatory, fibroproliferative disease fueled by lipids. Great advances have been made in elucidating the complex mechanistic interactions among risk factors associated with CHD, yielding abundant success towards preventive measures and the development of pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat CHD via attenuation of lipoprotein-mediated risk. However, significant residual risk remains. Several potentially modifiable CHD risk factors ostensibly contributing to this residual risk have since come to the fore, including systemic inflammation, diabetes mellitus, high-density lipoprotein, plasma triglycerides (TG) and remnant lipoproteins (RLP), lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), and vascular endothelial dysfunction (ED). Herein, we summarize the body of evidence implicating each of these risk factors in residual CHD risk.

3.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664502

RESUMO

Technological innovations reach deeply into our daily lives and an emerging trend supports the use of commercial smart wearable devices to manage health. In the era of remote, decentralized and increasingly personalized patient care, catalysed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the cardiovascular community must familiarize itself with the wearable technologies on the market and their wide range of clinical applications. In this Review, we highlight the basic engineering principles of common wearable sensors and where they can be error-prone. We also examine the role of these devices in the remote screening and diagnosis of common cardiovascular diseases, such as arrhythmias, and in the management of patients with established cardiovascular conditions, for example, heart failure. To date, challenges such as device accuracy, clinical validity, a lack of standardized regulatory policies and concerns for patient privacy are still hindering the widespread adoption of smart wearable technologies in clinical practice. We present several recommendations to navigate these challenges and propose a simple and practical 'ABCD' guide for clinicians, personalized to their specific practice needs, to accelerate the integration of these devices into the clinical workflow for optimal patient care.

4.
JMIR Cardio ; 5(1): e18050, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at a higher risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). Consumer wearable heart rate (HR) sensors may be a means for passive HR monitoring in patients with AF. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the Apple Watch's agreement with telemetry in measuring HR in patients with OSA in AF. METHODS: Patients with OSA in AF were prospectively recruited prior to cardioversion/ablation procedures. HR was sampled every 10 seconds for 60 seconds using telemetry and an Apple Watch concomitantly. Agreement of Apple Watch with telemetry, which is the current gold-standard device for measuring HR, was assessed using mixed effects limits agreement and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients (mean 66 [SD 6.5] years, 85% [n=17] male) participated in this study, yielding 134 HR observations per device. Modified Bland-Altman plot revealed that the variability of the paired difference of the Apple Watch compared with telemetry increased as the magnitude of HR measurements increased. The Apple Watch produced regression-based 95% limits of agreement of 27.8 - 0.3 × average HR - 15.0 to 27.8 - 0.3 × average HR + 15.0 beats per minute (bpm) with a mean bias of 27.8 - 0.33 × average HR bpm. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.88 (95% CI 0.85-0.91), suggesting acceptable agreement between the Apple Watch and telemetry. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with OSA in AF, the Apple Watch provided acceptable agreement with HR measurements by telemetry. Further studies with larger sample populations and wider range of HR are needed to confirm these findings.

5.
JMIR Cardio ; 5(1): e18834, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of mobile health (mHealth) interventions, including smartphone apps, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has demonstrated mixed results for obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and hypertension management. A major factor attributing to the variation in mHealth study results may be mHealth user engagement. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to determine if user engagement with smartphone apps for the prevention and management of CVD is associated with improved CVD health behavior change and risk factor outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase databases from 2007 to 2020. Studies were eligible if they assessed whether user engagement with a smartphone app used by an individual to manage his or her CVD risk factors was associated with the CVD health behavior change or risk factor outcomes. For eligible studies, data were extracted on study and sample characteristics, intervention description, app user engagement measures, and the relationship between app user engagement and the CVD risk factor outcomes. App user engagement was operationalized as general usage (eg, number of log-ins or usage days per week) or self-monitoring within the app (eg, total number of entries made in the app). The quality of the studies was assessed. RESULTS: Of the 24 included studies, 17 used a randomized controlled trial design, 4 used a retrospective analysis, and 3 used a single-arm pre- and posttest design. Sample sizes ranged from 55 to 324,649 adults, with 19 studies recruiting participants from a community setting. Most of the studies assessed weight loss interventions, with 6 addressing additional CVD risk factors, including diabetes, sleep, stress, and alcohol consumption. Most of the studies that assessed the relationship between user engagement and reduction in weight (9/13, 69%), BMI (3/4, 75%), body fat percentage (1/2, 50%), waist circumference (2/3, 67%), and hemoglobin A1c (3/5, 60%) found statistically significant results, indicating that greater app user engagement was associated with better outcomes. Of 5 studies, 3 (60%) found a statistically significant relationship between higher user engagement and an increase in objectively measured physical activity. The studies assessing the relationship between user engagement and dietary and diabetes self-care behaviors, blood pressure, and lipid panel components did not find statistically significant results. CONCLUSIONS: Increased app user engagement for prevention and management of CVD may be associated with improved weight and BMI; however, only a few studies assessed other outcomes, limiting the evidence beyond this. Additional studies are needed to assess user engagement with smartphone apps targeting other important CVD risk factors, including dietary behaviors, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and hypertension. Further research is needed to assess mHealth user engagement in both inpatient and outpatient settings to determine the effect of integrating mHealth interventions into the existing clinical workflow and on CVD outcomes.

6.
Eur J Intern Med ; 87: 3-12, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610416

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Their numerous shared and modifiable risk factors underscore the importance of effective prevention strategies for these largely preventable diseases. Conventionally regarded as separate disease entities, clear pathophysiological links and overlapping risk factors represent an opportunity for synergistic collaborative efforts of oncologists and cardiologists. In addition, current CRC treatment approaches can exert cardiotoxicity and thus increase CVD risk. Given the complex interplay of both diseases and increasing numbers of CRC survivors who are at increased risk for CVD, multidisciplinary cardio-oncological approaches are warranted for optimal patient care from primary prevention to acute disease treatment and long-term surveillance.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e18773, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite strong evidence supporting the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), over 80% of eligible patients do not participate in CR. Digital health technologies (ie, the delivery of care using the internet, wearable devices, and mobile apps) have the potential to address the challenges associated with traditional facility-based CR programs, but little is known about the comprehensiveness of these interventions to serve as digital approaches to CR. Overall, there is a lack of a systematic evaluation of the current literature on digital interventions for CR. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic literature review is to provide an in-depth analysis of the potential of digital health technologies to address the challenges associated with traditional CR. Through this review, we aim to summarize the current literature on digital interventions for CR, identify the key components of CR that have been successfully addressed through digital interventions, and describe the gaps in research that need to be addressed for sustainable and scalable digital CR interventions. METHODS: Our strategy for identifying the primary literature pertaining to CR with digital solutions (defined as technology employed to deliver remote care beyond the use of the telephone) included a consultation with an expert in the field of digital CR and searches of the PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases for original studies published from January 1990 to October 2018. RESULTS: Our search returned 31 eligible studies, of which 22 were randomized controlled trials. The reviewed CR interventions primarily targeted physical activity counseling (31/31, 100%), baseline assessment (30/31, 97%), and exercise training (27/31, 87%). The most commonly used modalities were smartphones or mobile devices (20/31, 65%), web-based portals (18/31, 58%), and email-SMS (11/31, 35%). Approximately one-third of the studies addressed the CR core components of nutrition counseling, psychological management, and weight management. In contrast, less than a third of the studies addressed other CR core components, including the management of lipids, diabetes, smoking cessation, and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Digital technologies have the potential to increase access and participation in CR by mitigating the challenges associated with traditional, facility-based CR. However, previously evaluated interventions primarily focused on physical activity counseling and exercise training. Thus, further research is required with more comprehensive CR interventions and long-term follow-up to understand the clinical impact of digital interventions.

8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(3): 1229-1238, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to comprehensively assess the association of multiple lipid measures with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD). Approach and Results: We used Cox proportional hazards models to characterize the associations of each of the fasting lipid measures (total cholesterol, LDL-C [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol], HDL-C [high-density lipoprotein cholesterol], triglycerides, RLP-C [remnant lipoprotein cholesterol], LDL-TG [LDL-triglycerides], sdLDL-C [small dense LDL-C], and Apo-E-HDL [Apo-E-containing HDL-C]) with incident PAD identified by pertinent International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) hospital discharge codes (eg, 440.2) among 8330 Black and White ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) participants (mean age 62.8 [SD 5.6] years) free of PAD at baseline (1996-1998) through 2015. Since lipid traits are biologically correlated to each other, we also conducted principal component analysis to identify underlying components for PAD risk. There were 246 incident PAD cases with a median follow-up of 17 years. After accounting for potential confounders, the following lipid measures were significantly associated with PAD (hazard ratio per 1-SD increment [decrement for HDL-C and Apo-E-HDL]): triglycerides, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.08-1.36); RLP-C, 1.18 (1.08-1.29); LDL-TG, 1.18 (1.05-1.33); HDL-C, 1.39 (1.16-1.67); and Apo-E-HDL, 1.27 (1.07-1.51). The principal component analysis identified 3 components (1: mainly loaded by triglycerides, RLP-C, LDL-TG, and sdLDL-C; 2: by HDL-C and Apo-E-HDL; and 3: by LDL-C and RLP-C). Components 1 and 2 showed independent associations with incident PAD. CONCLUSIONS: Triglyceride-related and HDL-related lipids were independently associated with incident PAD, which has implications on preventive strategies for PAD. However, none of the novel lipid measures outperformed conventional ones. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Circulation ; 143(8): e254-e743, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs). METHODS: The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2021 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year's edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, adverse pregnancy outcomes, vascular contributions to brain health, the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors related to cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Each of the 27 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics. CONCLUSIONS: The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, health care administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.

10.
Am J Med ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The AHA has defined Life's simple 7 (LS7) as a measure of overall Cardiovascular health . Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been concerned as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease .We evaluated the association between LS7 and NAFLD. METHODS: We evaluate participants form The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Cardiovascular health score was calculated from the Life's simple 7 metrics. A score of 0-8 was considered inadequate, 9-10 average, and 11-14, optimal. NAFLD was defined using non-contrast cardiac CT and a liver/spleen attenuation ratio (L/S) < 1. Multivariable regression were performed to evaluate the association. RESULTS: Our cross-sectional analysis of 3,901 participants showed 19% (n=747) had optimal cardiovascular health, 33% (n=1,270) had average and 48% (n=1,884) had inadequate. White participants were most likely to have an optimal score (51%, n=378) while African American participants had the lowest proportion with optimal scores (16%, n=120; p <0.001). The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 18% with a distribution of 7%, 14%, and 25% in the optimal, average, and inadequate score categories, respectively (p<0.001). Adjusted for risk factors, average and optimal health categories had lower odds of NAFLD compared to those with inadequate scores: odds ratio (OR) for average, 0.44 (95% CI 0.36-0.54); optimal, OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.14-0.26). This association was similar across gender, race and age groups. CONCLUSION: A more favorable cardiovascular health score was associated with a lower prevalence of NAFLD. This study may suggest a potential of Life's simple 7 in the prevention of liver disease.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 383(24): 2385-2386, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296565
12.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III (HLP3), also known as dysbetalipoproteinemia, is defined by cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) enriched remnant lipoprotein particles (RLP). The gold standard for diagnosis requires demonstration of high remnant lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) by serum ultracentrifugation (UC), which is not readily available in daily practice. The apoB algorithm can identify HLP3 using total cholesterol (TC), plasma triglyceride (TG), and apoB. However, the optimal TG cutoff is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed apoB algorithm defined HLP3 at different TG levels to optimize the TG cutoff for the algorithm. METHODS: 128,485 UC lipid profiles in the Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDbL) were analyzed. RLP-C was assessed at TG ≥ 133 mg/dL, ≥175 mg/dL, ≥200 mg/dL, and ≥ 250 mg/dL. Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and prevalence adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) were calculated against UC Criterion (VLDL-C/TG ≥ 0.25) for HLP3. RESULTS: The median age (IQR) was 57 years (46-68). 45% were men, 20.1% had diabetes, and 25.5% had hypertension. The median RLP-C level for the TG cutoffs (mg/dL) of ≥ 133, ≥ 175, ≥ 200, and ≥ 250 were 34, 43, 50, and 62 mg/dL, respectively, compared to 67 mg/dL in UC defined HLP3. TG ≥ 133 mg/dL yielded optimal results (Sn 29.5%, Sp 98.5%, PABAK 0.96, PPV 13.6%, NPV 99.4%). CONCLUSION: TG ≥ 133 mg/dL allows for high sensitivity in screening for HLP3. Higher TG cutoffs may identify more severe HLP3 phenotypes, but with a large loss in sensitivity for HLP3.

14.
Arch Med Sci ; 16(6): 1279-1287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224326

RESUMO

Introduction: Five decades ago, Fredrickson, Levy, and Lees (FLL) qualitatively characterized clinical dyslipidemias with specific implications for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. They separated disorders of elevated cholesterol and triglycerides into five phenotypes (types I-V) based on their lipoprotein profile. Although clinicians generally consider them rare entities, modern FLL prevalence may be greater than previously reported. Material and methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 5,272 participants from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 128,506 participants from the Very Large Database of Lipids study with complete, fasting lipid profiles. We used a validated algorithm to define FLL phenotypes employing apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: Overall prevalence of FLL phenotypes was 33.9%. FLL prevalence in the general population versus clinical lipid database was: type I (0.05 vs. 0.02%), type IIa (3.2 vs. 3.9%), type IIb (8.0 vs. 10.3%), type III (2.0 vs. 1.7%), type IV (20.5 vs. 24.1%), and type V (0.15 vs. 0.13%). Those aged 40-74 years had a higher overall prevalence compared to other age groups (p < 0.001) and men had overall higher prevalence than women (p < 0.001). Those with diabetes (51.6%) or obese BMI (49.0%) had higher prevalence of FLL phenotypes compared to those without diabetes (31.3%; p < 0.001) and normal BMI (18.3%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: FLL phenotypes are likely far more prevalent than appreciated in clinical practice, in part due to diabetes and obesity epidemics. Given the prognostic and therapeutic importance of these phenotypes, their identification becomes increasingly important in the era of precision medicine.

16.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 3: 100089, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964212

RESUMO

Objective: There is rising interest in digital health in preventive cardiology, particularly for blood pressure (BP) management. In a digital health study of early BP assessment following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we sought to examine feasibility and the (1) proportion of post-AMI patients with controlled BP and hypotension, and (2) association between prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) and BP post-AMI. Methods: In this substudy of the parent Myocardial infarction, COmbined-device, Recovery Enhancement (MiCORE) study, type 1 AMI patients were enrolled between October 2017 and April 2019. Participants self-monitored their BP through 30 days after hospital discharge using an FDA-approved wireless BP monitor connected with a smartphone application. Linear mixed-effects models assessed the association between prior CVD and BP trajectory post-discharge, adjusting for antihypertensive medications and a propensity score inclusive of CVD risk factors. Results: Sixty-eight AMI patients (mean age 58 â€‹± â€‹10 years, 75% male, 68% white race, 68% history of hypertension, 24% prior CVD) provided 2638 measurements over 30 days. The percentage of BP control <130/80 â€‹mmHg was 59.6% (95% CI: 54.3-64.9%) and <140/90 â€‹mmHg was 83.7% (95% CI: 80.3-87.2%). The percentage of systolic BP â€‹<90 â€‹mmHg was 1.1% (95% CI: 0.17-2.0%) and the percentage of diastolic BP â€‹<60 â€‹mmHg was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.6-5.2%). Prior CVD was associated with 12.2 â€‹mmHg higher mean daily systolic BP during admission (95% CI: 3.5-20.9 â€‹mmHg), which persisted over follow-up. There was no association between prior CVD and diastolic BP. Conclusion: The digital health program was feasible and ~40% of post-AMI patients who engaged in it had uncontrolled BP according to recent guideline cutpoints, while hypotension occurred rarely. The gap in BP control was especially large in patients in whom AMI represented recurrent CVD. These data suggest an opportunity for more aggressive secondary prevention early after MI as care models integrate digital health.

17.
Arch Med Sci ; 16(5): 993-1003, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863987

RESUMO

Introduction: Dysbetalipoproteinaemia (HLP3) is a disorder characterized by excess cholesterol-enriched, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants in genetically predisposed individuals that powerfully promote premature cardiovascular disease if untreated. The current prevalence of HLP3 is largely unknown. Material and methods: We performed cross-sectional analysis of 128,485 U.S. adults from the Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDbL), using four algorithms to diagnose HLP3 employing three Vertical Auto Profile ultracentrifugation (UC) criteria and a previously described apolipoprotein B (apoB) method. We evaluated 4,926 participants from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with the apoB method. We examined demographic and lipid characteristics stratified by presence of HLP3 and evaluated lipid characteristics in those with HLP3 phenotype discordance and concordance as determined by apoB and originally defined UC criteria 1. Results: In U.S. adults in VLDbL and NHANES, a 1.7-2.0% prevalence is observed for HLP3 with the novel apoB method as compared to 0.2-0.8% prevalence in VLDbL via UC criteria 1-3. Participants who were both apoB and UC criteria HLP3 positive had higher remnant particles as well as more elevated triglyceride/apoB and total cholesterol/apoB ratios (all p < 0.001) than those who were apoB method positive and UC criteria 1 negative. Conclusions: HLP3 may be more prevalent than historically and clinically appreciated. The apoB method increases HLP3 identification via inclusion of milder phenotypes. Further work should evaluate the clinical implications of HLP3 diagnosis at various lipid algorithm cut-points to evaluate the ideal standard in the modern era.

19.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 1: 100009, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835347

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has consumed our healthcare system, with immediate resource focus on the management of high numbers of critically ill patients. Those that fare poorly with COVID-19 infection more commonly have cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension and diabetes. There are also several other conditions that raise concern for the welfare of patients with and at high risk for CVD during this pandemic. Traditional ambulatory care is disrupted and many patients are delaying or deferring necessary care, including preventive care. New impediments to medication access and adherence have arisen. Social distancing measures can increase social isolation and alter physical activity and nutrition patterns. Virtually all facility based cardiac rehabilitation programs have temporarily closed. If not promptly addressed, these changes may result in delayed waves of vulnerable patients presenting for urgent and preventable CVD events. Here, we provide several recommendations to mitigate the adverse effects of these disruptions in outpatient care. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers should be continued in patients already taking these medications. Where possible, it is strongly preferred to continue visits via telehealth, and patients should be counselled about promptly reporting new symptoms. Barriers to medication access should be reviewed with patients at every contact, with implementation of strategies to ensure ongoing provision of medications. Team-based care should be leveraged to enhance the continuity of care and adherence to lifestyle recommendations. Patient encounters should include discussion of safe physical activity options and access to healthy food choices. Implementation of adaptive strategies for cardiac rehabilitation is recommended, including home based cardiac rehab, to ensure continuity of this essential service. While the practical implementation of these strategies will vary by local situation, there are a broad range of strategies available to ensure ongoing continuity of care and health preservation for those at higher risk of CVD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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