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1.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ultra-processed food and drink products (UPF) consumption has been associated with obesity and its-related comorbidities. Excess of visceral fat, which appears with increasing age, has been considered as the culprit contributing to adiposity-associated adverse health outcomes. However, none of previous studies elucidated the link between UPF and directly quantified adiposity and its distribution. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between concurrent changes in UPF consumption and objectively assessed adiposity distribution. METHODS: A subsample of 1485 PREDIMED-Plus participants (Spanish men and women aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) underwent body composition measurements. Consumption of UPF at baseline, 6 and 12 months was evaluated using a validated 143-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Food items (g/day) were categorized according to their degree of processing using NOVA system. Regional adiposity (visceral fat (in g) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio) and total fat mass (in g) at three time points were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were normalized using sex-specific z-scores. The association of changes in UPF consumption, expressed as the percentage of total daily intake (daily g of UPF/total daily g of food and beverage intake∗100), with adiposity changes was evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: On average, the consumption of UPF accounted for 8.11% (SD 7.41%) of total daily intake (in grams) at baseline. In multivariable-adjusted model, 10% daily increment in consumption of UPF was associated with significantly (all p-values <0.05) greater accumulation of visceral fat (ß 0.09 z-scores, 95% CI 0.05; 0.13), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (0.05, 0.00; 0.09) and total fat (0.09, 0.06; 0.13). CONCLUSION: A higher consumption of UPF was associated with greater age-related visceral and overall adiposity accumulation. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results in other populations and settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870) with number 89898870 and registration date of 24 July 2014, retrospectively registered.

2.
Transl Res ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515780

RESUMO

The p53/p21 pathway is activated in response to cell stress. However, its role in acute lung injury has not been elucidated. Acute lung injury is associated with disruption of the alveolo-capillary barrier leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support gas exchange in patients with ARDS, however, high positive airway pressures can cause regional overdistension of alveolar units and aggravate lung injury. Here, we report that acute lung injury and alveolar overstretching activate the p53/p21 pathway to maintain homeostasis and avoid massive cell apoptosis. A systematic pooling of transcriptomic data from animal models of lung injury demonstrates the enrichment of specific p53- and p21-dependent gene signatures and a validated senescence profile. In a clinically relevant, murine model of acid aspiration and mechanical ventilation, we observed changes in the nuclear envelope and the underlying chromatin, DNA damage and activation of the Tp53/p21 pathway. Absence of Cdkn1a decreased the senescent response, but worsened lung injury due to increased cell apoptosis. Conversely, treatment with lopinavir and/or ritonavir led to Cdkn1a overexpression and ameliorated cell apoptosis and lung injury. The activation of these mechanisms was associated with early markers of senescence, including expression of senescence-related genes and increases in senescence-associated heterochromatin foci in alveolar cells. Autopsy samples from lungs of patients with ARDS revealed increased senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. Collectively, these results suggest that acute lung injury activates p53/p21 as an antiapoptotic mechanism to ameliorate damage, but with the side effect of induction of senescence.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498570

RESUMO

The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects of a lifestyle intervention through health education on nutrition, physical activity, and healthy habits on physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The databases used were PubMed, WOS, and Scopus. The inclusion criteria were: observational, longitudinal and randomized clinical trial (RCT) study designs, adults (both sexes), with at least two criteria of MetS, lifestyle intervention and comparison with a control group, and a measurement of HRQoL with a validated questionnaire. We analyzed the Hedges' g and SF-36 score. I2 statistics were calculated and possible publication and small study biases were assessed using Egger's test and funnel plots. Seven RCTs were selected for meta-analysis, based on 637 study participants. Significant improvements were found in the physical dimensions of the HRQoL scores for subjects in the active intervention compared to the group that received general lifestyle information (Hedges' g 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.31-0.91). Mental health-related quality of life was also significantly improved in the intervention group compared with the control group (Hedges' g 0.84, 95% CI = 0.64-1.03). In conclusion, our results suggest that, according to the RCTs selected for this meta-analysis, a lifestyle intervention significantly improves HRQoL in all its domains.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms linking occupational heat exposure with chronic diseases have been proposed. However, evidence on occupational heat exposure and cancer risk is limited. METHODS: We evaluated occupational heat exposure and female breast cancer risk in a large Spanish case-control study. We enrolled 1,738 breast cancer cases and 1,910 frequency-matched population controls. A Spanish job exposure matrix, MatEmEsp, was used to assign estimates of the proportion of workers exposed (P greater than or equal to 25% for at least one year) and work time with heat stress (wet bulb globe temperature ISO 7243) for each occupation. We used three exposure indices: ever vs. never exposed, lifetime cumulative exposure and duration of exposure (years). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), applying a lag-period of 5 years, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Ever occupational heat exposure was associated with a moderate but statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.01, 1.46), with significant trends across categories of lifetime cumulative exposure and duration (p-trend = 0.01 and 0.03 respectively). Stronger associations were found for hormone receptor positive disease (OR ever exposure = 1.38; 95% CI 1.12, 1.67). We found no confounding effects from multiple other common occupational exposures, however results attenuated with adjustment for occupational detergent exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some evidence of an association between occupational heat exposure and female breast cancer risk. IMPACT: Our results contribute substantially to the scientific literature. Further investigations are needed, considering multiple occupational exposures.

5.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

7.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungus capable of causing mucormycosis, a highly aggressive infection of quick spreading. Besides, it also has a high mortality rate due to late diagnosis and difficult treatment. AIMS: In this study we have identified the most immunoreactive proteins of the secretome and the total protein extract of M. circinelloides using sera from immunocompromised infected mice. METHODS: The proteins of the secretome and the total extract were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the most immunoreactive antigens were detected by Western Blot, facing the sera of immunocompromised infected mice to the proteins obtained in both extracts of M. circinelloides. RESULTS: Seven antigens were detected in the secretome extract, and two in the total extract, all of them corresponding only to three proteins. The enzyme enolase was detected in both extracts, while triosephosphate isomerase was detected in the secretome, and heat shock protein HSS1 in the total extract. CONCLUSIONS: In this work the most immunoreactive antigens of the secretome and the total extract of M. circinelloides were identified. The identified proteins are well known fungal antigens and, therefore, these findings can be useful for future research into alternatives for the diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138196

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Though self-reported items (SRD, self-reported depression) are commonly used in health surveys and cohort studies, their metric properties as a depression indicator remain unclear. The aims were to evaluate the measurement properties of SRD using the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) as reference and to identify factors related to the agreement between both indicators. METHODS: Data from the European Health Interview Survey in Spain in 2014/2015 (n = 22,065) were analyzed. Two indicators of depression were considered: SRD based on two items yes/no (positive: both yes), and the PHQ-8 (positive ≥ 10). Socioeconomic factors and use of health services were considered as independent variables. The prevalence of depression, sensitivity, specificity, global agreement, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of SRDs were evaluated using the PHQ-8 as a reference. Logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the agreement between indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was lower when assessed with PHQ-8 (5.9%) than with SRD (7.7%). SRD sensitivity and PPV were moderate-low (52.9% and 40.4%, respectively) whereas global agreement, specificity, and NPV were high (92.7%, 95.1%, and 97.0%, respectively). Positive agreement was associated with marital status, country of birth, employment status, and social class. Negative agreement was related to all independent variables except country of birth. CONCLUSIONS: SRD items tend to overestimate the current prevalence of depression. While its use in health surveys and cohorts may be appropriate as a quick assessment of possible depression, due to their low sensitivity, its use in clinical contexts is questionable.

9.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 6(4)2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202962

RESUMO

Cell polarization comprises highly controlled processes and occurs in most eukaryotic organisms. In yeast, the processes of budding, mating and filamentation require coordinated mechanisms leading to polarized growth. Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, are an extreme example of cell polarization, essential for both vegetative and pathogenic growth. A major regulator of polarized growth in yeast is the small GTPase Rsr1, which is essential for bud-site selection. Here, we show that deletion of the putative A. fumigatus ortholog, rsrA, causes only a modest reduction of growth rate and delay in germ tube emergence. In contrast, overexpression of rsrA results in a morphogenesis defect, characterized by a significant delay in polarity establishment followed by the establishment of multiple growth axes. This aberrant phenotype is reversed when rsrA expression levels are decreased, suggesting that correct regulation of RsrA activity is crucial for accurate patterning of polarity establishment. Despite this finding, deletion or overexpression of rsrA resulted in no changes of A. fumigatus virulence attributes in a mouse model of invasive aspergillosis. Additional mutational analyses revealed that RsrA cooperates genetically with the small GTPase, RasA, to support A. fumigatus viability.

10.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 193: 111410, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249191

RESUMO

A wide range of insults can trigger acute injury in the lungs, which eventually may lead to respiratory failure and death of patients. Current treatment relies mainly on supportive measures and mechanical ventilation. Even so, survivors frequently develop important sequels that compromise quality of life. In the search for new approaches to prevent and treat acute lung injury, many investigations have focused on molecular and cellular pathways which could exert a pathogenic role in this disease. Herein, we review recent findings in the literature suggesting that cellular senescence could be involved in lung injury and discuss the potential use of senotherapies to prevent disease progression.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114671

RESUMO

Several anticancer properties have been largely attributed to phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, but epidemiologic evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, some classes have not been studied in relation to gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intake of phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other phenolics and the risk of developing GC and its anatomical and histological subtypes. We used data from a multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from different regions of Spain. We included 2700 controls and 329 GC cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of phenolic intake. Our results showed an inverse association between stilbene and lignan intake and GC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.69 and ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, respectively). We found no overall association between total phenolic acid and other polyphenol class intake and GC risk. However, hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.61), hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71), and tyrosols (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) were inversely associated with GC risk. No differences were found in the analysis by anatomical or histological subtypes. In conclusion, a diet high in stilbenes, lignans, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols was associated with a lower GC risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2235-2242, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterial carcinogen and the leading risk factor for noncardia gastric cancer (NCGC). Detecting antibodies against specific H. pylori proteins in peripheral blood can be applied to characterize infection and determine disease associations. Most studies analyzing the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer have focused on previously identified antigens, predominantly the virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Selecting antigens in an unbiased approach may, however, allow the identification of novel biomarkers. METHODS: Using a combination of multiple spotting technique and cell-free, on-chip protein expression, we displayed the H. pylori genome (strain 26695) on high-density microarrays. Immunogenic proteins were identified by serum pool incubations and henceforth analyzed in individual samples. To test its applicability, we used sera from a multicase-control (MCC)-Spain study. Serologic responses between NCGC cases and controls were assessed by conditional logistic regression estimating ORs and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We successfully expressed 93% of the 1,440 H. pylori open reading frames in situ. Of these, 231 (17%) were found to be immunogenic. By comparing 58 NCGC cases with 58 matched controls, we confirmed a higher seroprevalence of CagA among cases (66%) than controls (31%). We further identified a potential novel marker, the Helicobacter outer membrane protein A (HopA). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we provide evidence that our H. pylori whole-proteome microarray offers a platform for unbiased de novo identification of serologic biomarkers. IMPACT: Given its versatile workflow, antibody responses against other H. pylori strains and possible associations with diverse H. pylori-related outcomes can be systematically analyzed.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077654

RESUMO

Mutations on ERG11 were detected by gene sequencing and amino acid alignment in 18 Candida tropicalis strains with different degrees of sensibility to VRC. ERG11 expression, sterols content and membrane permeability were also evaluated. We report three missense mutations in ERG11 that resulted in resistance to VRC. The transcriptional levels of ERG11 as well as the ergosterol content and membrane permeability do no demonstrated plenty correlation with the obtained MIC values but a tendency.

14.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 37(3/4): 81-86, jul.-oct. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-FGT-5896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungus capable of causing mucormycosis, a highly aggressive infection of quick spreading. Besides, it also has a high mortality rate due to late diagnosis and difficult treatment. AIMS: In this study we have identified the most immunoreactive proteins of the secretome and the total protein extract of M. circinelloides using sera from immunocompromised infected mice. METHODS: The proteins of the secretome and the total extract were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the most immunoreactive antigens were detected by Western Blot, facing the sera of immunocompromised infected mice to the proteins obtained in both extracts of M. circinelloides. RESULTS: Seven antigens were detected in the secretome extract, and two in the total extract, all of them corresponding only to three proteins. The enzyme enolase was detected in both extracts, while triosephosphate isomerase was detected in the secretome, and heat shock protein HSS1 in the total extract. CONCLUSIONS: In this work the most immunoreactive antigens of the secretome and the total extract of M. circinelloides were identified. The identified proteins are well known fungal antigens and, therefore, these findings can be useful for future research into alternatives for the diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis


ANTECEDENTES: Mucor circinelloides es un hongo oportunista causante de la mucormicosis, una infección altamente agresiva y de rápida expansión. Además, también presenta una alta mortalidad debido al diagnóstico tardío y el difícil tratamiento. OBJETIVOS: En este estudio se han identificado las proteínas más inmunorreactivas del secretoma y del extracto total de proteínas de M. circinelloides mediante el uso de sueros obtenidos de ratones inmunodeprimidos infectados. MÉTODOS: Las proteínas del secretoma y del extracto total se analizaron mediante electroforesis bidimensional y se detectaron los antígenos más inmunorreactivos mediante Western Blot, enfrentando el suero de los ratones inmunodeprimidos infectados a las proteínas obtenidas en ambos extractos de M. circinelloides. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 7 antígenos en el secretoma y 2 en el extracto total, todos ellos correspondientes a 3 proteínas. La enolasa se detectó en ambos extractos, mientras que la triosafosfato isomerasa se detectó en el secretoma, y la proteína de choque térmico HSS1 en el extracto total. CONCLUSIONES: En este trabajo se identificaron los antígenos más inmunorreactivos del secretoma y del extracto total de M. circinelloides. Todas las proteínas identificadas son antígenos fúngicos muy conocidos y, por ello, estos resultados pueden ser de gran utilidad en futuras investigaciones relacionadas con la mejora del diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la mucormicosis

15.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976649

RESUMO

Experimental evidence indicates that exercise performed at different times of the day may affect circadian rhythms and circadian disruption has been linked to breast and prostate cancer. We examined in a population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain) if the time-of-day when physical activity is done affects prostate and breast cancer risk. Lifetime recreational and household physical activity was assessed by in-person interviews. Information on time-of-day of activity (assessed approximately 3 years after the assessment of lifetime physical activity and confounders) was available for 781 breast cancer cases, 865 population female controls, 504 prostate cases and 645 population male controls from 10 Spanish regions, 2008-2013. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for different activity timings compared to inactive subjects using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for confounders. Early morning (8-10 am) activity was associated with a protective effect compared to no physical activity for both breast (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.48-1.15) and prostate cancer (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.44-1.20); meta-OR for the two cancers combined 0.74 (95%CI = 0.53-1.02). There was no effect observed for breast or prostate cancer for late morning to afternoon activity while a protective effect was also observed for evening activity only for prostate cancer (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.45-1.24). Protective effects of early morning activity were more pronounced for intermediate/evening chronotypes for both cancers. This is the first population-based investigation identifying a differential effect of timing of physical activity on cancer risk with more pronounced effects for morning hour activity. Our results, if confirmed, may improve current physical activity recommendations for cancer prevention.

16.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between height and risk of gastric cancer has been studied in several epidemiological studies with contrasting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between adult height and gastric cancer within a large pooled analysis of case-control studies members of the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium. METHODS: Data from 18 studies members of the StoP consortium were collected and analyzed. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between 10-cm increase in height and risk of gastric cancer. Age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, social class, geographical area and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status were included in the regression model. Resulting estimates were then pooled with random-effect model. Analyses were conducted overall and in strata of selected variables. RESULTS: A total of 7562 cases and 19 033 controls were included in the analysis. The pooled OR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.87-1.05). A sensitivity analysis was performed restricting the results to the studies with information on H. pylori status, resulting in an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.79-1.20). CONCLUSION: Our study does not support a strong and consistent association between adult height and gastric cancer.

17.
Environ Int ; 144: 106055, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most frequent tumor in males and the second in females worldwide. In Spain, it is an important and growing health problem, and epidemiologic research focused on potential risk factors, such as environmental exposures, is necessary. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between colorectal cancer risk and residential proximity to industries, according to pollution discharge route, industrial groups, categories of carcinogens and other toxic substances, and specific pollutants released, in the context of a population-based multicase-control study of incident cancer carried out in Spain (MCC-Spain). METHODS: MCC-Spain included 557 colorectal cancer cases and 2948 controls in 11 provinces, frequency matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Distances were computed from subjects' residences to each of the 134 industries located in the study area. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance (from 1 km to 3 km) to industrial facilities, adjusting for matching variables and other confounders. RESULTS: Excess risk (OR; 95%CI) of colorectal cancer was detected near industries overall for all distances analyzed, from 1 km (2.03; 1.44-2.87) to 3 km (1.26; 1.00-1.59). In general, industries releasing pollutants to air showed higher excess risks than facilities releasing pollution to water. By industrial sector, excess risk (OR; 95%CI) was found near (≤3 km) production of metals (2.66; 1.77-4.00), surface treatment of metals (1.48; 1.08-2.02), glass and mineral fibers (2.06; 1.39-3.07), organic chemical industry (4.80; 3.20-7.20), inorganic chemical industry (6.74; 4.38-10.36), food/beverage sector (3.34; 2.38-4.68), and surface treatment using organic solvents (6.16; 4.06-9.36). By pollutants, the main excess risks (OR; 95%CI) were found near (≤3 km) industries releasing nonylphenol (9.19; 5.91-14.28), antimony (5.30; 3.45-8.15), naphthalene (3.11; 2.16-4.49), organotin compounds (2.64; 1.76-3.98), manganese (2.53; 1.63-3.93), dichloromethane (2.52; 1.74-3.66), and vanadium (2.49; 1.59-3.91). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that residing in the proximity of industries may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

18.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 46(supl.1): 42-46, ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors with SARS-CoV-2 infection in general practitioners and nurses of primary care centers and nursing homes in the health area of León (Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of professionals from 30 health centers and 30 nursing homes from the primary care management division of the Healthcare Area of Leon. The work center, type of profession, COVID-19 infection, level of exposure, compliance with preventive measures, isolation (if required) and diagnostic tests carried out were collected. The determination of infection was made by differentiated rapid diagnostic test (dRDT), using a finger-stick whole-blood sample. The association of variables with infection was assessed by multivariable non-conditional logistic regression. The true prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was calculated according to two scenarios for RDT (Sensitivity=0.6 and Specificity=0.985; Sensitivity=0.8 and Specificity=1). RESULTS: The true prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was between 4.9% - 11.0%. The observed prevalence was 5.9%, being higher in nursing home compared to primary care centers (9.5% vs. 5.5%). No statistically significant differences were observed by sex, type of professional, level of exposure or compliance with preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this group is low. A high number of professionals remain susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and therefore protective measures should be taken, especially in nursing home professionals


OBJETIVO: Evaluar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en médicos y enfermeras de centros de atención primaria y residencias de ancianos del área de salud de León (España). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional realizado en una muestra de conveniencia de profesionales de 30 centros de salud y 30 residencias de ancianos, de la Gerencia de Atención Primaria del área de salud de León. Se recogió información del centro de trabajo, tipo de profesión, infección por COVID-19, nivel de exposición, cumplimiento de medidas preventivas, aislamiento (si fue requerido) y test diagnósticos realizados. La determinación de infección fue llevada a cabo mediante prueba de diagnóstico rápido diferenciado (PDRd), usando muestra de sangre capilar. La asociación de las variables con la infección se evaluó mediante regresión logística multivariable no condicional. La prevalencia real de infección por SARS-CoV-2 fue calculada de acuerdo a dos escenarios para el PDRd (Sensibilidad=0,6 y Especificidad=0,985; Sensibilidad=0,8 y Especificidad=1). RESULTADOS: La prevalencia real de infección por SARS-CoV-2 se encontró entre 4,9%-11,0%. La prevalencia observada fue de 5,9%, siendo mayor en trabajadores de residencias de ancianos que de centros de salud de atención primaria (9,5% vs 5,5%). No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo, tipo de profesional, nivel de exposición o cumplimiento de medidas preventivas. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de la infección por el SARS-CoV-2 en este grupo es baja. Un gran número de profesionales siguen siendo susceptibles a la infección por el SARS-CoV-2 y, por lo tanto, medidas de protección deben ser adoptadas, especialmente en los profesionales de las residencias de ancianos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Cuidados de Enfermagem/tendências , Medicina Geral/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Precauções Universais/métodos
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e16388, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the relevance of mobile technologies and social media (MTSM) for adolescents, their association with depressive disorders in this population remains unclear. While there are previous reviews that have identified the use of MTSM as a risk factor for developing depression, other reviews have indicated their possible preventive effect. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to synthesize the current evidence on the association between MTSM use and the development or prevention of depressive disorders in adolescents. METHODS: An umbrella review was conducted using information published up to June 2019 from PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. Systematic reviews focusing on the adolescent population (up to 20 years old) and depression and its potential relationship with MTSM use were included. Screening of titles, abstracts, and full texts was performed. After selecting the reviews and given the heterogeneity of the outcome variables and exposures, a narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. RESULTS: The search retrieved 338 documents, from which 7 systematic reviews (3 meta-analyses) were selected for data extraction. There were 11-70 studies and 5582-46,015 participants included in the 7 reviews. All reviews included quantitative research, and 2 reviews also included qualitative studies. A statistically significant association between social media and developing depressive symptoms was reported in 2 reviews, while 5 reviews reported mixed results. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive social comparison and personal involvement when using MTSM could be associated with the development of depressive symptomatology. Nevertheless, MTSM might promote social support and even become a point of assistance for people with depression. Due to the mixed results, prospective research could be valuable for providing stronger evidence.

20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 447, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of comorbidity on the risk of revision in patients undergoing Total Knee arthroplasty (TKA) and Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is not currently well known. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of comorbidity on the risk of revision in TKA and THA. METHODS: Patients recorded in the Catalan Arthroplasty Register (RACat) between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2016 undergoing TKA (n = 49,701) and THA (n = 17,923) caused by osteoarthritis were included. As main explanatory factors, comorbidity burden was assessed by the Elixhauser index, categorized, and specific comorbidities from the index were taken into account. Descriptive analyses for comorbidity burden and specific conditions were done. Additionally, incidence at 1 and 5 years' follow-up was calculated, and adjusted Competing Risks models were fitted. RESULTS: A higher incidence of revision was observed when the number of comorbidities was high, both at 1 and 5 years for THA, but only at 1 year for TKA. Of the specific conditions, only obesity was related to the incidence of revision at 1 year in both joints, and at 5 years in TKA. The risk of revision was related to deficiency anemia and liver diseases in TKA, while in THA, it was related to peripheral vascular disorders, metastatic cancer and psychoses. CONCLUSIONS: Different conditions, depending on the joint, might be related to higher revision rates. This information could be relevant for clinical decision-making, patient-specific information and improving the results of both TKA and THA.

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