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1.
Blood ; 135(4): 274-286, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738823

RESUMO

Pediatric large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) share morphological and phenotypic features with adult types but have better prognosis. The higher frequency of some subtypes such as LBCL with IRF4 rearrangement (LBCL-IRF4) in children suggests that some age-related biological differences may exist. To characterize the genetic and molecular heterogeneity of these tumors, we studied 31 diffuse LBCLs (DLBCLs), not otherwise specified (NOS); 20 LBCL-IRF4 cases; and 12 cases of high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBCL), NOS in patients ≤25 years using an integrated approach, including targeted gene sequencing, copy-number arrays, and gene expression profiling. Each subgroup displayed different molecular profiles. LBCL-IRF4 had frequent mutations in IRF4 and NF-κB pathway genes (CARD11, CD79B, and MYD88), losses of 17p13 and gains of chromosome 7, 11q12.3-q25, whereas DLBCL, NOS was predominantly of germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype and carried gene mutations similar to the adult counterpart (eg, SOCS1 and KMT2D), gains of 2p16/REL, and losses of 19p13/CD70. A subset of HGBCL, NOS displayed recurrent alterations of Burkitt lymphoma-related genes such as MYC, ID3, and DDX3X and homozygous deletions of 9p21/CDKN2A, whereas other cases were genetically closer to GCB DLBCL. Factors related to unfavorable outcome were age >18 years; activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL profile, HGBCL, NOS, high genetic complexity, 1q21-q44 gains, 2p16/REL gains/amplifications, 19p13/CD70 homozygous deletions, and TP53 and MYC mutations. In conclusion, these findings further unravel the molecular heterogeneity of pediatric and young adult LBCL, improve the classification of this group of tumors, and provide new parameters for risk stratification.

2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 139: 7-15, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112884

RESUMO

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which is DNA released from cells into the circulation, is one of the most promising non-invasive biomarkers in cancer. This approach could be of interest for the management of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, which is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Then, the aim of this systematic review was to define the utility of cfDNA in this disease. Selected articles were classified in four groups, depending on the aspects of cfDNA studied, i.e. concentration, methylation, IgH gene rearrangements, and somatic mutations. While concentration and methylation of cfDNA need to be further analyzed, IgH gene rearrangements and somatic mutations seem to be the most promising biomarkers to date. Their detection has been shown to allow disease monitoring and early prediction of relapse. Although more efforts and standardization of techniques are needed, studying cfDNA in liquid biopsy may help improve the outcome of DLBCL patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/sangue , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Prognóstico
3.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 19(6): 564-569, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723315

RESUMO

Vincristine is an important drug of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment protocols that can cause neurotoxicity. Patients treated with LAL/SHOP protocols often suffer from vincristine-related neurotoxicity in early phases of treatment. A genetic variant in CEP72, a gene involved in vincristine pharmacodynamics, was recently associated with neurotoxicity after prolonged vincristine treatment. This association was not replicated in our Spanish population during induction phase. To test the possibility that other variants in genes involved in vincristine pharmacodynamics were associated with vincristine neuropathy in early phases of the treatment, we evaluated the correlation with toxicity of 24 polymorphisms in 9 key genes in a large cohort of 152 Spanish children with B-ALL homogeneously treated. Results showed no association between any genetic variant in the TUBB1, TUBB2A, TUBB2B, TUBB3, TUBB4, MAPT, MIR146a, MIR202, and MIR411 genes and vincristine-related neurotoxicity. These results are in line with the hypothesis that there are different mechanisms causing pheripheral neurotoxicity after prolonged and short-term vincristine treatments.

4.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(6): 365-372, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578714

RESUMO

Rare cases of hematological precursor neoplasms fulfill the diagnostic criteria of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), characterized by expression patterns of at least two hematopoietic lineages, for which a highly aggressive behavior was reported. We present a series of 11 pediatric non-leukemic MPAL identified among 146 precursor lymphoblastic lymphomas included in the prospective trial Euro-LBL 02. Paraffin-embedded biopsies of 10 cases were suitable for molecular analyses using OncoScan assay (n = 7), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH; n = 7) or both (n = 5). Except for one case with biallelic KMT2A (MLL) breaks, all cases analyzed by FISH lacked the most common translocations defining molecular subsets of lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomas. Two non-leukemic B-myeloid MPALs showed the typical genomic profile of hyperdiploid precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia with gains of chromosomes 4, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 21. One B-T MPAL showed typical aberrations of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, such as copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNN-LOH) at 9p targeting a 9p21.3 deletion of CDKN2A and 11q12.2-qter affecting the ATM gene. ATM was also mutated in a T-myeloid MPAL case with additional loss at 7q21.2-q36.3 and mutation of NRAS, two alterations common in myeloid disorders. No recurrent regions of CNN-LOH were observed. The outcome under treatment was good with all patients being alive in first complete remission after treatment according to a protocol for precursor lymphoblastic lymphoma (follow-up 3-10 years, median: 4.9 years). In summary, the present series of non-leukemic MPALs widely lacked recurrently reported translocations in lymphoid/myeloid neoplasias and showed heterogeneous spectrum of chromosomal imbalances.


Assuntos
Fenótipo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Translocação Genética , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia
5.
Pharmacogenomics ; 19(18): 1403-1412, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479191

RESUMO

AIM: Mucositis, linked to methotrexate, daunorubicin or cyclophosphamide, is a frequent childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy side effect. miRNAs regulate the expression of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic pathway genes. SNPs in miRNAs could affect their levels or function, and affect their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic pathway target genes. Our aim was to determine the association between miRNA genetic variants targeting mucositis-related genes and mucositis-developing risk. PATIENTS & METHODS: We analyzed 160 SNPs in 179 Spanish children with B-cell precursor ALL homogeneously treated with LAL/SHOP protocols. RESULTS: We identified three SNPs in miR-4268, miR-4751 and miR-3117 associated with mucositis, diarrhea and vomiting, respectively. CONCLUSION: The effect of these SNPs on genes related to drug pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics could explain mucositis, diarrhea and vomiting development during ALL therapy.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Mucosite/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15414, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337581

RESUMO

Association studies in osteosarcoma risk found significant results in intergenic regions, suggesting that regions which do not codify for proteins could play an important role. The deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been already associated with osteosarcoma. Consequently, genetic variants affecting miRNA function could be associated with risk. This study aimed to evaluate the involvement of all genetic variants in pre-miRNAs described so far in relationship to the risk of osteosarcoma. We analyzed a total of 213 genetic variants in 206 pre-miRNAs in two cohorts of osteosarcoma patients (n = 100) and their corresponding controls (n = 256) from Spanish and Slovenian populations, using Goldengate Veracode technology (Illumina). Four polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs at 14q32 miRNA cluster were associated with osteosarcoma risk in the Spanish population (rs12894467, rs61992671, rs58834075 and rs12879262). Pathway enrichment analysis including target genes of these miRNAs pointed out the WNT signaling pathways overrepresented. Moreover, different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects between the two populations included were observed, suggesting the existence of population differences. In conclusion, 14q32 miRNA cluster seems to be a hotspot for osteosarcoma susceptibility in the Spanish population, but not in the Slovenian, which supports the idea of the existence of population differences in developing this disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteossarcoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteossarcoma/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Oncotarget ; 9(33): 22907-22914, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796161

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children. Numerous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) could play a role in this disease. Nowadays, more than 2500 miRNAs have been described, that regulate more than 50% of genes, including those involved in B-cell maturation, differentiation and proliferation. Genetic variants in miRNAs can alter their own levels or function, affecting their target gene expression, and then, may affect ALL risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of miRNA genetic variants in B-ALL susceptibility. We analyzed all variants in pre-miRNAs (MAF > 1%) in two independent cohorts from Spain and Slovenia and inferred their functional effect by in silico analysis. SNPs rs12402181 in miR-3117 and rs62571442 in miR-3689d2 were associated with ALL risk in both cohorts, possibly through their effect on MAPK signalling pathway. These SNPs could be novel markers for ALL susceptibility.

8.
Epigenomics ; 10(4): 409-417, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569486

RESUMO

AIM: Hepatotoxicity is one of the most common drug-related toxicities during the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Many genes involved in liver-specific signaling pathways are tightly controlled by miRNAs, and miRNA function could be modulated by SNPs. As a consequence, we hypothesized that variants in miRNAs could be associated with drug-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: We analyzed 213 SNPs in 206 miRNAs in a cohort of 179 children with ALL homogeneously treated. RESULTS: rs2648841 in miR-1208 was the most significant SNP during consolidation phase after false discovery rate correction, probably through an effect on its target genes DHFR, MTR and MTHFR. CONCLUSION: These results point out the possible involvement of SNPs in miRNAs in toxicity to chemotherapy in children with ALL.


Assuntos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Pharmacogenomics ; 19(4): 361-373, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469670

RESUMO

Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survival rates have increased remarkably during last decades due, in part, to intensive treatment protocols. However, therapy resistance and toxicity are still two important barriers to survival. In this context, pharmacoepigenetics arises as a tool to identify new predictive markers, required to guide clinicians on risk stratification and dose individualization. The present study reviews current evidence about miRNA implication on childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy resistance and toxicity. A total of 12 studies analyzing differential miRNA expression in relation to drug resistance and six studies exploring the association between miRNAs-related SNPs and drug-induced toxicities were identified. We pointed out to miR-125b together with miR-99a and/or miR-100 overexpression as markers of vincristine resistance and rs2114358 in mir-1206 as mucositis marker as the most promising results.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Animais , Humanos , Farmacogenética/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 18(6): 704-712, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282364

RESUMO

Vincristine (VCR), an important component of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy, can cause sensory and motor neurotoxicity. This neurotoxicity could lead to dose reduction or treatment discontinuation, which could in turn reduce survival. In this line, several studies associated peripheral neurotoxicity and polymorphisms in genes involved in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of VCR. Nowadays, it is well known that these genes are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and SNPs in miRNAs could modify their levels or function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether SNPs in miRNAs could be associated with VCR-induced neurotoxicity. To achieve this aim, we analyzed all the SNPs in miRNAs (minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.01) which could regulate VCR-related genes in a large cohort of Spanish children with B-cell precursor ALL (B-ALL) homogeneously treated with LAL/SHOP protocols. We identified the A allele of rs12402181 in the seed region of miR-3117-3p, that could affect the binding with ABCC1 and RALBP1 gene, and C allele of rs7896283 in pre-mature sequence of miR-4481, which could be involved in peripheral nerve regeneration, significantly associated with VCR-induced neurotoxicity. These findings point out the possible involvement of two SNPs in miRNA associated with VCR-related neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/genética , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/induzido quimicamente , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos das Sensações/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos das Sensações/genética , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Idade de Início , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/diagnóstico , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Farmacogenética , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Fenótipo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos das Sensações/diagnóstico , Espanha , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
11.
Med Oncol ; 34(10): 179, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905228

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy and a leading cause of death due to disease in children. The genetic basis of ALL susceptibility has been supported by its association with certain congenital disorders and, more recently, by several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These GWAS identified common variants in ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, CDKN2A, PIP4K2A, LHPP and ELK3 influencing ALL risk. However, the risk variants of these SNPs were not validated in all populations, suggesting that some of the loci could be population specific. On the other hand, the currently identified risk SNPs in these genes only account for 19% of the additive heritable risk. This estimation indicates that additional susceptibility variants could be discovered. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most important findings carried out in genetic susceptibility of childhood ALL in all GWAS and subsequent studies and we will also point to future directions that could be explored in the near future.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Animais , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
12.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 27(8): 303-306, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628559

RESUMO

Five-year survival rates of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have reached 90% in the developed countries. However, toxicity because of methotrexate (MTX) occurs frequently. Variety in the occurrence of toxicity is partly determined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions. Recently, five SNPs in non-coding pre-microRNAs and microRNA processing (miRNA) genes were identified in association with MTX-induced oral mucositis. This study aimed to replicate the association of these miRNA variants in relation to MTX-induced oral mucositis in a prospective childhood ALL cohort. Three out of five SNPs with a minor allele frequency more than 0.15 [CCR4-NOT transcription complex (CNOT4) rs3812265, miR-1206 rs2114358, miR-2053 rs10505168] were analyzed in 117 pediatric ALL patients treated with 5 g/m MTX (DCOG ALL-10). Oral mucositis was defined as grade more than or equal to 3 according to the National Cancer Institute criteria. rs2114358 in miR-1206 was associated with oral mucositis [odds ratio (OR): 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-11.5], whereas we did not confirm the association of CNOT4 rs3812265 (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.27-1.80) and miR-2053 rs10505168 (OR: 2.50; 95% CI: 0.76-8.24). Our results replicate the association between rs2114358 in miR-1206 and MTX-induced oral mucositis in childhood ALL. Genetic variation in miR-1206 has potential as a novel biomarker to predict MTX-induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite/genética , Adolescente , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , MicroRNAs/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente
13.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177421, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481918

RESUMO

The locus CDKN2A/B (9p21.3), which comprises the tumor suppressors genes CDKN2A and CDKN2B and the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) known as ANRIL (or CDKN2B-AS), was associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility in several genome wide association studies (GWAS). However, the variants associated in the diverse studies were different. Recently, new and independent SNPs deregulating the locus function were also identified in association with ALL risk. This diversity in the results may be explained because different variants in each population could alter CDKN2A/B locus function through diverse mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the annotated risk variants in the CDKN2A/B locus affect the susceptibility of B cell precursor ALL (B-ALL) in our Spanish population and explore if other SNPs altering additional regulatory mechanisms could be also involved. We analyzed the four SNPs proposed by GWAs and two additional SNPs in miRNA binding sites in 217 pediatric patients with B-ALL and 330 healthy controls. The SNPs rs2811712, rs3731249, rs3217992 and rs2811709 were associated with B-ALL susceptibility in our Spanish population. ALL subtypes analyses showed that rs2811712 was associated with B-hyperdiploid ALL. These results provide evidence for the influence of genetic variants at CDKN2A/B locus with the risk of developing B-ALL.


Assuntos
Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Leucemia de Células B/genética , Mutação , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espanha
14.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med ; 10: 69-78, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392709

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) is an important component in the therapy used to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme for MTX pharmacokinetics. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR gene, C677T and A1298C, affecting MTHFR activity, have been widely studied as potential markers of MTX toxicity and/or outcome in pediatric ALL. In this review, we show that the majority of published reports do not find association or present opposite effect. Therefore, MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms do not seem to be good markers of MTX-related toxicity and/or outcome in pediatric ALL. The efforts should be focused on other genes, such as transporter genes or microRNA-related genes.

15.
Drug Metab Pers Ther ; 32(1): 1-9, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259867

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a major pediatric cancer in developed countries. Although treatment outcome has improved owing to advances in chemotherapy, there is still a group of patients who experience severe adverse events. L-Asparaginase is an effective antineoplastic agent used in chemotherapy of ALL. Despite its indisputable indication, hypersensitivity reactions are common. In those cases, discontinuation of treatment is usually needed and anti-asparaginase antibody production may also attenuate asparaginase activity, compromising its antileukemic effect. Till now, six pharmacogenetic studies have been performed in order to elucidate possible genetic predisposition for inter-individual differences in asparaginase hypersensitivity. In this review we have summarized the results of those studies which describe the involvement of four different genes, being polymorphisms in the glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 1 (GRIA1) the most frequently associated with asparaginase hypersensitivity. We also point to new approaches focusing on epigenetics that could be interesting for consideration in the near future.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/metabolismo , Variação Genética/genética , Farmacogenética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/enzimologia , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Receptores de Glutamato/genética , Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo
16.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 26(11): 517-525, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Methotrexate (MTX), the key drug in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) therapy, often causes toxicity. An association between genetic variants in MTX transport genes and toxicity has been found. It is known that these transporters are regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), and miRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interfere with miRNA levels or function. With regard to B-cell ALL, we have previously found rs56103835 in miR-323b that targets ABCC4 associated with MTX plasma levels. Despite these evidences and that nowadays a large amount of new miRNAs have been annotated, studies of miRNA polymorphisms and MTX toxicity are almost absent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether there are other variants in miRNAs associated with MTX levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples of 167 Spanish patients with pediatric B-cell ALL treated with the LAL-SHOP protocol were analyzed. We selected all the SNPs described in pre-miRNAs with a minor allele frequency more than 1% (213 SNPs in 206 miRNAs) that could regulate MTX transporters because the miRNAs that target MTX transporter genes are not completely defined. Genotyping was performed with VeraCode GoldenGate platform. RESULTS: Among the most significant results, we found rs56292801 in miR-5189, rs4909237 in miR-595, and rs78790512 in miR-6083 to be associated with MTX plasma levels. These miRNAs were predicted, in silico, to regulate genes involved in MTX uptake: SLC46A1, SLC19A1, and SLCO1A2. CONCLUSION: In this study, we detected three SNPs in miR-5189, miR-595, and miR-6083 that might affect SLC46A1, SLC19A1, and SLCO1A2 MTX transport gene regulation and could affect MTX levels in patients with pediatric B-cell ALL.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/genética , Proteína Carregadora de Folato Reduzido/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
17.
Pediatr Res ; 80(4): 472-9, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27438225

RESUMO

Two polymorphisms in the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene (rs1690916 and rs2279744) have been associated with the risk of osteosarcoma (OS). When we analyzed these two polymorphisms in two new independents cohorts (Spanish and Slovenian), we found no association. In order to clarify this, we conducted a meta-analysis including six populations, with a total of 246 OS patients and 1,760 controls for rs1690916; and 433 OS patients and 1,959 controls for rs2279744. Pooled odds ratio risks and corresponding 95% CI were estimated to assess the possible associations. Our results showed that these two polymorphisms were not associated with the susceptibility of OS under any genetic model studied. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis indicates that MDM2 rs1690916 and rs2279744 cannot be considered as genetic risk factors for OS susceptibility in the different populations. Therefore, the influence of these two polymorphisms on the risk of OS may be less important than previously suggested. Future studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Osteossarcoma/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Eslovênia , Espanha
18.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11889, 2016 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27297662

RESUMO

NKX2 homeobox family proteins have a role in cancer development. Here we show that NKX2-3 is overexpressed in tumour cells from a subset of patients with marginal-zone lymphomas, but not with other B-cell malignancies. While Nkx2-3-deficient mice exhibit the absence of marginal-zone B cells, transgenic mice with expression of NKX2-3 in B cells show marginal-zone expansion that leads to the development of tumours, faithfully recapitulating the principal clinical and biological features of human marginal-zone lymphomas. NKX2-3 induces B-cell receptor signalling by phosphorylating Lyn/Syk kinases, which in turn activate multiple integrins (LFA-1, VLA-4), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, MadCAM-1) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. These molecules enhance migration, polarization and homing of B cells to splenic and extranodal tissues, eventually driving malignant transformation through triggering NF-κB and PI3K-AKT pathways. This study implicates oncogenic NKX2-3 in lymphomagenesis, and provides a valid experimental mouse model for studying the biology and therapy of human marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Quinase Syk/genética , Quinase Syk/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Pharmacogenomics ; 17(7): 731-41, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27180762

RESUMO

AIM: Vincristine is an important component of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment protocols that can cause neurotoxicity. Patients treated with LAL/SHOP protocols often suffer from vincristine-related neurotoxicity in early phases of treatment. Recently, a genome-wide association study connected a SNP in CEP72, involved in vincristine pharmacodynamics, with neurotoxicity during later phases of therapy, which was not replicated during induction phase. These results, together with previous studies indicating that polymorphisms in pharmacokinetic genes are associated with drug toxicity, suggest that changes in the activity or levels of vincristine transporters or metabolizers could work as predictors of vincristine-related neurotoxicity in early phases of treatment in pediatric ALL. PATIENTS & METHODS: We analyzed 150 SNPs in eight key genes involved in vincristine pharmacokinetics and in 13 miRNAs that regulate them. We studied their correlation with neurotoxicity during induction phase in 152 ALL patients treated with LAL/SHOP protocols. RESULTS: The strongest associations with neurotoxicity were observed for two SNPs in ABCC2. The genotypes rs3740066 GG and rs12826 GG were associated with increased neurotoxicity. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms in ABCC2 could be novel markers for vincristine-related neurotoxicity in pediatric ALL in early phases.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacocinética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/metabolismo , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Vincristina/farmacocinética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; 17(4): 308-15, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007576

RESUMO

Objectives α2C-adrenoceptors (α2C-AR) are involved in behavioural responses relevant to psychiatric disorders and suicide completion. The genetic polymorphism α2CDel322-325-AR confers a loss-of-function phenotype. Functional human studies have associated α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism with major depression pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to analyse, for the first time, the association of α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism with suicide completion and with related psychiatric disorders: major depression, schizophrenia, opiate and alcohol abuse and dependence. Methods Post-mortem brain DNA was extracted (n = 516) and genotyping performed by HaeIII restriction endonuclease digestion of PCR products and DNA fragment analysis on capillary sequencer. Amplified products were sequenced to confirm the presence of the polymorphism. Results The frequency of α2CDel322-325-AR in suicide (9%, n = 236) and non-suicide victims (11%, n = 280) was similar. Genotype frequencies for the α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism in depressed (15%, n = 39) and schizophrenic subjects (18%, n = 39) were higher than in controls (7%, n = 187), but these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.125 and P = 0.063, respectively). A selective and significant association of α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism with opiate abuse and dependence was found (23%, n = 35, P = 0.011). Conclusions Our results indicate that α2CDel322-325-AR may play a role in the pathophysiology of opiate abuse and dependence and raise the interest for larger genetic associative studies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Autopsia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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