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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants in CHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

2.
Brain ; 142(9): 2631-2643, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334757

RESUMO

Marked by incomplete division of the embryonic forebrain, holoprosencephaly is one of the most common human developmental disorders. Despite decades of phenotype-driven research, 80-90% of aneuploidy-negative holoprosencephaly individuals with a probable genetic aetiology do not have a genetic diagnosis. Here we report holoprosencephaly associated with variants in the two X-linked cohesin complex genes, STAG2 and SMC1A, with loss-of-function variants in 10 individuals and a missense variant in one. Additionally, we report four individuals with variants in the cohesin complex genes that are not X-linked, SMC3 and RAD21. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, we show that STAG2 and SMC1A are expressed in the prosencephalic neural folds during primary neurulation in the mouse, consistent with forebrain morphogenesis and holoprosencephaly pathogenesis. Finally, we found that shRNA knockdown of STAG2 and SMC1A causes aberrant expression of HPE-associated genes ZIC2, GLI2, SMAD3 and FGFR1 in human neural stem cells. These findings show the cohesin complex as an important regulator of median forebrain development and X-linked inheritance patterns in holoprosencephaly.

3.
Clin Genet ; 96(3): 266-270, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282990

RESUMO

Lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D; OMIM 602113) encodes a histone methyltransferase involved in transcriptional regulation of the beta-globin and estrogen receptor as part of a large protein complex known as activating signal cointegrator-2-containing complex (ASCOM). Heterozygous germline mutations in the KMT2D gene are known to cause Kabuki syndrome (OMIM 147920), a developmental multisystem disorder. Neither holoprosencephaly nor other defects in human forebrain development have been previously associated with Kabuki syndrome. Here we report two patients diagnosed with alobar holoprosencephaly in their antenatal period with de novo monoallelic KMT2D variants identified by trio-based exome sequencing. The first patient was found to have a stop-gain variant c.12565G>T (p.Gly4189*), while the second patient had a missense variant c.5A>G (p.Asp2Gly). Phenotyping of each patient did not reveal any age-related feature of Kabuki syndrome. These two cases represent the first report on association between KMT2D and holoprosencephaly.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 990-993, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006510

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly is the incomplete separation of the forebrain during embryogenesis. Both genetic and environmental etiologies have been determined for holoprosencephaly; however, a genetic etiology is not found in most cases. In this report, we present two unrelated individuals with semilobar holoprosencephaly who have the identical de novo missense variant in the gene CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 1 (CNOT1). The variant (c.1603C>T [p.Arg535Cys]) is predicted to be deleterious and is not present in public databases. CNOT1 has not been previously associated with holoprosencephaly or other brain malformations. In situ hybridization analyses of mouse embryos show that Cnot1 is expressed in the prosencephalic neural folds at gestational day 8.25 during the critical period for subsequent forebrain division. Combining human and mouse data, we show that CNOT1 is associated with incomplete forebrain division.

5.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922925

RESUMO

Majewski Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism type II (MOPDII) is a form of dwarfism associated with severe microcephaly, characteristic skeletal findings, distinct dysmorphic features and increased risk for cerebral infarctions. The condition is caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in the gene PCNT. Here we describe the identification of a novel founder pathogenic variant c.3465-1G > A observed in carriers from multiple Druze villages in Northern Israel. RNA studies show that the variant results in activation of a cryptic splice site causing a coding frameshift. The study was triggered by the diagnosis of a single child with MOPDII and emphasizes the advantages of applying next generation sequencing technologies in community genetics and the importance of establishing population-specific sequencing databases.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 42, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696812

RESUMO

Genetic factors are strongly implicated in the susceptibility to develop externalizing syndromes such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and substance use disorder (SUD). Variants in the ADGRL3 (LPHN3) gene predispose to ADHD and predict ADHD severity, disruptive behaviors comorbidity, long-term outcome, and response to treatment. In this study, we investigated whether variants within ADGRL3 are associated with SUD, a disorder that is frequently co-morbid with ADHD. Using family-based, case-control, and longitudinal samples from disparate regions of the world (n = 2698), recruited either for clinical, genetic epidemiological or pharmacogenomic studies of ADHD, we assembled recursive-partitioning frameworks (classification tree analyses) with clinical, demographic, and ADGRL3 genetic information to predict SUD susceptibility. Our results indicate that SUD can be efficiently and robustly predicted in ADHD participants. The genetic models used remained highly efficient in predicting SUD in a large sample of individuals with severe SUD from a psychiatric institution that were not ascertained on the basis of ADHD diagnosis, thus identifying ADGRL3 as a risk gene for SUD. Recursive-partitioning analyses revealed that rs4860437 was the predominant predictive variant. This new methodological approach offers novel insights into higher order predictive interactions and offers a unique opportunity for translational application in the clinical assessment of patients at high risk for SUD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: De novo variants (DNVs) represent an important fraction of the pathogenic variant burden in holoprosencephaly (HPE). However, unexpected recurrences can occur, as evidenced by multiple affected children harboring the same apparently DNV. This study was performed to estimate the rate of parental mosaicism in a cohort of patients with HPE. METHODS: We developed a targeted capture next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of 153 genes with potential implication in HPE. Sequencing data from a cohort of 136 HPE family trios were analyzed to identify probands with apparently DNVs. DNVs were examined in the proband and their parents to detect any deviations from the expected ~50/50 allele ratio of true heterozygosity. Selected variants were confirmed by Droplet Digital™ polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). RESULTS: We identified 28 high-confidence DNVs, 20 of which occurred in known HPE genes. Nineteen of the 20 variants (95%) were pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Sequence data analysis showed evidence of parental mosaicism in five cases, for an overall mosaicism rate of 26%. In addition, we found evidence for likely postzygotic events in four cases (50%). CONCLUSIONS: High sensitivity methods, such as high-depth NGS and ddPCR, are essential to providing an accurate assessment of recurrence risk in HPE families with apparently DNVs.

8.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(2): 175-186, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182442

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE), a common developmental forebrain malformation, is characterized by failure of the cerebrum to completely divide into left and right hemispheres. The etiology of HPE is heterogeneous and a number of environmental and genetic factors have been identified. Cytogenetically visible alterations occur in 25% to 45% of HPE patients and cytogenetic techniques have long been used to study copy number variants (CNVs) in this disorder. The karyotype approach initially demonstrated several recurrent chromosomal anomalies, which led to the identification of HPE-specific loci and, eventually, several major HPE genes. More recently, higher-resolution cytogenetic techniques such as subtelomeric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and chromosomal microarray have been used to analyze chromosomal anomalies. By using chromosomal microarray, we sought to identify submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications in patients with HPE. In an analysis of 222 individuals with HPE, a deletion or duplication was detected in 107 individuals. Of these 107 individuals, 23 (21%) had variants that were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic by board-certified medical geneticists. We identified multiple patients with deletions in established HPE loci as well as three patients with deletions encompassed by 6q12-q14.3, a CNV previously reported by Bendavid et al. In addition, we identified a new locus, 16p13.2 that warrants further investigation for HPE association. Incidentally, we also found a case of Potocki-Lupski syndrome, a case of Phelan-McDermid syndrome, and multiple cases of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome within our cohort. These data confirm the genetically heterogeneous nature of HPE, and also demonstrate clinical utility of chromosomal microarray in diagnosing patients affected by HPE.

9.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(2): 246-257, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761634

RESUMO

Nonchromosomal, nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly (NCNS-HPE) has traditionally been considered as a condition of brain and craniofacial maldevelopment. In this review, we present the results of a comprehensive literature search supporting a wide spectrum of extracephalic manifestations identified in patients with NCNS-HPE. These manifestations have been described in case reports and in large cohorts of patients with "single-gene" mutations, suggesting that the NCNS-HPE phenotype can be more complex than traditionally thought. Likely, a complex network of interacting genetic variants and environmental factors is responsible for these systemic abnormalities that deviate from the usual brain and craniofacial findings in NCNS-HPE. In addition to the systemic consequences of pituitary dysfunction (as a direct result of brain midline defects), here we describe a number of extracephalic findings of NCNS-HPE affecting various organ systems. It is our goal to provide a guide of extracephalic features for clinicians given the important clinical implications of these manifestations for the management and care of patients with HPE and their mutation-positive relatives. The health risks associated with some manifestations (e.g., fatty liver disease) may have historically been neglected in affected families.

10.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(2): 187-193, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771000

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a structural brain anomaly characterized by failure of the forebrain to separate during early embryogenesis. Both genetic and environmental etiologies of HPE have been discovered over the last three decades. Traditionally, the genetic workup for HPE has been a karyotype, chromosomal microarray, and/or Sanger sequencing of select genes. The recent increased availability of next-generation sequencing has changed the molecular diagnostic landscape for HPE, associating new genes with this disorder such as FGFR1. We conducted a systematic review of the medical literature for the molecular testing of HPE for studies published in the last 20 years. We also queried known commercial diagnostic laboratories and used information on their websites to construct a list of available commercial testing. Our group released its first recommendations in 2010 and this update incorporates the technology shifts and gene discoveries over the last decade. These recommendations provide a guide for genetic diagnosis of HPE, which is paramount for patients and their families for prognosis, treatment, and genetic counseling.

11.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 301(6): 973-986, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663664

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder involving developmental defects. HPE is a rare condition (1/10,000-20,000 newborns) but can be found as frequently as 1/250 among conceptions, suggesting that most HPE embryos are incompatible with postnatal life and result in spontaneous abortions during the first trimester of gestation. Beginning in 1961, the Kyoto University in Japan collected over 44,000 human conceptuses in collaboration with several hundred domestic obstetricians. Over 200 cases of HPE have been identified in the Kyoto collection, which represents the largest single cohort of HPE early stage embryo specimens. In this study, we present a comprehensive clinical and demographic evaluation of this HPE cohort prior to genomic analysis. The total percentage of the threatened abortion among HPE embryos in the Kyoto collection was 67%. Almost 20% of the women with embryos affected by HPE had experienced spontaneous miscarriage. In addition, there was a significant tendency that the mothers with HPE cases had fewer live births than the control. Moreover, in 70% of cases, the mother reported bleeding during pregnancy, a higher percentage than expected, indicating that most of the conceptions with HPE embryos tend to be terminated spontaneously. There were no differences in smoking between mothers with HPE affected and unaffected pregnancies; however, alcohol use was higher in women with pregnancies affected by HPE. In this study, we precisely characterize the phenotype and environmental influences of embryos affected by HPE allowing the future leveraging of genomic technologies to further understand the genetics of forebrain development. Anat Rec, 301:973-986, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

12.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) ; 58(1): 29-32, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670735

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is failure of the forebrain to divide completely during embryogenesis. Incomplete penetrance has not been reported previously in SIX3 whole gene deletions, which are known to cause HPE. Both chromosomal microarray and whole exome sequencing (WES) were used to evaluate families with inherited HPE. Two families showed inherited deletions that contain SIX3 and were incompletely penetrant for HPE. Using WES, we ruled out parental mosaicism, a SIX3 hypomorph, and clinically significant variants in genes that are known to interact with SIX3 as causes of incomplete penetrance. We demonstrate the importance of molecular cascade testing in families with HPE and we answer important questions about incomplete penetrance.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/genética , Deleção de Genes , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Prosencéfalo/anormalidades , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Expressão Gênica , Holoprosencefalia/diagnóstico , Holoprosencefalia/metabolismo , Holoprosencefalia/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Análise em Microsséries , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Penetrância , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
J Hepatol ; 67(4): 809-817, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease. Activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in the progression of NAFLD and proposed as a therapeutic target; however, the effects of Hh signaling inhibition have not been studied in humans with germline mutations that affect this pathway. METHODS: Patients with holoprosencephaly (HPE), a disorder associated with germline mutations disrupting Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, were clinically evaluated for NAFLD. A combined mouse model of Hh signaling attenuation (Gli2 heterozygous null: Gli2+/-) and diet-induced NAFLD was used to examine aspects of NAFLD and hepatic gene expression profiles, including molecular markers of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: Patients with HPE had a higher prevalence of liver steatosis compared to the general population, independent of obesity. Exposure of Gli2+/- mice to fatty liver-inducing diets resulted in increased liver steatosis compared to wild-type mice. Similar to humans, this effect was independent of obesity in the mutant mice and was associated with decreased expression of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes, and increased expression of PPARγ, a potent anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory regulator. Interestingly, tumor suppressors p53 and p16INK4 were found to be downregulated in the Gli2+/- mice exposed to a high-fat diet. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that germline mutations disrupting Hh signaling promotes liver steatosis, independent of obesity, with reduced fibrosis. While Hh signaling inhibition has been associated with a better NAFLD prognosis, further studies are required to evaluate the long-term effects of mutations affecting this pathway. Lay summary: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess fat deposition in the liver predominantly due to high calorie intake and a sedentary lifestyle. NAFLD progression is usually accompanied by activation of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway leading to fibrous buildup (scar tissue) and inflammation of the liver tissue. For the first time patients with holoprosencephaly, a disease caused by SHH signaling mutations, are shown to have increased liver steatosis independent of obesity. This observation was recapitulated in a mouse model of attenuated SHH signaling that also showed increased liver steatosis but with decreased fibrosis and inflammation. While SHH inhibition is associated with a good NAFLD prognosis, this increase in liver fat accumulation in the context of SHH signaling inhibition must be studied prospectively to evaluate its long-term effects, especially in individuals with Western-type dietary habits.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Holoprosencefalia/complicações , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Criança , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Prevalência , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco/deficiência , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco/genética
14.
J Med Genet ; 54(12): 825-829, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a common birth defect affecting approximately 1% of newborns. Great progress has been made in elucidating the genetic aetiology of CHD with advances in genomic technology, which we leveraged in recovering a new pathway affecting heart development in humans previously known to affect heart development in an animal model. METHODS: Four hundred and sixteen individuals from Thailand and the USA diagnosed with CHD and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia were evaluated with chromosomal microarray and whole exome sequencing. The DECIPHER Consortium and medical literature were searched for additional patients. Murine hearts from ENU-induced mouse mutants and transgenic mice were evaluated using both episcopic confocal histopathology and troponin I stained sections. RESULTS: Loss of function ROBO1 variants were identified in three families; each proband had a ventricular septal defect, and one proband had tetralogy of Fallot. Additionally, a microdeletion in an individual with CHD was found in the medical literature. Mouse models showed perturbation of the Slit-Robo signalling pathway, causing septation and outflow tract defects and craniofacial anomalies. Two probands had variable facial features consistent with the mouse model. CONCLUSION: Our findings identify Slit-Robo as a significant pathway in human heart development and CHD.


Assuntos
Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/diagnóstico , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico , Tetralogia de Fallot/genética , Animais , Criança , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 80(12): 943-954, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27692237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors predispose individuals to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have reported linkage and association to ADHD of gene variants within ADGRL3. In this study, we functionally analyzed noncoding variants in this gene as likely pathological contributors. METHODS: In silico, in vitro, and in vivo approaches were used to identify and characterize evolutionary conserved elements within the ADGRL3 linkage region (~207 Kb). Family-based genetic analyses of 838 individuals (372 affected and 466 unaffected patients) identified ADHD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms harbored in some of these conserved elements. Luciferase assays and zebrafish green fluorescent protein transgenesis tested conserved elements for transcriptional enhancer activity. Electromobility shift assays were used to verify transcription factor-binding disruption by ADHD risk alleles. RESULTS: An ultraconserved element was discovered (evolutionary conserved region 47) that functions as a transcriptional enhancer. A three-variant ADHD risk haplotype in evolutionary conserved region 47, formed by rs17226398, rs56038622, and rs2271338, reduced enhancer activity by 40% in neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cells (pBonferroni < .0001). This enhancer also drove green fluorescent protein expression in the zebrafish brain in a tissue-specific manner, sharing aspects of endogenous ADGRL3 expression. The rs2271338 risk allele disrupts binding of YY1 transcription factor, an important factor in the development and function of the central nervous system. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis of postmortem human brain tissues revealed an association between rs2271338 and reduced ADGRL3 expression in the thalamus. CONCLUSIONS: These results uncover the first functional evidence of common noncoding variants with potential implications for the pathology of ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 4(5): 540-7, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27652281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ADHD is the most common neuropsychiatric condition affecting individuals of all ages. Long-term outcomes of affected individuals and association with severe comorbidities as SUD or conduct disorders are the main concern. Genetic associations have been extensively described. Multiple studies show that intronic variants harbored in the ADGRL3 (LPHN3) gene are associated with ADHD, especially associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated this association in the Multimodal Treatment Study of children with ADHD (MTA), initiated as a 14-month randomized clinical trial of 579 children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C), that transitioned to a 16-year prospective observational follow-up, and 289 classmates added at the 2-year assessment to serve as a local normative comparison group (LNCG). Diagnostic evaluations at entry were based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent (DISC-P), which was repeated at several points over the years. For an add-on genetic study, blood samples were collected from 232 in the MTA group and 139 in the LNCG. RESULTS: For the 205 MTA participants, 14.6% retained the DISC-P diagnosis of ADHD-C in adolescence. For 127 LNCG participants, 88.2% remained undiagnosed by the DISC-P. We genotyped 15 polymorphic SNP markers harbored in the ADGRL3 gene, and compared allele frequencies for the 30 cases with continued diagnosis of ADHD-C in adolescence to the other participants. Replication of the association of rs2345039 ADGRL3 variant was observed (P value = 0.004, FDR corrected = 0.03; Odds ratio = 2.25, upper CI 1.28-3.97). CONCLUSION: The detection of susceptibility conferred by ADGRL3 variants in the extreme phenotype of continued diagnosis of ADHD-C from childhood to adolescence provides additional support that the association of ADGRL3 and ADHD is not spurious. Exploring genetic effects in longitudinal cohorts, in which refined, age-dependent phenotypes are documented, is crucial to understand the natural history of ADHD.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(4): 934-941, 2016 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616479

RESUMO

Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler involved in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. Also known as Mi2ß, CHD4 is an integral subunit of a well-characterized histone deacetylase complex. Here we report five individuals with de novo missense substitutions in CHD4 identified through whole-exome sequencing and web-based gene matching. These individuals have overlapping phenotypes including developmental delay, intellectual disability, hearing loss, macrocephaly, distinct facial dysmorphisms, palatal abnormalities, ventriculomegaly, and hypogonadism as well as additional findings such as bone fusions. The variants, c.3380G>A (p.Arg1127Gln), c.3443G>T (p.Trp1148Leu), c.3518G>T (p.Arg1173Leu), and c.3008G>A, (p.Gly1003Asp) (GenBank: NM_001273.3), affect evolutionarily highly conserved residues and are predicted to be deleterious. Previous studies in yeast showed the equivalent Arg1127 and Trp1148 residues to be crucial for SNF2 function. Furthermore, mutations in the same positions were reported in malignant tumors, and a de novo missense substitution in an equivalent arginine residue in the C-terminal helicase domain of SMARCA4 is associated with Coffin Siris syndrome. Cell-based studies of the p.Arg1127Gln and p.Arg1173Leu mutants demonstrate normal localization to the nucleus and HDAC1 interaction. Based on these findings, the mutations potentially alter the complex activity but not its formation. This report provides evidence for the role of CHD4 in human development and expands an increasingly recognized group of Mendelian disorders involving chromatin remodeling and modification.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Complexo Mi-2 de Remodelação de Nucleossomo e Desacetilase/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Helicases/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma/genética , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Perda Auditiva/genética , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Megalencefalia/genética , Camundongos , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Síndrome , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 3(5): 424-32, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26436108

RESUMO

Limb body wall complex (LBWC) and amniotic band sequence (ABS) are multiple congenital anomaly conditions with craniofacial, limb, and ventral wall defects. LBWC and ABS are considered separate entities by some, and a continuum of severity of the same condition by others. The etiology of LBWC/ABS remains unknown and multiple hypotheses have been proposed. One individual with features of LBWC and his unaffected parents were whole exome sequenced and Sanger sequenced as confirmation of the mutation. Functional studies were conducted using morpholino knockdown studies followed by human mRNA rescue experiments. Using whole exome sequencing, a de novo heterozygous mutation was found in the gene IQCK: c.667C>G; p.Q223E and confirmed by Sanger sequencing in an individual with LBWC. Morpholino knockdown of iqck mRNA in the zebrafish showed ventral defects including failure of ventral fin to develop and cardiac edema. Human wild-type IQCK mRNA rescued the zebrafish phenotype, whereas human p.Q223E IQCK mRNA did not, but worsened the phenotype of the morpholino knockdown zebrafish. This study supports a genetic etiology for LBWC/ABS, or potentially a new syndrome.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(11): 2657-63, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26249544

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by germline mutations in genes coding for components of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway. Features include short stature, characteristic facies, congenital heart anomalies, and developmental delay. While there is considerable clinical heterogeneity in NS, craniosynostosis is not a common feature of the condition. Here, we report on a 2 month-old girl with Noonan syndrome associated with a de novo mutation in KRAS (p.P34Q) and premature closure of the sagittal suture. We provide a review of the literature of germline KRAS mutations and find that approximately 10% of published cases have craniosynostosis. Our findings expand on the NS phenotype and suggest that germline mutations in the KRAS gene are causally involved in craniosynostosis, supporting the role of the RAS-MAPK pathway as a mediator of aberrant bone growth in cranial sutures. The inclusion of craniosynostosis as a possible phenotype in KRAS-associated Noonan Syndrome has implications in the differential diagnosis and surgical management of individuals with craniosynostosis.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Craniossinostoses/genética , Mutação/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/complicações , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Exoma/genética , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Recém-Nascido , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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