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1.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 537-550, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Transdiagnostic Intervention for Sleep and Circadian Dysfunction (TranS-C) improves functional impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and sleep and circadian functioning. METHOD: Adults diagnosed with serious mental illness (SMI) and sleep and circadian dysfunction (N = 121) were randomly allocated to TranS-C plus usual care (TranS-C + UC; n = 61; 8 individual weekly sessions) or 6 months of Usual Care followed by Delayed Treatment with TranS-C (UC-DT; n = 60). Schizophrenia (45%) and anxiety disorders (47%) were common. Blind assessments were conducted pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6 months later (6FU). The latter two were the post-randomization points of interest. The location was Alameda County Behavioral Health Care Services (ACBHCS), a Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) in California. RESULTS: For the primary outcomes, relative to UC-DT, TranS-C + UC was associated with reduction in functional impairment (b = -3.18, p = 0.025, d = -0.58), general psychiatric symptoms (b = -5.88, p = 0.001, d = -0.64), sleep disturbance (b = -5.55, p < .0001, d = -0.96), and sleep-related impairment (b = -9.14, p < .0001, d = -0.81) from pre-treatment to post-treatment. These effects were maintained to 6-month follow-up (6FU; d = -0.42 to -0.82), except functional impairment (d = -0.37). For the secondary outcomes, relative to UC-DT, TranS-C + UC was associated with improvement in sleep efficiency and on the Sleep Health Composite score from pre-treatment to 6FU. TranS-C + UC was also associated with reduced total wake time and wake time variability from pre-treatment to post-treatment, as well as reduced hallucinations and delusions, bedtime variability, and actigraphy measured waking activity count variability from pre-treatment to 6FU. CONCLUSIONS: A novel transdiagnostic treatment, delivered within a CMHC setting, improves selected measures of functioning, symptoms of comorbid disorders, and sleep and circadian outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(6): 653-661, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the 6-month follow-up outcomes of the Transdiagnostic Sleep and Circadian Intervention (TranS-C), compared to Psychoeducation about sleep and health (PE). METHODS: Adolescents (mean [SD] = 14.77 [1.84] years) with eveningness chronotype and "at-risk" in at least one of five health domains were randomized to receive TranS-C (n = 89) or PE (n = 87) at a university-based clinic. Primary outcomes were average weeknight total sleep time and bedtime calculated from sleep diary, a questionnaire measure of circadian preference, and composite risks in five health domains. Secondary outcomes were selected sleep diary indices, sleepiness, and self- and parent-reported sleep, parent-reported risks in five health domains. RESULTS: Relative to PE, TranS-C showed treatment effects through 6-month follow-up on only one primary outcome; namely eveningness circadian preference. TranS-C also showed treatment effects on two sleep and circadian secondary outcomes, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep-diary measured weeknight-weekend discrepancy in wakeup time. TranS-C did not show treatment effects on self-report or parent-report composite risks in five health domains. PE showed benefit, relative to TranS-C, from posttreatment to 6-month follow-up for reducing parent-reported behavioral health risk (secondary outcome). CONCLUSIONS: In at-risk adolescents, the evidence supports the TranS-C treatment effects over six months on improving sleep and circadian functioning on selected outcomes but not on reducing risk in five health domains.

3.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(9): 757-771, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study tested whether improvements in sleep and circadian problems mediate the effect of a novel transdiagnostic sleep and circadian intervention (TranS-C) on improvements in 5 health domains (emotional, cognitive, behavioral, social, and physical) in community-residing, evening chronotype adolescents who were at risk for problems in these 5 health domains. METHOD: Participants were 176 adolescents (age mean [SD] = 14.77 [1.84] years; 58% female) who were randomized to receive 6 sessions of TranS-C or psychoeducation. Putative mediators tested were eveningness, weekday-weekend discrepancy in total sleep time and waketime, daytime sleepiness, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, and parent-reported sleep-wake problems. Risk in 5 health domains was measured using adolescent self-reported questionnaires, parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of problems in the 5 health domains. RESULTS: Reduced eveningness mediated the effects of TranS-C on reducing both self-reported and parent-reported risk in the 5 health domains. Reduction in daytime sleepiness mediated the effects of TranS-C on parent-reported risk in the 5 health domains. Reduction in parent-reported sleep-wake problems mediated the effects of TranS-C on self-reported, parent-reported, and EMA-assessed risk in the 5 health domains. Results did not support the other hypothesized mediators. CONCLUSIONS: TranS-C exerts effects on reducing risk in multiple mental and physical health domains through reducing sleep and circadian problems in evening chronotype adolescents. Further research of TranS-C in other samples to assess its benefits for sleep and circadian problems as well as mental and physical health is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cronoterapia/métodos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Sono/fisiologia , Sonolência , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Sleep Health ; 5(2): 166-174, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep health can be characterized using multiple dimensions, including regularity, satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration. This study provides a preliminary derivation of a Sleep Health Composite score in adolescents with eveningness chronotype and examined its associations with mental and physical health outcomes. METHODS: Participants were 176 adolescents (mean age 14.77 years, 58% female) who participated in a randomized controlled trial examining the Transdiagnostic Sleep and Circadian intervention. At study entry, the sample was characterized by evening circadian preference, later bedtime, and increased risk in 1 of 5 health domains (emotional, cognitive, behavioral, social, and physical). The Sleep Health Composite was derived using 7-day sleep diary and self-report rating scales. Each dimension was categorized as "good" or "poor" using cut-offs informed by prior studies and expert consensus. Mental and physical health outcomes were assessed using self-report rating scales, semistructured clinical interviews, parent report, or biometric measurement. RESULTS: Sleep duration and satisfaction dimensions were most commonly rated as poor. Greater sleep health, as indexed by greater Sleep Health Composite score, was concurrently associated with lower risk in emotional, cognitive, and social domains, as well as fewer physical symptoms and reduced odds for obesity and current mood or anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep health is an important correlate of mental and physical health outcomes in adolescents. The Sleep Health Composite has potential application as an outcome measure in treatment studies of sleep and circadian problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Sono , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Med Food ; 20(11): 1133-1139, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777691

RESUMO

Sterculia apetala (order: Malvales, family: Sterculiaceae) seed oil contains two cyclopropene fatty acids: sterculic and malvalic acid. Both positive and negative effects have been associated with the consumption of sterculic oil. In Mexico, S. apetala seeds are consumed after being boiled or roasted, used as chocolate flavoring, and utilized as animal fodder. Therefore, it is important to evaluate whether the consumption of this seed has a negative impact on the organism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of sterculic oil, during an 8-week period, on anxiety-like behavior and spontaneous locomotor activity in Zucker rats, analyzed through light/dark and open-field tests. The results showed that the consumption of sterculic oil decreased exploration latency in light/dark tests, which suggests an anxiolytic-like effect. Alterations in time spent on rearing and grooming were present in open-field tests, but this was not statistically significant, discarding nonspecific motor alterations. The alterations found in this study are possibly related to intrinsic obesity and metabolic complications present in the Zucker rat model, where leptin plays an important role in animal mood, more so than sterculic oil consumption.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Sterculia/química , Animais , Ansiolíticos/química , Ansiedade/etiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/psicologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Sementes/química
6.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 31(4): 286-291, jul.-ago. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-164369

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar la asociación de distintas variables sociodemográficas con el gasto de bolsillo en servicios de salud en adultos de 60 años y más afiliados al Seguro Popular (SP). Método: Estudio transversal analítico. Se realizó una encuesta a través de una entrevista cara a cara a usuarios de la consulta externa de tres unidades médicas del estado de Veracruz: centro de salud (primer nivel), hospital regional (segundo nivel) y hospital de alta especialidad. El gasto de bolsillo en salud en el último año se analizó con el modelo lineal generalizado. Resultados La muestra fue de 1049 adultos de 60 años y más beneficiarios del SP y la tasa de respuesta fue del 97,7%. El gasto de bolsillo en salud mensual fue US$ 64,8 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 59,9-69,8). El rubro con mayor gasto fueron los medicamentos incluidos en el SP (US$ 28,8; IC95%: 25,8-31,7) y los medicamentos que no cubre el SP (US$ 8; IC95%: 6,7-9,2). Conclusiones Los adultos de 60 años y más afiliados al SP pagan de su bolsillo para atender su salud, a pesar de contar con un seguro público de salud, lo que representa una inequidad en el acceso, principalmente para los más vulnerables, como son la población rural (AU)


Objective: To identify the association between various sociodemographic variables and out-of-pocket expenditure on health by elderly people enrolled in Seguro Popular (SP). Method: Analytical cross-sectional study. An in-person survey was administered to users of three outpatient clinics in the state of Veracruz: a health centre (first level), regional hospital (second level) and highly specialised hospital. The out-of-pocket expenditure on health was analysed using a generalised linear model. Results: The sample consisted of 1,049 beneficiaries of SP over age 60 with a response rate of 97.7%. The monthly out-of-pocket expenditure on health was $64.80 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 59.90–69.80). The highest expense category was drugs that are included in the SP ($28.80; 95% CI: 25.80–31.70) and drugs that are not covered by the SP ($8.00; 95% CI: 6.70–9.20). Conclusions: People over age 60 enrolled in SP pay out of their pocket to meet their health needs, despite having public health insurance. This represents an inequity in access, especially for the most vulnerable such as the rural population (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , México , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Gac Sanit ; 31(4): 286-291, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28249704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between various sociodemographic variables and out-of-pocket expenditure on health by elderly people enrolled in Seguro Popular (SP). METHOD: Analytical cross-sectional study. An in-person survey was administered to users of three outpatient clinics in the state of Veracruz: a health centre (first level), regional hospital (second level) and highly specialised hospital. The out-of-pocket expenditure on health was analysed using a generalised linear model. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,049 beneficiaries of SP over age 60 with a response rate of 97.7%. The monthly out-of-pocket expenditure on health was $64.80 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 59.90-69.80). The highest expense category was drugs that are included in the SP ($28.80; 95% CI: 25.80-31.70) and drugs that are not covered by the SP ($8.00; 95% CI: 6.70-9.20). CONCLUSIONS: People over age 60 enrolled in SP pay out of their pocket to meet their health needs, despite having public health insurance. This represents an inequity in access, especially for the most vulnerable such as the rural population.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Seguro Saúde/economia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Ann Bot ; 115(5): 833-40, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25681823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rhizophora species of mangroves have a conspicuous system of stilt-like roots (rhizophores) that grow from the main stem and resemble flying buttresses. As such, the development of rhizophores can be predicted to be important for the effective transmission of dynamic loads from the top of the tree to the ground, especially where the substrate is unstable, as is often the case in the habitats where Rhizophora species typically grow. This study tests the hypothesis that rhizophore architecture in R. mangle co-varies with their proximity to the main stem, and with stem size and crown position. METHODS: The allometry and wood mechanical properties of R. mangle (red mangrove) trees growing in a mangrove basin forest within a coastal lagoon in Mexico were compared with those of coexisting, non-buttressed mangrove trees of Avicennia germinans. The anatomy of rhizophores was related to mechanical stress due to crown orientation (static load) and to prevailing winds (dynamic load) at the study site. KEY RESULTS: Rhizophores buttressed between 10 and 33 % of tree height. There were significant and direct scaling relationships between the number, height and length of rhizophores vs. basal area, tree height and crown area. Wood mechanical resistance was significantly higher in the buttressed R. mangle (modulus of elasticity, MOE = 18·1 ± 2 GPa) than in A. germinans (MOE = 12·1 ± 0·5 GPa). Slenderness ratios (total height/stem diameter) were higher in R. mangle, but there were no interspecies differences in critical buckling height. When in proximity to the main stem, rhizophores had a lower length/height ratio, higher eccentricity and higher xylem/bark and pith proportions. However, there were no directional trends with regard to prevailing winds or tree leaning. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with A. germinans, a tree species with wide girth and flare at the base, R. mangle supports a thinner stem of higher mechanical resistance that is stabilized by rhizophores resembling flying buttresses. This provides a unique strategy to increase tree slenderness and height in the typically unstable substrate on which the trees grow, at a site that is subject to frequent storms.


Assuntos
Avicennia/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Rhizophoraceae/fisiologia , Animais , Avicennia/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ecologia , Ecossistema , México , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Rhizophoraceae/anatomia & histologia , Árvores , Áreas Alagadas , Vento , Madeira/anatomia & histologia , Madeira/fisiologia , Xilema/anatomia & histologia , Xilema/fisiologia
9.
Int J Dev Neurosci ; 41: 68-73, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25578294

RESUMO

The effects of stimulating environments on the neural plasticity of the adult brain have been well explored; however, how an enriched environment (EE) affects the mother-fetus interaction is poorly understood. We hypothesized that an enriched environment restricted to pregnancy will succeed in accelerating the development of sensory and motor circuits in the offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were maintained either under a standard condition - two animals per standard cage- or an enriched environment - eight subjects in larger cages with different physical configurations-. After birth, litters from both groups (n=16 per group) were cross-fostered with mothers that were simultaneously maintained under standard environment during pregnancy. Sensory and motor development were studied in the pups of both groups with a battery of reflex and physical tests. Auditory and gait reflexes appeared two days earlier in the offspring of EE rats as compared to control subjects (p<0.05). In addition, EE pups displayed a better performance in righting reflex, inclined board and geotaxis tests (p<0.05). Differences were found even three weeks after birth. We conclude that EE limited to the phase of pregnancy stimulates the development of pups inutero so that they are born with a higher grade of development.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Filtro Sensorial/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Masculino , Gravidez , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Ter. psicol ; 32(3): 235-242, Dec. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-734894

RESUMO

El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la asociación entre autoeficacia percibida, personalidad resistente, locus de control, percepción de estrés y síndrome de Burnout en 40 estudiantes de medicina de pregrado. El análisis de los datos se efectuó considerando estadística descriptiva y técnicas exploratorias multivariadas. Los resultados muestran la pertinencia que puede tener la personalidad resistente en la atenuación del estrés crónico al asociarse negativamente con el síndrome de Burnout y agruparse dentro de los componentes que explicaban mayor variación en la combinación lineal de variables en comparación con la autoeficacia y el locus de control. Se confirma la necesidad de reforzar la formación de los estudiantes de medicina a través del establecimiento de recursos de afrontamiento ante el estrés y formación de una personalidad resistente, ya que los datos muestran niveles altos en percepción de estrés y síndrome de Burnout a seis meses de estar realizando el internado.


The objective of this research was to analyze the association between perceived self-efficacy, hardiness, locus of control, perceived stress and Burnout syndrome in 40 undergraduate medical students. The data analysis was performed considering descriptive statistics and multivariate exploratory techniques. The results show the relevance that may have the hardiness in the attenuation of chronic stress negatively associated with Burnout and grouped within components that explained more variation in the linear combination of variables compared to self-efficacy and locus of control. The need to strengthen the training of medical students through the establishment of resources Coping Stress and formation of a strong personality is confirmed as the data show high levels of perceived stress and Burnout six months of doing the internship.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Personalidade , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Análise de Componente Principal , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Eur J Neurosci ; 35(9): 1458-65, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22471601

RESUMO

Rabbit pups represent a natural model of food anticipatory activity (FAA). FAA is the behavioral output of a putative food entrainable oscillator (FEO). It had been suggested that the FEO is comprised of a distributed system of clocks that work in concert in response to gastrointestinal input by food. Scheduled food intake synchronizes several nuclei in the brain, and the hypothalamus has received particular attention. On the contrary, brainstem nuclei, despite being among the brain structures to first receive food cues, have been scarcely studied. Here we analysed by immunohistochemistry possible oscillation of FOS and PER1 proteins through a complete 24-h cycle in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of 7-8-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h) or day (10:00 h), and also in fasted subjects to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. We found a clear induction of FOS that peaks 1.5 h after nursing in all nuclei studied. PER1 was only synchronized in the PBN, reaching highest values 12 h after nursing. Only PER1 oscillations persisted, with a shift, in fasted subjects. We conclude that the DVC nuclei are probably more related to the transmission of food cues to other brain regions, but that the PBN participates in the integration of information essential for FAA. Our results support previous findings suggesting that the DVC nuclei, but not PBN, are not essential for FAA. We suggest that PBN is a key component of the proposed distributed system of clocks involved in FAA.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Ponte/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Bulbo/anatomia & histologia , Bulbo/metabolismo , Atividade Motora , Proteínas Oncogênicas v-fos/metabolismo , Coelhos
12.
Am J Bot ; 91(7): 1061-9, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21653462

RESUMO

By definition, the floral morphs of distylous plants differ in floral architecture. Yet, because cross-pollination is necessary for reproductive success in both morphs, they should not differ in attributes that contribute to attracting and rewarding floral visitors. Floral and vegetative attributes that function in distylous polymorphism in hummingbird-pollinated Palicourea padifolia (Rubiaceae) and the responses of pollinators and insect herbivores to the resources offered by both morphs were investigated. The performance of each morph along multiple stages of the reproductive cycle, from inflorescence and nectar production to fruit production, was surveyed, and pollinator behavior and nectar standing crops were then observed. Costs associated with such attractiveness were also evaluated in terms of herbivore attack and of plant reproductive fitness (female function) as a function of leaf herbivory. The number of inflorescences, floral buds, open flowers, and ripe fruits offered by either floral morph were similar, but short-styled plants almost doubled the number of developing fruits of long-styled plants. Long-styled flowers produced higher nectar volumes and accumulated more nectar over time than short-styled flowers. Measures of nectar standing crop and data on pollinator behavior suggest that hummingbirds respond to this morph-specific scheduling of nectar production. Lastly, long-styled plants suffered a higher herbivore attack and lost more leaf area over time than those with short-styled flowers. Herbivory was negatively correlated with fruit number and fruit mass, and long-styled plants set significantly less fruit mass than short-styled plants. The results suggest that pollinators and herbivores may exert selective pressures on floral and vegetative traits that could also influence gender function.

13.
Ann Bot ; 92(3): 365-75, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12871845

RESUMO

Browsing is an important mortality factor in seedlings and small plants. However, the induced changes in the architecture of plant survivors may influence subsequent browsing, opening the possibility of compensating for the damage done. How jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) browsing affects the growth and architecture of small individuals of honey mesquite, Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana, a tree/shrub that produces spines at every node, was explored. Naturally established mesquites of unknown age were selected in one site, and 2-year-old mesquites were transplanted in another site. In both cases, half of them were exposed to jackrabbits and the other half were excluded as controls. After 4 years, shoot production (height, length and number of derived shoots) and plant growth (height and cover) increased 1.4-2.5-fold in naturally established controls relative to exposed plants, depending on the measured variable. In the transplant experiment, the increases were 2.8-7.1-fold in controls relative to exposed plants 2 years after initiation of the experiment. The net loss of biomass in treatment vs. control plants in these experiments suggests a negative response to browsing which has been defined as under-compensation. Alternative architectures in honey mesquites were evident at the end of the exclusion experiments: controls had long branches and an extended crown cover, while exposed plants had short branches and a compact crown cover. Results indicated that mesquites were able to grow under browser pressure by packing many stems in a compact matrix armed with spines and producing one or more shoots tall and wide enough to escape from jackrabbits.


Assuntos
Prosopis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lebres , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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