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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365829

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In the INSTAGE trial in patients with IPF and severely impaired gas exchange, nintedanib plus sildenafil was associated with numerical benefits on SGRQ total score, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and FVC decline versus nintedanib alone. Exploratory analyses of the STEP-IPF trial suggested that sildenafil may have a greater effect on SGRQ score in patients with IPF who have right heart dysfunction (RHD). OBJECTIVES: Assess whether RHD influenced the effects of nintedanib plus sildenafil versus nintedanib alone in the INSTAGE trial. METHODS: Subgroup analyses of patients with (n=117) vs without (n=156) echocardiographic signs of RHD at baseline. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There was no heterogeneity between subgroups by presence of RHD in the effect of nintedanib plus sildenafil versus nintedanib alone on change in SGRQ total score at week 12 (p=0.74) or week 24 (p=0.90), or change in FVC at week 12 (p=0.58) or week 24 (p=0.55). In both subgroups, nintedanib plus sildenafil had a numerically greater effect on reducing FVC decline versus nintedanib alone. Between-group differences in change in BNP at week 24 were -119.9 ng/L (95% CI: -171.3, -68.5) and -3.6 ng/L (95% CI: -47.2, 40.0) in patients with and without signs of RHD at baseline, respectively (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In the INSTAGE trial, there were no significant differences in the effects of nintedanib plus sildenafil versus nintedanib alone on changes in SGRQ and FVC between patients with or without echocardiographic signs of RHD at baseline. The benefit of combination therapy on stabilizing BNP was more pronounced in patients with RHD at baseline. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT02802345. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(9): 780-790, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are often complicated by pulmonary hypertension, increasing morbidity and mortality. There are no approved treatments for pulmonary hypertension associated with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (PH-IIP). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of riociguat in patients with PH-IIP. METHODS: RISE-IIP was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study done at 65 pulmonary hypertension and interstitial lung disease centres in 19 countries to evaluate the efficacy and safety of riociguat in patients with PH-IIP. Eligible patients were adults (aged 18-80 years) diagnosed with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (as per American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/Japanese Respiratory Society/Latin American Thoracic Association guidelines), forced vital capacity (FVC) of at least 45%, 6MWD of 150-450 m, WHO functional classes II-IV, precapillary pulmonary hypertension confirmed by right heart catheterisation, systolic blood pressure of at least 95 mm Hg, and no signs or symptoms of hypotension. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) using an interactive voice and web response system to riociguat (0·5-2·5 mg three times daily) or placebo for 26 weeks (main study), after which they could enter an open-label extension in which all patients received riociguat. The primary endpoint was change in 6-min walking distance (6MWD) in the intention-to-treat population. Prespecified safety variables included adverse events and serious adverse events, laboratory parameters, and adverse events of special interest (haemoptysis and symptomatic hypotension), assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02138825. FINDINGS: Between June 4, 2014, and May 5, 2016, we enrolled 229 participants. After the exclusion of 82 participants, 147 were randomly allocated to treatment (73 to riociguat, 74 to placebo). The study was terminated early (median treatment duration 157 days [range 6-203]) at the request of the data monitoring committee owing to increased serious adverse events (main study: 27 [37%] of 73 participants in the riociguat group vs 17 [23%] of 74 in the placebo group) and mortality in patients receiving riociguat, and the absence of efficacy signals in the riociguat group. 11 patients died in the main study (eight in the riociguat group, three in the placebo group), and nine died in the extension phase (one in the riociguat group, eight in the former placebo group; all received riociguat). In the main study, the most common adverse events were peripheral oedema (16 [22%] of 73 in the riociguat group vs seven [9%] of 74 in the placebo group) and diarrhoea (11 [15%] vs seven [9%]). The most common serious adverse events were worsening of interstitial lung disease (main study: six [8%] of 73 in the riociguat group vs five [7%] of 74 in the placebo group) and pneumonia (four [5%] vs one [1%]). Riociguat did not improve 6MWD versus placebo at 26 weeks (least-squares mean difference 21 m; 95% CI -9 to 52). INTERPRETATION: In patients with PH-IIP, riociguat was associated with increased serious adverse events and mortality, and an unfavourable risk-benefit profile. Riociguat should not be used in patients with PH-IIP. FUNDING: Bayer AG and Merck & Co.

5.
Respir Med ; 156: 58-68, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437649

RESUMO

Spirometry is the current gold standard for diagnosing and monitoring the progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). However, many current and former smokers who do not meet established spirometric criteria for the diagnosis of this disease have symptoms and clinical courses similar to those with diagnosed COPD. Large longitudinal observational studies following individuals at risk of developing COPD offer us additional insight into spirometric patterns of disease development and progression. Analysis of forced expiratory maneuver changes over time may allow us to better understand early changes predictive of progressive disease. This review discusses the theoretical ability of spirometry to capture fine pathophysiologic changes in early airway disease, highlights the shortcomings of current diagnostic criteria, and reviews existing evidence for spirometric measures which may be used to better detect early airflow impairment.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11367, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388056

RESUMO

Metabolomics is an emerging science that can inform pathogenic mechanisms behind clinical phenotypes in COPD. We aimed to understand disturbances in the serum metabolome associated with respiratory outcomes in ever-smokers from the SPIROMICS cohort. We measured 27 serum metabolites, mostly amino acids, by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 157 white ever-smokers with and without COPD. We tested the association between log-transformed metabolite concentrations and one-year incidence of respiratory exacerbations after adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, body mass index, diabetes, inhaled or oral corticosteroid use, study site and clinical predictors of exacerbations, including FEV1% predicted and history of exacerbations. The mean age of participants was 53.7 years and 58% had COPD. Lower concentrations of serum amino acids were independently associated with 1-year incidence of respiratory exacerbations, including tryptophan (ß = -4.1, 95% CI [-7.0; -1.1], p = 0.007) and the branched-chain amino acids (leucine: ß = -6.0, 95% CI [-9.5; -2.4], p = 0.001; isoleucine: ß = -5.2, 95% CI [-8.6; -1.8], p = 0.003; valine: ß = -4.1, 95% CI [-6.9; -1.4], p = 0.003). Tryptophan concentration was inversely associated with the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.03) and the BODE index (p = 0.03). Reduced serum amino acid concentrations in ever-smokers with and without COPD are associated with an increased incidence of respiratory exacerbations.

7.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 153, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) imaging-based metrics enable to quantify smoking induced disease alterations and to identify imaging-based clusters for current smokers. We aimed to derive clinically meaningful sub-groups of former smokers using dimensional reduction and clustering methods to develop a new way of COPD phenotyping. METHODS: An imaging-based cluster analysis was performed for 406 former smokers with a comprehensive set of imaging metrics including 75 imaging-based metrics. They consisted of structural and functional variables at 10 segmental and 5 lobar locations. The structural variables included lung shape, branching angle, airway-circularity, airway-wall-thickness, airway diameter; the functional variables included regional ventilation, emphysema percentage, functional small airway disease percentage, Jacobian (volume change), anisotropic deformation index (directional preference in volume change), and tissue fractions at inspiration and expiration. RESULTS: We derived four distinct imaging-based clusters as possible phenotypes with the sizes of 100, 80, 141, and 85, respectively. Cluster 1 subjects were asymptomatic and showed relatively normal airway structure and lung function except airway wall thickening and moderate emphysema. Cluster 2 subjects populated with obese females showed an increase of tissue fraction at inspiration, minimal emphysema, and the lowest progression rate of emphysema. Cluster 3 subjects populated with older males showed small airway narrowing and a decreased tissue fraction at expiration, both indicating air-trapping. Cluster 4 subjects populated with lean males were likely to be severe COPD subjects showing the highest progression rate of emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: QCT imaging-based metrics for former smokers allow for the derivation of statistically stable clusters associated with unique clinical characteristics. This approach helps better categorization of COPD sub-populations; suggesting possible quantitative structural and functional phenotypes.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(9): 745-756, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have highlighted a relationship between reduction in rate of exacerbations with therapies containing inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and baseline blood eosinophil count in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The IMPACT trial showed that once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy significantly reduced exacerbations versus dual therapies. Blood eosinophil counts and smoking status could be important modifiers of treatment response to ICS. We aimed to model these relationships and their interactions, including outcomes other than exacerbations. METHODS: IMPACT was a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, 52-week global study comparing once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy (fluticasone furoate-umeclidinium-vilanterol) with dual inhaled therapy (fluticasone furoate-vilanterol or umeclidinium-vilanterol). Eligible patients had moderate-to-very-severe COPD and at least one moderate or severe exacerbation in the previous year. We used fractional polynomials to model continuous blood eosinophil counts. We used negative binomial regression for numbers of moderate and severe exacerbations, severe exacerbations, and pneumonia. We modelled differences at week 52 in trough FEV1, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, and Transition Dyspnoea Index using repeated measurements mixed effect models. IMPACT was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02164513. FINDINGS: The magnitude of benefit of regimens containing ICS (fluticasone furoate-umeclidinium-vilanterol n=4151 and fluticasone furoate-vilanterol n=4134) in reducing rates of moderate and severe exacerbations increased in proportion with blood eosinophil count, compared with a non-ICS dual long-acting bronchodilator (umeclidinium-vilanterol n=2070). The moderate and severe exacerbation rate ratio for triple therapy versus umeclidinium-vilanterol was 0·88 (95% CI 0·74 to 1·04) at blood eosinophil count less than 90 cells per µL and 0·56 (0·47 to 0·66) at counts of 310 cells per µL or more; the corresponding rate ratio for fluticasone furoate-vilanterol versus umeclidinium-vilanterol was 1·09 (0·91 to 1·29) and 0·56 (0·47 to 0·66), respectively. Similar results were observed for FEV1, Transition Dyspnoea Index, and SGRQ total score; however, the relationship with FEV1 was less marked. At blood eosinophil counts less than 90 cells per µL and at counts of 310 cells per µL or more, the triple therapy versus umeclidinium-vilanterol treatment difference was 40 mL (95% CI 10 to 70) and 60 mL (20 to 100) for trough FEV1, -0·01 (-0·68 to 0·66) and 0·30 (-0·37 to 0·97) for Transition Dyspnoea Index score, and -0·01 (-1·81 to 1·78) and -2·78 (-4·64 to -0·92) for SGRQ total score, respectively. Smoking status modified the relationship between observed efficacy and blood eosinophil count for moderate or severe exacerbations, Transition Dyspnoea Index, and FEV1, with former smokers being more corticosteroid responsive at any eosinophil count than current smokers. INTERPRETATION: This analysis of the IMPACT trial shows that assessment of blood eosinophil count and smoking status has the potential to optimise ICS use in clinical practice in patients with COPD and a history of exacerbations. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline.

10.
Chest ; 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis, both of which are irreversible. We have developed a new objective CT analysis tool that combines densitometry with machine learning to detect high attenuation changes in visually normal appearing lung (NormHA) that may precede these diseases. METHODS: We trained the classification tool by placing 34,528 training points in chest CT scans from 297 COPDGene participants. The tool was then used to classify lung tissue in 9,038 participants as normal, emphysema, fibrotic/interstitial, or NormHA. Associations between the quartile of NormHA and plasma-based biomarkers, clinical severity, and mortality were evaluated using Jonckheere-Terpstra, pairwise Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and multivariable linear and Cox regression. RESULTS: A higher percentage of lung occupied by NormHA was associated with higher C-reactive protein and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (P for trend for both < .001). In analyses adjusted for multiple covariates, including high and low attenuation area, compared with those in the lowest quartile of NormHA, those in the highest quartile had a 6.50 absolute percent lower percent predicted lower FEV1 (P < .001), an 8.48 absolute percent lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume, a 10.78-meter shorter 6-min walk distance (P = .011), and a 56% higher risk of death (P = .003). These findings were present even in those individuals without visually defined interstitial lung abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: A new class of NormHA on CT may represent a unique tissue class associated with adverse outcomes, independent of emphysema and fibrosis.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241357

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The level diagnostic likelihood at which physicians prescribe antifibrotic therapy without requesting surgical lung biopsy (SLB) in patients suspected of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine how often physicians advocate SLB in patient sub-groups defined by IPF likelihood and risk associated with SLB and to identify the level of diagnostic likelihood at which physicians prescribe antifibrotic therapy with requesting SLB. METHODS: An international cohort of respiratory physicians evaluated 60 cases of interstitial lung disease, giving 1) differential diagnoses with diagnostic likelihood, 2) a decision on the need for SLB and, 3) initial management. Diagnoses were stratified according to diagnostic likelihood bands described by Ryerson el al. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 404 physicians evaluated the 60 cases (24,240 physician-patient evaluations). IPF was part of the differential diagnosis in 9,958/24,240 (41.1%) of all physician-patient evaluations. SLB was requested in 8.1%, 29.6% and 48.4% of definite, provisional high confidence and provisional low confidence diagnoses of IPF respectively. In 63.0% of provisional high confidence IPF diagnoses (70-89% likelihood), antifibrotic therapy was prescribed without requesting SLB. No significant mortality difference was observed between cases given a definite diagnosis of IPF (90-100% likelihood) and cases given a provisional high confidence diagnosis of IPF (HR 0.97, p=0.348, 95% CI 0.90-1.04). CONCLUSIONS: Most respiratory physicians prescribe antifibrotic therapy without requesting a SLB if a provisional high confidence diagnosis or "working diagnosis" of IPF can be made (likelihood>=70%). SLB is recommended in only a minority of patients with suspected but not definite IPF.

12.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(6): 487-496, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the appropriate clinical setting, the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) requires a pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia to be present on high-resolution chest CT (HRCT) or surgical lung biopsy. A molecular usual interstitial pneumonia signature can be identified by a machine learning algorithm in less-invasive transbronchial lung biopsy samples. We report prospective findings for the clinical validity and utility of this molecular test. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 237 patients for this study from those enrolled in the Bronchial Sample Collection for a Novel Genomic Test (BRAVE) study in 29 US and European sites. Patients were undergoing evaluation for interstitial lung disease and had had samples obtained by clinically indicated surgical or transbronchial biopsy or cryobiopsy for pathology. Histopathological diagnoses were made by experienced pathologists. Available HRCT scans were reviewed centrally. Three to five transbronchial lung biopsy samples were collected from all patients specifically for this study, pooled by patient, and extracted for transcriptomic sequencing. After exclusions, diagnostic histopathology and RNA sequence data from 90 patients were used to train a machine learning algorithm (Envisia Genomic Classifier, Veracyte, San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. The primary study endpoint was validation of the classifier in 49 patients by comparison with diagnostic histopathology. To assess clinical utility, we compared the agreement and confidence level of diagnosis made by central multidisciplinary teams based on anonymised clinical information and radiology results plus either molecular classifier or histopathology results. FINDINGS: The classifier identified usual interstitial pneumonia in transbronchial lung biopsy samples from 49 patients with 88% specificity (95% CI 70-98) and 70% sensitivity (47-87). Among 42 of these patients who had possible or inconsistent usual interstitial pneumonia on HRCT, the classifier showed 81% positive predictive value (95% CI 54-96) for underlying biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia. In the clinical utility analysis, we found 86% agreement (95% CI 78-92) between clinical diagnoses using classifier results and those using histopathology data. Diagnostic confidence was improved by the molecular classifier results compared with histopathology results in 18 with IPF diagnoses (proportion of diagnoses that were confident or provisional with high confidence 89% vs 56%, p=0·0339) and in all 48 patients with non-diagnostic pathology or non-classifiable fibrosis histopathology (63% vs 42%, p=0·0412). INTERPRETATION: The molecular test provided an objective method to aid clinicians and multidisciplinary teams in ascertaining a diagnosis of IPF, particularly for patients without a clear radiological diagnosis, in samples that can be obtained by a less invasive method. Further prospective clinical validation and utility studies are planned. FUNDING: Veracyte.

14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(6): 497-508, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for biomarkers to better stratify patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by risk for lung transplantation allocation who have the same clinical presentation. We aimed to investigate whether a specific immune cell type from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis could identify those at higher risk of poor outcomes. We then sought to validate our findings using cytometry and electronic health records. METHODS: We first did a discovery analysis with transcriptome data from the Gene Expression Omnibus at the National Center for Biotechnology Information for 120 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We estimated percentages of 13 immune cell types using statistical deconvolution, and investigated the association of these cell types with transplant-free survival. We validated these results using PBMC samples from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in two independent cohorts (COMET and Yale). COMET profiled monocyte counts in 45 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from March 12, 2010, to March 10, 2011, using flow cytometry; we tested if increased monocyte count was associated with the primary outcome of disease progression. In the Yale cohort, 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (with five healthy controls) were classed as high risk or low risk from April 28, 2014, to Aug 20, 2015, using a 52-gene signature, and we assessed whether monocyte percentage (measured by cytometry by time of flight) was higher in high-risk patients. We then examined complete blood count values in the electronic health records (EHR) of 45 068 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, systemic sclerosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or myelofibrosis from Stanford (Jan 01, 2008, to Dec 31, 2015), Northwestern (Feb 15, 2001 to July 31, 2017), Vanderbilt (Jan 01, 2008, to Dec 31, 2016), and Optum Clinformatics DataMart (Jan 01, 2004, to Dec 31, 2016) cohorts, and examined whether absolute monocyte counts of 0·95 K/µL or greater were associated with all-cause mortality in these patients. FINDINGS: In the discovery analysis, estimated CD14+ classical monocyte percentages above the mean were associated with shorter transplant-free survival times (hazard ratio [HR] 1·82, 95% CI 1·05-3·14), whereas higher percentages of T cells and B cells were not (0·97, 0·59-1·66; and 0·78, 0·45-1·34 respectively). In two validation cohorts (COMET trial and the Yale cohort), patients with higher monocyte counts were at higher risk for poor outcomes (COMET Wilcoxon p=0·025; Yale Wilcoxon p=0·049). Monocyte counts of 0·95 K/µL or greater were associated with mortality after adjusting for forced vital capacity (HR 2·47, 95% CI 1·48-4·15; p=0·0063), and the gender, age, and physiology index (HR 2·06, 95% CI 1·22-3·47; p=0·0068) across the COMET, Stanford, and Northwestern datasets). Analysis of medical records of 7459 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis showed that patients with monocyte counts of 0·95 K/µL or greater were at increased risk of mortality with lung transplantation as a censoring event, after adjusting for age at diagnosis and sex (Stanford HR=2·30, 95% CI 0·94-5·63; Vanderbilt 1·52, 1·21-1·89; Optum 1·74, 1·33-2·27). Likewise, higher absolute monocyte count was associated with shortened survival in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy across all three cohorts, and in patients with systemic sclerosis or myelofibrosis in two of the three cohorts. INTERPRETATION: Monocyte count could be incorporated into the clinical assessment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other fibrotic disorders. Further investigation into the mechanistic role of monocytes in fibrosis might lead to insights that assist the development of new therapies. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and US National Library of Medicine.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925230

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with numerous genetic variants, yet the extent to which its genetic risk is mediated by variation in lung structure remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To characterize associations between a genetic risk score (GRS) associated with COPD susceptibility and lung structure on computed tomography (CT). METHODS: We analyzed data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study, a US general population-based cohort, and SPIROMICS, a study of COPD. A weighted GRS was calculated from 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with lung function. Lung density, spatially-matched airway dimensions, and airway counts were assessed on full-lung CT. Generalized linear models were adjusted for age, age-squared, sex, height , principal components of genetic ancestry, smoking status, pack-years, CT model, milliamperes, and total lung volume. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: MESA Lung and SPIROMICS contributed 2,517 and 2,339 participants, respectively. Higher GRS was associated with lower lung function and increased COPD risk, as well as lower lung density, smaller airway lumens, and fewer small airways, without effect modification by smoking. Adjustment for CT lung structure, particularly small airways measures, attenuated associations between the GRS and FEV1/FVC by 100% and 60% in MESA and SPIROMICS, respectively. Lung structure (P<.0001), but not the GRS (P>.10), improved discrimination of moderate-to-severe COPD cases relative to clinical factors alone. CONCLUSIONS: A GRS associated with COPD susceptibility was associated with CT lung structure. Lung structure may be an important mediator of heritability and determinant of personalized COPD risk.

17.
Clin Respir J ; 13(6): 355-367, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825365

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) is a heterogenous condition with clinical features shared by both asthma and COPD. OBJECTIVES: This online global survey of respiratory/allergy specialists and primary care practitioners (PCPs) was performed to understand current clinical approaches to the differential diagnosis and management of asthma, COPD and ACO. METHODS: Respondents were recruited through: (a) a global online physician respondent community (49,980 PCPs and 7205 specialists); (b) market research agents; (c) experts; (d) professional societies; (e) colleague invitation. Respondents were presented with a survey including hypothetical clinical scenarios of diagnostic uncertainty to identify management approaches. RESULTS: 891 responses (447 PCPs and 444 specialists) were collected across 13 countries. Reported features used for diagnosis of asthma and COPD were consistent with practice guidelines, but there was variability in those selected for ACO diagnosis. Features typically selected by specialists focused on spirometry/history, while PCPs focused on previous treatment/symptoms. Most respondents could correctly diagnose patients with features of ACO; however, features selected for theoretical diagnosis were often different to those selected in the case scenarios. Additionally, treatment selection was often inconsistent with guidelines, with over half of respondents not recommending inhaled corticosteroids in a patient with ACO and dominant features of asthma. CONCLUSION: While most PCPs and respiratory/allergy specialists can reach a working diagnosis of ACO, there remains uncertainty around which diagnostic features are most important and what constitutes optimal management. It is imperative that clinical studies including patients with ACO are initiated, allowing the generation of evidence-based management strategies.

18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 199(9): 1127-1138, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789747

RESUMO

Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) causes considerable global morbidity and mortality, and its mechanisms of disease progression are poorly understood. Recent observational studies have reported associations between lung dysbiosis, mortality, and altered host defense gene expression, supporting a role for lung microbiota in IPF. However, the causal significance of altered lung microbiota in disease progression is undetermined. Objectives: To examine the effect of microbiota on local alveolar inflammation and disease progression using both animal models and human subjects with IPF. Methods: For human studies, we characterized lung microbiota in BAL fluid from 68 patients with IPF. For animal modeling, we used a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis in conventional and germ-free mice. Lung bacteria were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing with novel techniques optimized for low-biomass sample load. Microbiota were correlated with alveolar inflammation, measures of pulmonary fibrosis, and disease progression. Measurements and Main Results: Disruption of the lung microbiome predicts disease progression, correlates with local host inflammation, and participates in disease progression. In patients with IPF, lung bacterial burden predicts fibrosis progression, and microbiota diversity and composition correlate with increased alveolar profibrotic cytokines. In murine models of fibrosis, lung dysbiosis precedes peak lung injury and is persistent. In germ-free animals, the absence of a microbiome protects against mortality. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that lung microbiota contribute to the progression of IPF. We provide biological plausibility for the hypothesis that lung dysbiosis promotes alveolar inflammation and aberrant repair. Manipulation of lung microbiota may represent a novel target for the treatment of IPF.

19.
Acad Radiol ; 26(3): 306-312, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792137

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a heterogeneous disease characterized by small airway abnormality and emphysema. We hypothesized that a voxel-wise computed tomography analytic approach would identify patterns of disease progression in smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 725 smokers in spirometric GOLD stages 0-4 with two chest CTs 5 years apart. Baseline inspiration, follow-up inspiration and follow-up expiration images were spatially registered to baseline expiration so that each voxel had correspondences across all time points and respiratory phases. Voxel-wise Parametric Response Mapping (PRM) was then generated for the baseline and follow-up scans. PRM classifies lung as normal, functional small airway disease (PRMfSAD), and emphysema (PRMEMPH). RESULTS: Subjects with low baseline PRMfSAD and PRMEMPH predominantly had an increase in PRMfSAD on follow-up; those with higher baseline PRMfSAD and PRMEMPH mostly had increases in PRMEMPH. For GOLD 0 participants (n = 419), mean 5-year increases in PRMfSAD and PRMEMPH were 0.3% for both; for GOLD 1-4 participants (n = 306), they were 0.6% and 1.6%, respectively. Eighty GOLD 0 subjects (19.1%) had overall radiologic progression (30.0% to PRMfSAD, 52.5% to PRMEMPH, and 17.5% to both); 153 GOLD 1-4 subjects (50.0%) experienced progression (17.6% to PRMfSAD, 48.4% to PRMEMPH, and 34.0% to both). In a multivariable model, both baseline PRMfSAD and PRMEMPH were associated with development of PRMEMPH on follow-up, although this relationship was diminished at higher levels of baseline PRMEMPH. CONCLUSION: A voxel-wise longitudinal PRM analytic approach can identify patterns of disease progression in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(5): 575-581, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794432

RESUMO

Rationale: Evidence suggests damage to small airways is a key pathologic lesion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Computed tomography densitometry has been demonstrated to identify emphysema, but no such studies have been performed linking an imaging metric to small airway abnormality.Objectives: To correlate ex vivo parametric response mapping (PRM) analysis to in vivo lung tissue measurements of patients with severe COPD treated by lung transplantation and control subjects.Methods: Resected lungs were inflated, frozen, and systematically sampled, generating 33 COPD (n = 11 subjects) and 22 control tissue samples (n = 3 subjects) for micro-computed tomography analysis of terminal bronchioles (TBs; last generation of conducting airways) and emphysema.Measurements and Main Results: PRM analysis was conducted to differentiate functional small airways disease (PRMfSAD) from emphysema (PRMEmph). In COPD lungs, TB numbers were reduced (P = 0.01); surviving TBs had increased wall area percentage (P < 0.001), decreased circularity (P < 0.001), reduced cross-sectional luminal area (P < 0.001), and greater airway obstruction (P = 0.008). COPD lungs had increased airspace size (P < 0.001) and decreased alveolar surface area (P < 0.001). Regression analyses demonstrated unique correlations between PRMfSAD and TBs, with decreased circularity (P < 0.001), decreased luminal area (P < 0.001), and complete obstruction (P = 0.008). PRMEmph correlated with increased airspace size (P < 0.001), decreased alveolar surface area (P = 0.003), and fewer alveolar attachments per TB (P = 0.01).Conclusions: PRMfSAD identifies areas of lung tissue with TB loss, luminal narrowing, and obstruction. This is the first confirmation that an imaging biomarker can identify terminal bronchial pathology in established COPD and provides a noninvasive imaging methodology to identify small airway damage in COPD.

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