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1.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The optimal time interval for diagnostic colonoscopy completion after an abnormal stool-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test is uncertain. We examined the association between time to colonoscopy and CRC outcomes among individuals who underwent diagnostic colonoscopy after abnormal stool-based screening. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of veterans age 50 to 75 years with an abnormal fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) between 1999 and 2010. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards to generate CRC-specific incidence and mortality hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 3-month colonoscopy intervals, with 1 to 3 months as the reference group. Association of time to colonoscopy with late-stage CRC diagnosis was also examined. RESULTS: Our cohort included 204,733 patients. Mean age was 61 years (SD 6.9). Compared with patients who received a colonoscopy at 1 to 3 months, there was an increased CRC risk for patients who received a colonoscopy at 13 to 15 months (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.00-1.27), 16 to 18 months (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.10-1.43), 19 to 21 months (HR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.11-1.48), and 22 to 24 months (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07-1.47). Compared with patients who received a colonoscopy at 1 to 3 months, mortality risk was higher in groups who received a colonoscopy at 19 to 21 months (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.51-1.99) and 22 to 44 months (HR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03-1.88). Odds for late-stage CRC increased at 16 months. CONCLUSIONS: Increased time to colonoscopy is associated with higher risk of CRC incidence, death, and late-stage CRC after abnormal FIT/FOBT. Interventions to improve CRC outcomes should emphasize diagnostic follow-up within 1 year of an abnormal FIT/FOBT result.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1236, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623038

RESUMO

Genetic models for cancer have been evaluated using almost exclusively European data, which could exacerbate health disparities. A polygenic hazard score (PHS1) is associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis and improves screening accuracy in Europeans. Here, we evaluate performance of PHS2 (PHS1, adapted for OncoArray) in a multi-ethnic dataset of 80,491 men (49,916 cases, 30,575 controls). PHS2 is associated with age at diagnosis of any and aggressive (Gleason score ≥ 7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥ 10 ng/mL, or nodal/distant metastasis) cancer and prostate-cancer-specific death. Associations with cancer are significant within European (n = 71,856), Asian (n = 2,382), and African (n = 6,253) genetic ancestries (p < 10-180). Comparing the 80th/20th PHS2 percentiles, hazard ratios for prostate cancer, aggressive cancer, and prostate-cancer-specific death are 5.32, 5.88, and 5.68, respectively. Within European, Asian, and African ancestries, hazard ratios for prostate cancer are: 5.54, 4.49, and 2.54, respectively. PHS2 risk-stratifies men for any, aggressive, and fatal prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic dataset.

3.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP2000773, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Minority race and lower socioeconomic status are associated with lower rates of opioid prescription and undertreatment of pain in multiple noncancer healthcare settings. It is not known whether these differences in opioid prescribing exist among patients undergoing cancer treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This observational cohort study involved 33,872 opioid-naive patients of age > 65 years undergoing definitive cancer treatment. We compared rates of new opioid prescriptions by race or ethnicity and socioeconomic status controlling for differences in baseline patient, cancer, and treatment factors. To evaluate downstream impacts of opioid prescribing and pain management, we also compared rates of persistent opioid use and pain-related emergency department (ED) visits. RESULTS: Compared with non-Hispanic White patients, the covariate-adjusted odds of receiving an opioid prescription were 24.9% (95% CI, 16.0 to 33.9, P < .001) lower for non-Hispanic Blacks, 115.0% (84.7 to 150.3, P < .001) higher for Asian-Pacific Islanders, and not statistically different for Hispanics (-1.0 to 14.0, P = .06). There was no significant association between race or ethnicity and persistent opioid use or pain-related ED visits. Patients living in a high-poverty area had higher odds (53.9% [25.4 to 88.8, P < .001]) of developing persistent use and having a pain-related ED visit (39.4% [16.4 to 66.9, P < .001]). CONCLUSION: For older patients with cancer, rates of opioid prescriptions and pain-related outcomes significantly differed by race and area-level poverty. Non-Hispanic Black patients were associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of receiving an opioid prescription. Patients from high-poverty areas were more likely to develop persistent opioid use and have a pain-related ED visit.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20641, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219311

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

6.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 44-49, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152187

RESUMO

During the SARS COV-2 pandemic, the vast majority of infected patients are showing symptoms related to lung damage. At pediatric ages, especially newborns, symptoms from other organ systems without respiratory illness could make COVID-19 hard to diagnose. We are reporting three cases of newborns who were attended in the course of the mitigation phase in the emergency service of a maternal hospital in Barranquilla, Colombia, for high temperature and general compromised condition. During their clinical course, they developed gastrointestinal symptoms without showing any respiratory manifestations. They were not epidemiologically linked to a contact suspected to be a COVID-19 case and their mothers had had no respiratory symptoms since the public health emergency in our country was declared 45 days before. The absence of clinical respiratory manifestations in this group of patients with COVID-19 should draw clinicians' attention to the need to suspect SARS CoV-2 infection in febrile newborns.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Febre/etiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Sepse Neonatal/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diarreia Infantil/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sepse Neonatal/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Migrantes , Adulto Jovem
7.
JAMA ; 324(17): 1747-1754, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141207

RESUMO

Importance: There is concern that African American men with low-risk prostate cancer may harbor more aggressive disease than non-Hispanic White men. Therefore, it is unclear whether active surveillance is a safe option for African American men. Objective: To compare clinical outcomes of African American and non-Hispanic White men with low-risk prostate cancer managed with active surveillance. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study in the US Veterans Health Administration Health Care System of African American and non-Hispanic White men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015, and managed with active surveillance. The date of final follow-up was March 31, 2020. Exposures: Active surveillance was defined as no definitive treatment within the first year of diagnosis and at least 1 additional surveillance biopsy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Progression to at least intermediate-risk, definitive treatment, metastasis, prostate cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality. Results: The cohort included 8726 men, including 2280 African American men (26.1%) (median age, 63.2 years) and 6446 non-Hispanic White men (73.9%) (median age, 65.5 years), and the median follow-up was 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.7-9.9; range, 0.2-19.2). Among African American men and non-Hispanic White men, respectively, the 10-year cumulative incidence of disease progression was 59.9% vs 48.3% (difference, 11.6% [95% CI, 9.2% to 13.9%); P < .001); of receipt of definitive treatment, 54.8% vs 41.4% (difference, 13.4% [95% CI, 11.0% to 15.7%]; P < .001); of metastasis, 1.5% vs 1.4% (difference, 0.1% [95% CI, -0.4% to 0.6%]; P = .49); of prostate cancer-specific mortality, 1.1% vs 1.0% (difference, 0.1% [95% CI, -0.4% to 0.6%]; P = .82); and of all-cause mortality, 22.4% vs 23.5% (difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -0.9% to 3.1%]; P = 0.09). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study of men with low-risk prostate cancer followed up for a median of 7.6 years, African American men, compared with non-Hispanic White men, had a statistically significant increased 10-year cumulative incidence of disease progression and definitive treatment, but not metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality. Longer-term follow-up is needed to better assess the mortality risk.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Progressão da Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Conduta Expectante , Idoso , Biópsia , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
8.
Gastroenterology ; 159(5): 1705-1714.e2, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are racial and ethnic differences in the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma worldwide and in the US. Based on a decision analysis, screening for noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma might be cost-effective for non-White individuals 50 years or older. However, a lack of precise, contemporary information on gastric adenocarcinoma incidence in specific anatomic sites for this age group has impeded prevention and early detection programs in the US. We aimed to estimate the differences in gastric adenocarcinoma incidence in specific anatomic sites among races and ethnicities in individuals 50 years or older. METHODS: We analyzed California Cancer Registry data from 2011 through 2015 to estimate incidences of gastric adenocarcinoma in specific anatomic sites for non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and the 7 largest Asian American populations. We calculated the differential incidence between non-White groups and NHW using incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Compared with NHW subjects, all non-White groups had significantly higher incidences of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma; the incidence was highest among Korean American men 50 years and older (70 cases per 100,000). Compared with NHW subjects 50 years and older, the risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma was 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.37-2.31) to 7.3-fold (95% CI, 5.73-9.19) higher in most non-White groups and 12.0-fold (95% CI, 9.96-14.6) to 14.5-fold (95% CI, 12.5-16.9) higher among Korean American men and women 50 years and older, respectively. Compared with NHW men 50 years and older, all non-White men, except Japanese and Korean American men, had a significantly lower risk of cardia gastric adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several-fold differences in incidences of gastric adenocarcinoma in specific anatomic sites among racial and ethnic groups, with significant age and sex differences. These findings can be used to develop targeted risk reduction programs for gastric adenocarcinoma.

9.
Thyroid ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791885

RESUMO

Background: Thyroxine (T4) is generally considered to be a prohormone that requires conversion to triiodothyronine (T3) to exert biological activity. Although evidence suggests that T4 has intrinsic activity, it is questionable if this activity has any physiological relevance. Methods: To answer this question, triple knockout (KO) mice (Triples) that cannot express the types 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) deiodinase and the Pax8 genes were generated. Thus, they lack a thyroid and cannot convert T4 to T3. Triples were injected on alternate days with either vehicle or physiological doses of T4, T3, or T3+T4 from postnatal days 2-14. They were euthanized at P15, and RNA-seq was employed to profile gene expression in the liver. In another experiment, Pax8KO mice were injected with T3, T4, or T4+T3, and growth rate and survival to P84 were determined. Results: The growth retardation of Triples was not improved by either T3 or T4 alone but was significantly improved by T4+T3. In the liver, T4 significantly regulated the expression of genes that were also regulated by T3, but the proportion of genes that were negatively regulated was higher in mice treated with T4 than in mice treated with T3. Treatment with T4+T3 identified genes that were regulated synergistically by T3 and T4, and genes that were regulated only by T4+T3. Analysis of these genes revealed enrichment in mechanisms related to cell proliferation and cholesterol physiology, suggesting a unique contribution of T4 to these biological functions. Pax8KO mice all survived to P84 when injected with T4 or T4+T3. However, survival rate with T3 was only 50% and 10% at 3.5 and 12 weeks of life, respectively. Conclusions: T4 has intrinsic activity in vivo and is critical for survival and growth. At a physiological level, T4 per se can upregulate or downregulate many T3 target genes in the neonatal liver. While most of these genes are also regulated by T3, subsets respond exclusively to T4 or demonstrate enhanced or normalized expression only in the presence of both hormones. These studies demonstrate for the first time a complex dependency on both T4 and T3 for normal mammalian growth and development.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780851

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically impacted numerous health and economic fronts. Due to the stay-at-home mandate and practice of physical distancing, nearly all preventive care measures have been halted, including colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The health consequences of this temporary suspension are of great concern, particularly for underserved populations, who experience substantial CRC-related disparities. In this Commentary, we describe challenges and opportunities to deliver COVID-adapted CRC screening to medically underserved populations receiving care in community health centers (CHC). This perspective is based on key informant interviews with CHC medical directors, teleconference discussions, and strategic planning assessments. To address the unprecedented challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic, we identify two broad calls to action: 1) Invest in CHCs now; and 2) Support equitable and adaptable telehealth solutions now and in the future. We also recommend four CRC-specific calls to action: Establish COVID-adapted best practices to implement mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) programs; Implement grassroots advocacy to identify community gastroenterologists who commit to performing colonoscopies for CHC patients; Assess cancer prevention priorities among individuals in underserved communities; and Assess regional CRC screening and follow-up barriers and solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic may further exacerbate existing CRC screening disparities in underserved individuals. This will likely lead to delayed diagnosis, a shift to later stage disease, and increased CRC deaths. To prevent this from happening, we call for timely action and a commitment to address the current extraordinary CRC screening challenges for vulnerable populations.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13203, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764699

RESUMO

Multiple studies have found the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) to be associated with adverse breast cancer (BC) prognosis and survival. Very limited data exist on the role of NLR and risk of BC. The BREOGAN study is a population-based case-control study conducted in Galicia, Spain. We examined the WBC- and NLR-BC relationships. The risk of BC increased with increasing levels of neutrophils percentage (NE%) (multivariable OR for the highest category (95% CI) = 2.14 (1.39-3.32), P-trend < 0.001) and of the NLR (multivariable OR for the highest category (95% CI) = 1.93 (1.26-2.97), P-trend < 0.001). Lymphocytes absolute (L#) and percentage (L%) were associated with a decreased risk of BC (multivariable OR for the highest category (95% CI) = 0.54 (0.35-0.83), and 0.51 (0.33-0.79), P-trend = 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). The NLR-BC association was more pronounced among Luminal A BC (multivariable OR for the highest category (95% CI) = 2.00 (1.17-3.45), P-trend < 0.001), HER2-negative BC (multivariable OR for the highest category (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.16-3.02), P-trend < 0.001), and those with high total cholesterol and low H2O2 levels.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730111

RESUMO

Purpose: Sexual minority (SM) individuals experience higher rates of anxiety and depression. Previous research on mental health disparities for SM cancer survivors has largely focused on adult survivors; however, studies are limited in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population. This study's objective is to compare depression and anxiety symptoms between AYA, female cancer survivors who identify as an SM and those who identify as heterosexual. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1025 AYA survivors aged 18-40 years (2015-2017) was performed. Patients self-reported SM identification and depression and anxiety symptoms, as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ8) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between SM identification and depression and anxiety. Results: Sixty-four participants (6%) identified as an SM. In adjusted analyses, SM participants had 1.88 higher odds of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] 1.88, confidence interval [95% CI] 1.05-3.35, p = 0.033) compared with heterosexual participants. SM participants did not have significantly higher odds of depression (OR 1.36, CI 0.75-2.47, p = 0.31). More social support was significantly associated with lower odds of depression (OR 0.91, CI 0.89-0.93, p < 0.001) and anxiety (OR 0.93, CI 0.91-0.94, p < 0.001). Conclusions: AYA cancer survivors identifying as an SM had nearly twice the odds of anxiety, with social support that is protective for both anxiety and depression. While mental health screening is recommended throughout the cancer care continuum, these data support the need for reliable screening, clinician awareness of increased vulnerability in the AYA, SM survivor population, and clinician training on culturally competent care and generation of evidence-based interventions.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e014883, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397792

RESUMO

Background Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been associated with cardiometabolic risk. However, the association between total and type of SSB intake and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) end points such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization is limited. Methods and Results We examined the prospective association of baseline SSB consumption with incident CVD in 106 178 women free from CVD and diabetes mellitus in the CTS (California Teachers Study), a cohort of female teachers and administrators, followed since 1995. SSBs were defined as caloric soft drinks, sweetened bottled waters or teas, and fruit drinks, and derived from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. CVD end points were based on annual linkage with statewide inpatient hospitalization records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between SSB consumption and incident CVD. A total of 8848 CVD incident cases were documented over 20 years of follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed higher hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.34), revascularization (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54]), and stroke (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.41) in women who consumed ≥1 serving per day of SSBs compared with rare/never consumers. We also observed a higher risk of CVD in women who consumed ≥1 serving per day of fruit drinks (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.00-2.01 [P trend=0.021]) and caloric soft drinks (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.44 [P trend=0.0002]), compared with rare/never consumers. Conclusions Consuming ≥1 serving per day of SSB was associated with CVD, revascularization, and stroke. SSB intake might be a modifiable dietary target to reduce risk of CVD among women.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1283-1289, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371551

RESUMO

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Software , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Saúde Pública , Smartphone , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3013-3020, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiating screening at an earlier age based on cancer family history is one of the primary recommended strategies for the prevention and detection of early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC), but data supporting the effectiveness of this approach are limited. The authors assessed the performance of family history-based guidelines for identifying individuals with EOCRC. METHODS: The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study of individuals aged 40 to 49 years with (2473 individuals) and without (772 individuals) incident CRC in the Colon Cancer Family Registry from 1998 through 2007. They estimated the sensitivity and specificity of family history-based criteria jointly recommended by the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on CRC, and the American College of Radiology in 2008 for early screening, and the age at which each participant could have been recommended screening initiation if these criteria had been applied. RESULTS: Family history-based early screening criteria were met by approximately 25% of cases (614 of 2473 cases) and 10% of controls (74 of 772 controls), with a sensitivity of 25% and a specificity of 90% for identifying EOCRC cases aged 40 to 49 years. Among 614 individuals meeting early screening criteria, 98.4% could have been recommended screening initiation at an age younger than the observed age of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Of CRC cases aged 40 to 49 years, 1 in 4 met family history-based early screening criteria, and nearly all cases who met these criteria could have had CRC diagnosed earlier (or possibly even prevented) if earlier screening had been implemented as per family history-based guidelines. Additional strategies are needed to improve the detection and prevention of EOCRC for individuals not meeting family history criteria for early screening.

16.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 228, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed breast cancer mortality in older versus younger women according to race/ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), and health insurance status. METHODS: The study included female breast cancer cases 18 years of age and older, diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 in the California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to generate hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer specific deaths and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for older (60+ years) versus younger (< 60 years) patients separately by race/ethnicity, nSES, and health insurance status. RESULTS: Risk of dying from breast cancer was higher in older than younger patients after multivariable adjustment, which varied in magnitude by race/ethnicity (P-interaction< 0.0001). Comparing older to younger patients, higher mortality differences were shown for non-Hispanic White (HR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.36-1.51) and Hispanic women (HR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.26-1.50) and lower differences for non-Hispanic Blacks (HR = 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (HR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.31). HRs comparing older to younger patients varied by insurance status (P-interaction< 0.0001), with largest mortality differences observed for privately insured women (HR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.43-1.59) and lowest in Medicaid/military/other public insurance (HR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.26). No age differences were shown for uninsured women. HRs comparing older to younger patients were similar across nSES strata. CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence for the continued disparity in Black-White breast cancer mortality, which is magnified in younger women. Moreover, insurance status continues to play a role in breast cancer mortality, with uninsured women having the highest risk for breast cancer death, regardless of age.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Fatores Raciais , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Medicaid , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 314-325, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153233

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are associated with serious sequelae in childhood cancer survivors. However, data on vitamin D deficiency in children with newly diagnosed cancer are scarce and the role of sociodemographic factors and vitamin D supplementation is largely unknown. We assessed vitamin D status and its socio-demographic and clinical correlates in 163 children with newly diagnosed cancer, using 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and assessed longitudinal changes following vitamin D supplementation. Sixty-five percent of the patients with newly diagnosed cancer had low 25(OH)D concentrations. Fifty-two patients (32%) were vitamin D deficient (≤20 ng/mL 25(OH)D concentration), and 53(33%) were insufficient (21-29 ng/mL 25(OH)D concentration). Age over 10 (P = 0.019), Hispanic ethnicity (P = 0.002), and female sex (P = 0.008) were significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration at diagnosis. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in significant increase in 25(OH)D concentrations (P < 0.001). However, following supplementation in the longitudinal analysis, this increase was less pronounced in Hispanic patients vs. non-Hispanic (P = 0.007), and in children with solid tumors vs. hematological malignancies (P = 0.003). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common in children with newly diagnosed cancer. Hispanic patients, females and older children were at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Although supplementation appeared to increase 25(OH)D concentrations over time, this increase was not as pronounced in certain subsets of patients. Prospective trials of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone health in children with newly diagnosed cancer are warranted, particularly in Hispanics and patients with solid tumors.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 777-786, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large-scale cancer epidemiology cohorts (CEC) have successfully collected, analyzed, and shared patient-reported data for years. CECs increasingly need to make their data more findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable, or FAIR. How CECs should approach this transformation is unclear. METHODS: The California Teachers Study (CTS) is an observational CEC of 133,477 participants followed since 1995-1996. In 2014, we began updating our data storage, management, analysis, and sharing strategy. With the San Diego Supercomputer Center, we deployed a new infrastructure based on a data warehouse to integrate and manage data and a secure and shared workspace with documentation, software, and analytic tools that facilitate collaboration and accelerate analyses. RESULTS: Our new CTS infrastructure includes a data warehouse and data marts, which are focused subsets from the data warehouse designed for efficiency. The secure CTS workspace utilizes a remote desktop service that operates within a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)- and Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)-compliant platform. Our infrastructure offers broad access to CTS data, includes statistical analysis and data visualization software and tools, flexibly manages other key data activities (e.g., cleaning, updates, and data sharing), and will continue to evolve to advance FAIR principles. CONCLUSIONS: Our scalable infrastructure provides the security, authorization, data model, metadata, and analytic tools needed to manage, share, and analyze CTS data in ways that are consistent with the NCI's Cancer Research Data Commons Framework. IMPACT: The CTS's implementation of new infrastructure in an ongoing CEC demonstrates how population sciences can explore and embrace new cloud-based and analytics infrastructure to accelerate cancer research and translation.See all articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Modernizing Population Science."

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 714-723, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Like other cancer epidemiologic cohorts, the California Teachers Study (CTS) has experienced declining participation to follow-up questionnaires; neither the reasons for these declines nor the steps that could be taken to mitigate these trends are fully understood. METHODS: The CTS offered their 6th study questionnaire (Q6) in the fall of 2017 using an integrated, online system. The team delivered a Web and mobile-adaptive questionnaire to 45,239 participants via e-mail using marketing automation technology. The study's integrated platform captured data on recruitment activities that may influence overall response, including the date and time invitations and reminders were e-mailed and the date and time questionnaires were started and submitted. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 43%. Participants ages 65 to 69 were 25% more likely to participate than their younger counterparts (OR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.32) and nonwhite participants were 28% less likely to participate than non-Hispanic white cohort members (OR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.68-0.76). Previous questionnaire participation was strongly associated with response (OR = 6.07; 95% CI, 5.50-6.70). Invitations sent after 2 pm had the highest response (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.65-1.84), as did invitations sent on Saturdays (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.36-1.60). CONCLUSIONS: An integrated system that captures paradata about questionnaire recruitment and response can enable studies to quantify the engagement patterns and communication desires of cohort members. IMPACT: As cohorts continue to collect scientific data, it is imperative to collect and analyze information on how participants engage with the study.See all articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Modernizing Population Science."

20.
Gastroenterology ; 159(2): 492-501.e7, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality are increasing among persons younger than 50 years old in the United States, but risk factors associated with early-onset CRC (EOCRC) have not been widely studied. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of US veterans 18 to 49 years old who underwent colonoscopy examinations from 1999 through 2014. EOCRC cases were identified from a national cancer registry; veterans who were free of CRC at their baseline colonoscopy through 3 years of follow-up were identified as controls. We collected data on age, sex, race/ethnicity, body weight, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, smoking status, and aspirin use. Multivariate-adjusted EOCRC odds were estimated for each factor, with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) values. RESULTS: Our final analysis included 651 EOCRC cases and 67,416 controls. Median age was 45.3 years, and 82.3% were male. Higher proportions of cases were older, male, current smokers, nonaspirin users, and had lower BMIs, compared with controls (P < .05). In adjusted analyses, increasing age and male sex were significantly associated with increased risk of EOCRC, whereas aspirin use and being overweight or obese (relative to normal BMI) were significantly associated with decreased odds of EOCRC. In post hoc analyses, weight loss of 5 kg or more within the 5-year period preceding colonoscopy was associated with higher odds of EOCRC (odds ratio 2.23; 95% CI 1.76-2.83). CONCLUSIONS: In a case-control study of veterans, we found increasing age and male sex to be significantly associated with increased risk of EOCRC, and aspirin use to be significantly associated with decreased risk; these factors also affect risk for CRC onset after age 50. Weight loss may be an early clinical sign of EOCRC. More intense efforts are required to identify the factors that cause EOCRC and signs that can be used to identify individuals at highest risk.

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