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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 37: 100816, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623897

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to compare the sensitivity of two in vitro bioassays to detect resistant to fipronil in Argentinean populations of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Two different larval bioassays prepared with technical grade (97%) fipronil were compared: larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT). Seven strains from different provinces were treated with both assays. Colonia Tabay, Colonia Benítez, Intiyaco and Quimili strains were considered resistant in both LIT and LPT bioassays. The 95% confidence intervals (IC95) for lethal concentration 50% (LC50) did not overlap with the susceptible reference strain (SRS) and all the values of RR50 obtained were higher than 2. Garabato and Federal strains were considered as susceptible for both techniques because the IC95 for the LC50 overlapped with those of the SRS and the RR50 values were lesser than 2. An ambiguous situation occurs with Reconquista strain. This strain was considered as susceptible with LPT and with incipient resistant after LIT trial. The analysis of the results indicates that both LIT and LPT trials have enough sensibility to differentiate resistant and susceptible strains, but LIT was more sensitive than LPT when the resistance is incipient.


Assuntos
Rhipicephalus , Animais , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Larva , Bioensaio/veterinária
2.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(3): 397-403, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000337

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to adapt and apply the in vitro larval bioassay packet test (LPT) to diagnose resistance of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks to fipronil in Argentina. Ten serial dilutions of fipronil were included in the LPT bioassay. Seven populations of R. microplus from six Argentinean Provinces were evaluated. Samples from Colonia Benítez, Quimilí and Intiyaco were unambiguously classified in the category 'resistant'. In all these cases the 95% confidence intervals did not overlap with that of the susceptible reference strain and the slope values were lower than the slope value obtained for the susceptible reference strain. The resistance ratio (RR50) values of the populations from Colonia Benítez I and II, Quimilí and Intiyaco were 2.23, 3.49, 6.84 and 3.39, respectively. Populations from El Colorado I and II, Acambuco, Vera and Feliciano were classified as 'susceptible' because the 95% confidence intervals overlapped with that of the susceptible reference strain and the RR50 values never exceeded 1.32. The results of these LPT bioassays indicate the presence of fipronil resistant R. microplus populations in Argentina.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Resistência a Medicamentos , Pirazóis , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Argentina , Larva
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 132: 332-337, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738729

RESUMO

Resistance to ivermectin in populations of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus in Argentina was diagnosed in this work. The in vitro larval immersion test (LIT) was used to determine quantitatively the levels of resistance to ivermectin in different populations of R. microplus. Additionally, field trials to control natural infestations of R. microplus on cattle with a commercial formulation of ivermectin 3.15% were carried and jointly analyzed with the in vitro assays. The phenotypic response of the populations analyzed was not uniform. Five of them were classified as susceptible, four populations as resistant, and one in the category "incipient resistance". Regarding the field trials, the therapeutic efficacy in a population classified with LIT as susceptible achieved values higher than 94% two weeks after treatment, and no reproductively viable females were observed after the second day post-treatment. Conversely, the values of efficacy percentage in a population (named as "San Martín") classified with LIT in the category "incipient resistance" never exceeded the 70.8%, and engorged females were collected in practically all counts. The population "San Martín" was classified in the category "incipient resistant" with LIT analysis, but the field trial unambiguously shows that this tick population is resistant. The comparison of the results obtained with LIT in vitro assays and through field trials shows that biased estimations of resistance levels may occur when resistance ratios (RR) values are ≤2, and additional field efficacy trials could be needed to know with precision the status of the tick populations evaluated.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Argentina , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Feminino , Larva , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(5): 235-241, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608243

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss in the Philippines using a nationally representative sample. A cross-sectional national survey was undertaken utilizing a 3-stage stratified cluster design. Participants in the present study comprised 2275 adults and children with pure tone hearing assessment results. Prevalence of moderate or worse hearing loss, defined as 4FA ≥41 dBHL, was 7.5% in children <18 years, 14.7% in adults between 18 and 65 years, and 49.1% in adults >65 years. Factors associated with greater risk of moderate hearing loss in the better ear were presence of a middle ear condition (adjusted odds ratio = 2.39, 95% confidence interval = 1.49-3.85) and socioeconomic status (household income; adjusted odds ratio = 1.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-2.19). Age was also associated with increased risk, with adjusted odds ratios varying with age category. Prevalence of wax occlusion and outer and middle ear disease was 12.2% and 14.2%, respectively. Prevalence of hearing loss, outer, and middle ear disease appear comparatively high in the Philippines when compared with rates reported in high-income countries. Higher proportions of severe to profound hearing loss were also identified, indicating that there is both an increased prevalence and severity of hearing loss in this population.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
5.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(4): 672-682, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation (CI) with mainstream education and deaf education with sign language for treatment of children with profound sensorineural hearing loss in low- and lower-middle income countries in Asia. STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis. SETTING: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, and Sri Lanka participated in the study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Costs were obtained from experts in each country with known costs and published data, with estimation when necessary. A disability-adjusted life-years model was applied with 3% discounting and 10-year length of analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of device cost, professional salaries, annual number of implants, and probability of device failure. Cost-effectiveness was determined with the World Health Organization standard of cost-effectiveness ratio per gross domestic product (CER/GDP) per capita <3. RESULTS: Deaf education was cost-effective in all countries except Nepal (CER/GDP, 3.59). CI was cost-effective in all countries except Nepal (CER/GDP, 6.38) and Pakistan (CER/GDP, 3.14)-the latter of which reached borderline cost-effectiveness in the sensitivity analysis (minimum, maximum: 2.94, 3.39). CONCLUSION: Deaf education and CI are largely cost-effective in participating Asian countries. Variation in CI maintenance and education-related costs may contribute to the range of cost-effectiveness ratios observed in this study.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/economia , Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/economia , Educação/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/reabilitação , Ásia , Implantes Cocleares/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Países em Desenvolvimento , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/economia , Humanos
6.
Cir. Esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 90(7): 460-464, ago.-sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-103925

RESUMO

Introducción: El objetivo de este trabajo es transmitir nuestra experiencia en by pass arterial femorodistal bajo anestesia local para pacientes de alto riesgo. Material y métodos De enero a mayo de 2010 hasta 8 pacientes han sido intervenidos en nuestro centro de cirugía de revascularización en miembros inferiores bajo anestesia local. Las características comunes de los pacientes eran la edad avanzada, cardiopatía isquémica crónica en tratamiento con antiagregantes plaquetarios y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC).Resultados Los 8 pacientes (100%) toleraron de forma adecuada el procedimiento sin recurrir a sedación ni a procedimientos anestésicos invasivos. La arteria receptora fue la tibial posterior en 6 de ellos (75%) y la poplítea y peronea en uno (12%). En 7 casos logramos permeabilidad precoz del injerto y uno presentó trombosis precoz con amputación supracondílea; la técnica empleada fue femoropoplíteo en un caso, femorotibial posterior en 6 casos y poplíteo-peroneo en otro. El injerto utilizado fue la vena safena mayor, invertida en un paciente (12%) e in situ en 7 (88%) con valvulotomo BARD™, 3mm. Las complicaciones postoperatorias fueron del 0% para hemorragia, infección y muerte; en 3 pacientes (37%) amputación menor y, tras un periodo de seguimiento medio de 3 meses (1-4 meses), 7 casos están libres de amputación mayor. Conclusiones La revascularización del territorio distal de los miembros inferiores puede llevarse a cabo mediante anestesia local de forma segura y eficaz, sin necesidad de retirar antiagregantes ni asumir los riesgos de la anestesia general. La anatomía desfavorable (obesidad) puede limitar el procedimiento (AU)


Introduction: The aim of this article is to present our experience in performing distal femoralby pass under local anaesthesia for high risk patients. Material and methods: Lower limb revascularisation surgery under local anaesthesia was performed on 8 patients in our centre between January and May 2010. The common characteristics of the patients were, advanced age, chronic is chaemic heart disease on antiplatelet treatment, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: All 8 patients (100%) tolerated the procedure well without having to resort to sedation or invasive an aesthetic procedures. The receiving artery was the posterior tibialin 6 cases (75%) and the popliteal and peroneal in 1 (12%). Early patency of the graft was achieved 7 patients and 1 had early thrombosis with a supracondylar amputation. The technique used was femoral-popliteal in 1 case, femoral-posterior tibial in 6 cases, and popliteal-peroneal in 1 case. The saphenous vein was the graft used, inverted in 1 patient(12%), and in situ in 7 (88%) with a 3 mm BARDTM valvotomy. There were no post-operative complications as regards haemorrhage, infections or death. A minor amputation was performed on 3 patients (37%), and after a mean of 3 months (1-4 months) follow-up,7 cases were free of major amputation. Conclusions: Revascularisation of the distal zone of the lower limbs can be safely and effectively performed using local anaesthesia, avoiding the risks of general anaesthesia and without the need to stop antiplatelet treatment. Anatomical problems (obesity) may limit the procedure (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/cirurgia , Anestesia Local , Reperfusão/métodos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Veia Safena/cirurgia
7.
Cir Esp ; 90(7): 460-4, 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22445111

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this article is to present our experience in performing distal femoral bypass under local anaesthesia for high risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lower limb revascularisation surgery under local anaesthesia was performed on 8 patients in our centre between January and May 2010. The common characteristics of the patients were, advanced age, chronic ischaemic heart disease on antiplatelet treatment, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). RESULTS: All 8 patients (100%) tolerated the procedure well without having to resort to sedation or invasive anaesthetic procedures. The receiving artery was the posterior tibial in 6 cases (75%) and the popliteal and peroneal in 1 (12%). Early patency of the graft was achieved 7 patients and 1 had early thrombosis with a supracondylar amputation. The technique used was femoral-popliteal in 1 case, femoral-posterior tibial in 6 cases, and popliteal-peroneal in 1 case. The saphenous vein was the graft used, inverted in 1 patient (12%), and in situ in 7 (88%) with a 3mm BARD™ valvotomy. There were no post-operative complications as regards haemorrhage, infections or death. A minor amputation was performed on 3 patients (37%), and after a mean of 3 months (1-4 months) follow-up, 7 cases were free of major amputation. CONCLUSIONS: Revascularisation of the distal zone of the lower limbs can be safely and effectively performed using local anaesthesia, avoiding the risks of general anaesthesia and without the need to stop antiplatelet treatment. Anatomical problems (obesity) may limit the procedure.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Veia Safena/transplante , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 7: 14, 2007 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17266763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. RESULTS: Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. CONCLUSION: Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development partners need to complement current voluntary initiatives through systematic scaling-up of public awareness and requisite manpower development towards sustainable service capacities at all levels of healthcare delivery.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Testes Auditivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Benchmarking , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Auditivos/economia , Hospitais Privados , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Lactente , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia
10.
s.l; s.n; s.d. 3 p.
Não convencional em Português | CidSaúde - Cidades saudáveis | ID: cid-15744
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