Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 8 de 8
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Science ; 375(6576): 101-104, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990239

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to result in smaller fish size, but the influence of fishing has made it difficult to substantiate the theorized link between size and ocean warming and deoxygenation. We reconstructed the fish community and oceanographic conditions of the most recent global warm period (last interglacial; 130 to 116 thousand years before present) by using sediments from the northern Humboldt Current system off the coast of Peru, a hotspot of small pelagic fish productivity. In contrast to the present-day anchovy-dominated state, the last interglacial was characterized by considerably smaller (mesopelagic and goby-like) fishes and very low anchovy abundance. These small fish species are more difficult to harvest and are less palatable than anchovies, indicating that our rapidly warming world poses a threat to the global fish supply.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oxigênio/análise , Água do Mar , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Oceano Pacífico , Paleontologia , Peru , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura
2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(12): 6767-6786, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885894

RESUMO

Climate warming is rapidly reshaping the Arctic cryosphere and ocean conditions, with consequences for sea ice and pelagic productivity patterns affecting the entire marine food web. To predict how ongoing changes will impact Arctic marine ecosystems, concerted effort from various disciplines is required. Here, we contribute multi-decadal reconstructions of changes in diatom production and sea-ice conditions in relation to Holocene climate and ocean conditions off northwest Greenland. Our multiproxy study includes diatoms, sea-ice biomarkers (IP25 and HBI III) and geochemical tracers (TOC [total organic carbon], TOC:TN [total nitrogen], δ13 C, δ15 N) from a sediment core record spanning the last c. 9,000 years. Our results suggest that the balance between the outflow of polar water from the Arctic, and input of Atlantic water from the Irminger Current into the West Greenland Current is a key factor in controlling sea-ice conditions, and both diatom phenology and production in northeastern Baffin Bay. Our proxy record notably shows that changes in sea-surface conditions initially forced by Neoglacial cooling were dynamically amplified by the shift in the dominant phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) mode that occurred at c. 3,000 yr BP, and caused drastic changes in community composition and a decline in diatom production at the study site. In the future, with projected dominant-positive AO conditions favored by Arctic warming, increased water column stratification may counteract the positive effect of a longer open-water growth season and negatively impact diatom production.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Regiões Árticas , Cadeia Alimentar , Groenlândia
3.
Nature ; 560(7716): 76-79, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988081

RESUMO

The past two million years of eastern African climate variability is currently poorly constrained, despite interest in understanding its assumed role in early human evolution1-4. Rare palaeoclimate records from northeastern Africa suggest progressively drier conditions2,5 or a stable hydroclimate6. By contrast, records from Lake Malawi in tropical southeastern Africa reveal a trend of a progressively wetter climate over the past 1.3 million years7,8. The climatic forcings that controlled these past hydrological changes are also a matter of debate. Some studies suggest a dominant local insolation forcing on hydrological changes9-11, whereas others infer a potential influence of sea surface temperature changes in the Indian Ocean8,12,13. Here we show that the hydroclimate in southeastern Africa (20-25° S) is controlled by interplay between low-latitude insolation forcing (precession and eccentricity) and changes in ice volume at high latitudes. Our results are based on a multiple-proxy reconstruction of hydrological changes in the Limpopo River catchment, combined with a reconstruction of sea surface temperature in the southwestern Indian Ocean for the past 2.14 million years. We find a long-term aridification in the Limpopo catchment between around 1 and 0.6 million years ago, opposite to the hydroclimatic evolution suggested by records from Lake Malawi. Our results, together with evidence of wetting at Lake Malawi, imply that the rainbelt contracted toward the Equator in response to increased ice volume at high latitudes. By reducing the extent of woodland or wetlands in terrestrial ecosystems, the observed changes in the hydroclimate of southeastern Africa-both in terms of its long-term state and marked precessional variability-could have had a role in the evolution of early hominins, particularly in the extinction of Paranthropus robustus.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Clima , Hominidae , Chuva , Alcanos/análise , Alcanos/química , Animais , Extinção Biológica , Foraminíferos/química , Florestas , História Antiga , Hidrologia , Oceano Índico , Lagos , Malaui , Plantas/química , Rios , Ciclo Hidrológico , Ceras/química , Áreas Alagadas
4.
Anal Chem ; 89(3): 1493-1500, 2017 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992167

RESUMO

The colorful decoration of statues and buildings in antique times is commonly described by the term antique polychromy. It is well-known among scholars but less so to the general public, and its exact form is the subject of research. In this paper we discuss results obtained from the frieze of the Siphnian Treasury in the Sanctuary of Delphi (Greece). We will present the first application of a mobile instrument for macro-XRF imaging for the in situ investigation of antique polychromy and show that it allows one to identify significant traces not visible to the naked eye and not detectable by XRF spot measurements or any other mobile, noninvasive method. These findings allow for a partial reconstruction of the polychromy. Furthermore, we present a novel approach enabling the correct interpretation of artifacts resulting from changes of the detection geometry in the investigation of complexly shaped samples by XRF imaging. This approach is based on the 3D surface model acquired by photogrammetry and fundamental parameter calculations.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(13): 5069-73, 2013 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23479611

RESUMO

Although grassland and savanna occupy only a quarter of the world's vegetation, burning in these ecosystems accounts for roughly half the global carbon emissions from fire. However, the processes that govern changes in grassland burning are poorly understood, particularly on time scales beyond satellite records. We analyzed microcharcoal, sediments, and geochemistry in a high-resolution marine sediment core off Namibia to identify the processes that have controlled biomass burning in southern African grassland ecosystems under large, multimillennial-scale climate changes. Six fire cycles occurred during the past 170,000 y in southern Africa that correspond both in timing and magnitude to the precessional forcing of north-south shifts in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Contrary to the conventional expectation that fire increases with higher temperatures and increased drought, we found that wetter and cooler climates cause increased burning in the study region, owing to a shift in rainfall amount and seasonality (and thus vegetation flammability). We also show that charcoal morphology (i.e., the particle's length-to-width ratio) can be used to reconstruct changes in fire activity as well as biome shifts over time. Our results provide essential context for understanding current and future grassland-fire dynamics and their associated carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Incêndios , Fósseis , Solo , Namíbia
7.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 94(4): 451-6, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15875526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy, the maintenance dose is usually 100 microg. However, persistent systemic reactions to sting challenges could be treated by an increase in the maintenance dose to 200 microg with success, suggesting greater efficiency. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 2 monthly maintenance doses (100 microg vs 200 microg) on skin test sensitivity and venom specific IgE antibody levels. METHODS: Twenty-two patients receiving Vespula venom immunotherapy were enrolled in this retrospective study. After rush therapy, the 100-microg maintenance dose initially administered was maintained (group 1, n = 13) or was increased to 200 microg (group 2, n = 9). RESULTS: Levels of venom specific IgE antibody and skin test results measured before the onset of immunotherapy were comparable in both groups. Unlike in group 1, a maintenance dose of 200 microg resulted in significant decreases in venom specific IgE antibody levels and skin test sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the monthly maintenance dose to 200 microg results in a greater degree of change in venom specific IgE antibody levels and skin test sensitivity than when maintaining a 100-microg dose. Our data strengthen those of previous clinical studies showing the usefulness of a 200-microg maintenance dose in the case of clinical failure of a 100-microg dose.


Assuntos
Venenos de Abelha/administração & dosagem , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Vespas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Venenos de Abelha/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Cutâneos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
8.
Arch Intern Med ; 162(6): 693-700, 2002 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11911724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Q fever is characterized by its clinical polymorphism; neurological involvement has occasionally been described. In the course of acute Q fever, neurological manifestations may include aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, and peripheral neuropathy. OBJECTIVE: To review and evaluate cases of acute Q fever with neurological symptoms diagnosed in our laboratory. METHODS: A total of 1269 acute Q fever cases were recorded from January 1985 to January 2000 in our laboratory and were reviewed for neurological complications. Patients were considered to have acute Q fever when serological procedures showed Coxiella burnetii phase II titers of 1:200 or higher for IgG and 1:50 or higher for IgM. Those patients who underwent a lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid analysis or who had abnormal neurological symptoms were selected for this study. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, and biological features of these cases. We also review the literature and compare our cases with those previously reported. RESULTS: Among the 45 patients selected, 14 were excluded because they had normal cerebrospinal fluid and no neurological symptoms. Two were excluded because there were no clinical or epidemiological data. Three major clinical syndromes were observed: meningoencephalitis or encephalitis in 17 cases; meningitis in 8; and myelitis and peripheral neuropathy in 4. Encephalitic signs were not specific, but behavior or psychiatric disturbances were common. CONCLUSIONS: Q fever should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute neurological disease in a patient with a fever. Serological testing should be performed in cases of meningoencephalitis, lymphocytic meningitis, and peripheral neuropathy, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and myelitis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Febre Q/complicações , Febre Q/fisiopatologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...