Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 59
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Hepatology ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the leading cause of early post-transplantation organ failure, as mitochondrial respiration and ATP production are affected. Shortage of donors has extended liver donor criteria, including aged or steatotic livers, which are more susceptible to IRI. Given the lack of an effective treatment and the extensive transplantation waitlist, we aimed at characterizing the effects of an accelerated mitochondrial activity by silencing Methylation-controlled J protein (MCJ) in three pre-clinical models of IRI and liver regeneration, focusing on metabolically compromised animal models. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Wt, MCJ KO and Mcj silenced Wt mice were subjected to 70% Partial hepatectomy (Phx), prolonged IRI and 70% Phx with IRI. Old and mice with metabolic syndrome were also subjected to these procedures. Expression of MCJ, an endogenous negative regulator of mitochondrial respiration, increases in pre-clinical models of Phx with or without vascular occlusion, and in donors' livers. Mice lacking MCJ initiate liver regeneration 12h faster than WT, show reduced ischemic injury and increased survival. MCJ knockdown enables a mitochondrial adaptation that restores the bioenergetic supply for enhanced regeneration and prevents cell death after IRI. Mechanistically, increased ATP secretion facilitates the early activation of kupffer cells and production of TNF, IL-6 and HB-EGF accelerating the priming phase and the progression through G1/S transition during liver regeneration. Therapeutic silencing of MCJ in 15-month-old mice and in mice fed with a high fat-high fructose diet for 12 weeks improves mitochondrial respiration, reduces steatosis and overcomes regenerative limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Boosting mitochondrial activity by silencing MCJ could pave the way for a novel protective approach after major liver resection or IRI, specially in metabolically compromised, IRI susceptible organs.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585619

RESUMO

In patients, advanced cirrhosis only regresses partially once the etiological agent is withdrawn. Animal models for advanced cirrhosis regression are missing. Lifestyle interventions (LI) have shown to improve steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and portal pressure in liver disease. We aimed at characterizing cirrhosis regression after etiological agent removal in experimental models of advanced cirrhosis and to study the impact of different LI on it. Advanced cirrhosis was induced in rats either by CCl4 or by thioacetamide (TAA) administration. Systemic and hepatic hemodynamics, liver fibrosis, hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, hepatic macrophage infiltration and metabolic profile were evaluated after 48h, 4 weeks or 8 weeks of etiological agent removal. The impact of LI consisting in caloric restriction (CR) or moderate endurance exercise (MEE) during the 8-week regression process was analyzed. The effect of MEE was also evaluated in early cirrhotic and in healthy rats. A significant reduction in portal pressure (PP), liver fibrosis and HSC activation was observed during regression. However, these parameters remained above those in healthy animals. During regression, animals markedly worsened their metabolic profile. CR although preventing those metabolic disturbances did not further reduce PP, hepatic fibrosis or HSC activation. MEE also prevented metabolic disturbances, without enhancing, but even attenuating the reduction of PP, hepatic fibrosis and HSC activation achieved by regression. MEE also worsened hepatic fibrosis in early-TAA cirrhosis and in healthy rats.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5068, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417460

RESUMO

p53 regulates several signaling pathways to maintain the metabolic homeostasis of cells and modulates the cellular response to stress. Deficiency or excess of nutrients causes cellular metabolic stress, and we hypothesized that p53 could be linked to glucose maintenance. We show here that upon starvation hepatic p53 is stabilized by O-GlcNAcylation and plays an essential role in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. More specifically, p53 binds to PCK1 promoter and regulates its transcriptional activation, thereby controlling hepatic glucose production. Mice lacking p53 in the liver show a reduced gluconeogenic response during calorie restriction. Glucagon, adrenaline and glucocorticoids augment protein levels of p53, and administration of these hormones to p53 deficient human hepatocytes and to liver-specific p53 deficient mice fails to increase glucose levels. Moreover, insulin decreases p53 levels, and over-expression of p53 impairs insulin sensitivity. Finally, protein levels of p53, as well as genes responsible of O-GlcNAcylation are elevated in the liver of type 2 diabetic patients and positively correlate with glucose and HOMA-IR. Overall these results indicate that the O-GlcNAcylation of p53 plays an unsuspected key role regulating in vivo glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Restrição Calórica , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
4.
Mol Metab ; 53: 101275, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neddylation is a druggable and reversible ubiquitin-like post-translational modification upregulated in many diseases, including liver fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and more recently, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, we propose to address the effects of neddylation inhibition and the underlying mechanisms in pre-clinical models of NAFLD. METHODS: Hepatic neddylation measured by immunohistochemical analysis and NEDD8 serum levels measured by ELISA assay were evaluated in NAFLD clinical and pre-clinical samples. The effects of neddylation inhibition by using a pharmacological small inhibitor, MLN4924, or molecular approaches were assessed in isolated mouse hepatocytes and pre-clinical mouse models of diet-induced NAFLD, male adult C57BL/6 mice, and the AlfpCre transgenic mice infected with AAV-DIO-shNedd8. RESULTS: Neddylation inhibition reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-stimulated mouse primary hepatocytes and ameliorated liver steatosis, preventing lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the mouse models of diet-induced NAFLD. Under these conditions, increased Deptor levels and the concomitant repression of mTOR signaling were associated with augmented fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipid content. Moreover, Deptor silencing in isolated mouse hepatocytes abolished the anti-steatotic effects mediated by neddylation inhibition. Finally, serum NEDD8 levels correlated with hepatic neddylation during the disease progression in the clinical and pre-clinical models CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the upregulation of Deptor, driven by neddylation inhibition, is proposed as a novel effective target and therapeutic approach to tackle NAFLD.

5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 486, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879833

RESUMO

There is an ongoing need of developing sensitive and specific methods for the determination of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion. For this purpose, we have developed a multiplexed flow cytometric bead array (C19BA) that allows the identification of IgG and IgM antibodies against three immunogenic proteins simultaneously: the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), the spike protein subunit 1 (S1) and the nucleoprotein (N). Using different cohorts of samples collected before and after the pandemic, we show that this assay is more sensitive than ELISAs performed in our laboratory. The combination of three viral antigens allows for the interrogation of full seroconversion. Importantly, we have detected N-reactive antibodies in COVID-19-negative individuals. Here we present an immunoassay that can be easily implemented and has superior potential to detect low antibody titers compared to current gold standard serology methods.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Nucleoproteínas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Soroconversão , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 640869, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679803

RESUMO

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease. The histological spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to chronic inflammation and liver fibrosis during Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). The current view is that innate immune mechanisms represent a key element in supporting hepatic inflammation in NASH. Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphoid cells and a component of the innate immune system known to be involved in NASH progression. Increasing evidence has shed light on the differential function of circulating and tissue-resident NK cells, as well as on the relevance of metabolism and the microenvironment in regulating their activity. Here, we revisit the complex role of NK cells as regulators of NASH progression as well as potential therapeutic approaches based on their modulation.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/imunologia , Humanos
8.
J Hepatol ; 75(1): 34-45, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Perturbations of intracellular magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis have implications for cell physiology. The cyclin M family, CNNM, perform key functions in the transport of Mg2+ across cell membranes. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the role of CNNM4 in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Serum Mg2+ levels and hepatic CNNM4 expression were characterised in clinical samples. Primary hepatocytes were cultured under methionine and choline deprivation. A 0.1% methionine and choline-deficient diet, or a choline-deficient high-fat diet were used to induce NASH in our in vivo rodent models. Cnnm4 was silenced using siRNA, in vitro with DharmaFECT and in vivo with Invivofectamine® or conjugated to N-acetylgalactosamine. RESULTS: Patients with NASH showed hepatic CNNM4 overexpression and dysregulated Mg2+ levels in the serum. Cnnm4 silencing ameliorated hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis in the rodent NASH models. Mechanistically, CNNM4 knockdown in hepatocytes induced cellular Mg2+ accumulation, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increased microsomal triglyceride transfer activity, which promoted hepatic lipid clearance by increasing the secretion of VLDLs. CONCLUSIONS: CNNM4 is overexpressed in patients with NASH and is responsible for dysregulated Mg2+ transport. Hepatic CNNM4 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of NASH. LAY SUMMARY: Cyclin M4 (CNNM4) is overexpressed in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and promotes the export of magnesium from the liver. The liver-specific silencing of Cnnm4 ameliorates NASH by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and promoting the activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(1): e3001062, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395408

RESUMO

Lyme carditis is an extracutaneous manifestation of Lyme disease characterized by episodes of atrioventricular block of varying degrees and additional, less reported cardiomyopathies. The molecular changes associated with the response to Borrelia burgdorferi over the course of infection are poorly understood. Here, we identify broad transcriptomic and proteomic changes in the heart during infection that reveal a profound down-regulation of mitochondrial components. We also describe the long-term functional modulation of macrophages exposed to live bacteria, characterized by an augmented glycolytic output, increased spirochetal binding and internalization, and reduced inflammatory responses. In vitro, glycolysis inhibition reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by memory macrophages, whereas in vivo, it produces the reversion of the memory phenotype, the recovery of tissue mitochondrial components, and decreased inflammation and spirochetal burdens. These results show that B. burgdorferi induces long-term, memory-like responses in macrophages with tissue-wide consequences that are amenable to be manipulated in vivo.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Memória Imunológica , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/microbiologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/imunologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/patologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Coração/microbiologia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/imunologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/microbiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Células RAW 264.7
10.
Biomedicines ; 9(2)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513920

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by an abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation accompanied by a necro-inflammatory process and a fibrotic response. It comprises from 10% to 30% of cases of patients with non-alcoholic liver disease, which is a global health problem affecting around a quarter of the worldwide population. Nevertheless, the development of NASH is often surrounded by a pathological context with other comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dietary imbalances are increasingly recognized as the root cause of these NASH-related comorbidities. In this context, a growing concern exists about whether magnesium consumption in the general population is sufficient. Hypomagnesemia is a hallmark of the aforementioned NASH comorbidities, and deficiencies in magnesium are also widely related to the triggering of complications that aggravate NASH or derived pathologies. Moreover, the supplementation of this cation has proved to reduce mortality from hepatic complications. In the present review, the role of magnesium in NASH and related comorbidities has been characterized, unraveling the relevance of maintaining the homeostasis of this cation for the correct functioning of the organism.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203174

RESUMO

Current food tendencies, suboptimal dietary habits and a sedentary lifestyle are spreading metabolic disorders worldwide. Consequently, the prevalence of liver pathologies is increasing, as it is the main metabolic organ in the body. Chronic liver diseases, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the main cause, have an alarming prevalence of around 25% worldwide. Otherwise, the consumption of certain drugs leads to an acute liver failure (ALF), with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) as its main cause, or alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Although programs carried out by authorities are focused on improving dietary habits and lifestyle, the long-term compliance of the patient makes them difficult to follow. Thus, the supplementation with certain substances may represent a more easy-to-follow approach for patients. In this context, the consumption of polyphenol-rich food represents an attractive alternative as these compounds have been characterized to be effective in ameliorating liver pathologies. Despite of their structural diversity, certain similar characteristics allow to classify polyphenols in 5 groups: stilbenes, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans and curcuminoids. Herein, we have identified the most relevant compounds in each group and characterized their main sources. By this, authorities should encourage the consumption of polyphenol-rich products, as most of them are available in quotidian life, which might reduce the socioeconomical burden of liver diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Diarileptanoides , Flavonoides , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos , Estilo de Vida , Lignanas , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Polifenóis/química , Estilbenos
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(34): 5101-5117, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arachidyl amido cholanoic acid (Aramchol) is a potent downregulator of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) protein expression that reduces liver triglycerides and fibrosis in animal models of steatohepatitis. In a phase IIb clinical trial in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), 52 wk of treatment with Aramchol reduced blood levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c, an indicator of glycemic control. AIM: To assess lipid and glucose metabolism in mouse hepatocytes and in a NASH mouse model [induced with a 0.1% methionine and choline deficient diet (0.1MCD)] after treatment with Aramchol. METHODS: Isolated primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with 20 µmol/L Aramchol or vehicle for 48 h. Subsequently, analyses were performed including Western blot, proteomics by mass spectrometry, and fluxomic analysis with 13C-uniformly labeled glucose. For the in vivo part of the study, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly fed a control or 0.1MCD for 4 wk and received 1 or 5 mg/kg/d Aramchol or vehicle by intragastric gavage for the last 2 wk. Liver metabolomics were assessed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-MS for the determination of glucose metabolism-related metabolites. RESULTS: Combination of proteomics and Western blot analyses showed increased AMPK activity while the activity of nutrient sensor mTORC1 was decreased by Aramchol in hepatocytes. This translated into changes in the content of their downstream targets including proteins involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis and oxidation [P-ACCα/ß(S79), SCD1, CPT1A/B, HADHA, and HADHB], oxidative phosphorylation (NDUFA9, NDUFB11, NDUFS1, NDUFV1, ETFDH, and UQCRC2), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (MDH2, SUCLA2, and SUCLG2), and ribosome (P-p70S6K[T389] and P-S6[S235/S236]). Flux experiments with 13C-uniformely labeled glucose showed that TCA cycle cataplerosis was reduced by Aramchol in hepatocytes, as indicated by the increase in the number of rounds that malate remained in the TCA cycle. Finally, liver metabolomic analysis showed that glucose homeostasis was improved by Aramchol in 0.1MCD fed mice in a dose-dependent manner, showing normalization of glucose, G6P, F6P, UDP-glucose, and Rbl5P/Xyl5P. CONCLUSION: Aramchol exerts its effect on glucose and lipid metabolism in NASH through activation of AMPK and inhibition of mTORC1, which in turn activate FA ß-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Cólicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metionina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3360, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620763

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the next major health epidemic with an estimated 25% worldwide prevalence. No drugs have yet been approved and NAFLD remains a major unmet need. Here, we identify MCJ (Methylation-Controlled J protein) as a target for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced phase of NAFLD. MCJ is an endogenous negative regulator of the respiratory chain Complex I that acts to restrain mitochondrial respiration. We show that therapeutic targeting of MCJ in the liver with nanoparticle- and GalNAc-formulated siRNA efficiently reduces liver lipid accumulation and fibrosis in multiple NASH mouse models. Decreasing MCJ expression enhances the capacity of hepatocytes to mediate ß-oxidation of fatty acids and minimizes lipid accumulation, which results in reduced hepatocyte damage and fibrosis. Moreover, MCJ levels in the liver of NAFLD patients are elevated relative to healthy subjects. Thus, inhibition of MCJ emerges as an alternative approach to treat NAFLD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA-Seq
14.
J Clin Invest ; 130(7): 3848-3864, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315290

RESUMO

Cancer cells can develop a strong addiction to discrete molecular regulators, which control the aberrant gene expression programs that drive and maintain the cancer phenotype. Here, we report the identification of the RNA-binding protein HuR/ELAVL1 as a central oncogenic driver for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), which are highly aggressive sarcomas that originate from cells of the Schwann cell lineage. HuR was found to be highly elevated and bound to a multitude of cancer-associated transcripts in human MPNST samples. Accordingly, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of HuR had potent cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on tumor growth, and strongly suppressed metastatic capacity in vivo. Importantly, we linked the profound tumorigenic function of HuR to its ability to simultaneously regulate multiple essential oncogenic pathways in MPNST cells, including the Wnt/ß-catenin, YAP/TAZ, RB/E2F, and BET pathways, which converge on key transcriptional networks. Given the exceptional dependency of MPNST cells on HuR for survival, proliferation, and dissemination, we propose that HuR represents a promising therapeutic target for MPNST treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteína Semelhante a ELAV 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína Semelhante a ELAV 1/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/genética , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/patologia
15.
Cell Metab ; 31(3): 605-622.e10, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084378

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the accumulation of hepatic fat in an inflammatory/fibrotic background. Herein, we show that the hepatic high-activity glutaminase 1 isoform (GLS1) is overexpressed in NASH. Importantly, GLS1 inhibition reduces lipid content in choline and/or methionine deprivation-induced steatotic mouse primary hepatocytes, in human hepatocyte cell lines, and in NASH mouse livers. We suggest that under these circumstances, defective glutamine fueling of anaplerotic mitochondrial metabolism and concomitant reduction of oxidative stress promotes a reprogramming of serine metabolism, wherein serine is shifted from the generation of the antioxidant glutathione and channeled to provide one-carbon units to regenerate the methionine cycle. The restored methionine cycle can induce phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-mediated and CDP-choline pathways as well as by base-exchange reactions between phospholipids, thereby restoring hepatic phosphatidylcholine content and very-low-density lipoprotein export. Overall, we provide evidence that hepatic GLS1 targeting is a valuable therapeutic approach in NASH.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SerpinB3 (SB3) is a hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α-dependent cysteine-protease inhibitor up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), released by cancer cells and able to stimulate proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition. Methods: In the study we employed transgenic and knock out SerpinB3 mice, liver cancer cell line, human HCC specimens, and mice receiving diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN) administration plus choline-deficient L-amino acid refined (CDAA) diet (DEN/CDAA protocol). Results: We provide detailed and mechanistic evidence that SB3 can act as a paracrine mediator able to affect the behavior of surrounding cells by differentially up-regulating, in normoxic conditions, HIF-1α and HIF-2α. SB3 acts by (i) up-regulating HIF-1α transcription, facilitating cell survival in a harsh microenvironment and promoting angiogenesis, (ii) increasing HIF-2α stabilization via direct/selective NEDDylation, promoting proliferation of liver cancer cells, and favoring HCC progression. Moreover (iii) the highest levels of NEDD8-E1 activating enzyme (NAE1) mRNA were detected in a subclass of HCC patients expressing the highest levels of HIF-2α transcripts; (iv) mice undergoing DEN/CDAA carcinogenic protocol showed a positive correlation between SB3 and HIF-2α transcripts with the highest levels of NAE1 mRNA detected in nodules expressing the highest levels of HIF-2α transcripts. Conclusions: These data outline either HIF-2α and NEDDylation as two novel putative therapeutic targets to interfere with the procarcinogenic role of SerpinB3 in the development of HCC.

17.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817258

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver disease. Even though our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis has deeply improved in the last years, therapeutic approaches for liver fibrosis remain limited. Profiling and characterization of the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, and more specifically NEDDylation and SUMOylation ubiquitin-like (Ubls) modifications, can provide a better understanding of the liver fibrosis pathology as well as novel and more effective therapeutic approaches. On this basis, in the last years, several studies have described how changes in the intermediates of the Ubl cascades are altered during liver fibrosis and how specific targeting of particular enzymes mediating these ubiquitin-like modifications can improve liver fibrosis, mainly in in vitro models of hepatic stellate cells, the main fibrogenic cell type, and in pre-clinical mouse models of liver fibrosis. The development of novel inhibitors of the Ubl modifications as well as novel strategies to assess the modified proteome can provide new insights into the overall role of Ubl modifications in liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Animais , Humanos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/metabolismo , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861664

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. NAFLD comprises a group of conditions characterized by the accumulation of hepatic lipids that can eventually lead to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth most common cancer type with a poor survival rate. In this context, several works have pointed out perturbations in lipid metabolism and, particularly, changes in bioactive sphingolipids, as a hallmark of NAFLD and derived HCC. In the present work, we have reviewed existing literature about sphingolipids and the development of NAFLD and NAFLD-derived HCC. During metabolic syndrome, considered a risk factor for steatosis development, an increase in ceramide and sphigosine-1-phosphate (S1P) have been reported. Likewise, other reports have highlighted that increased sphingomyelin and ceramide content is observed during steatosis and NASH. Ceramide also plays a role in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, acting synergistically with S1P. Finally, during HCC, metabolic fluxes are redirected to reduce cellular ceramide levels whilst increasing S1P to support tumor growth.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842432

RESUMO

The four member family of "Cyclin and Cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) domain divalent metal cation transport mediators", CNNMs, are the least-studied mammalian magnesium transport mediators. CNNM4 is abundant in the brain and the intestinal tract, and its abnormal activity causes Jalili Syndrome. Recent findings show that suppression of CNNM4 in mice promotes malignant progression of intestinal polyps and is linked to infertility. The association of CNNM4 with phosphatases of the regenerating liver, PRLs, abrogates its Mg2+-efflux capacity, thus resulting in an increased intracellular Mg2+ concentration that favors tumor growth. Here we present the crystal structures of the two independent intracellular domains of human CNNM4, i.e., the Bateman module and the cyclic nucleotide binding-like domain (cNMP). We also derive a model structure for the full intracellular region in the absence and presence of MgATP and the oncogenic interacting partner, PRL-1. We find that only the Bateman module interacts with ATP and Mg2+, at non-overlapping sites facilitating their positive cooperativity. Furthermore, both domains dimerize autonomously, where the cNMP domain dimer forms a rigid cleft to restrict the Mg2+ induced sliding of the inserting CBS1 motives of the Bateman module, from a twisted to a flat disk shaped dimer.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Transporte Biológico , Humanos , Magnésio/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
J Vis Exp ; (153)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736480

RESUMO

Post-translational modification is a key mechanism regulating protein homeostasis and function in eukaryotic cells. Among all ubiquitin-like proteins in liver cancer, the modification by SUMO (Small Ubiquitin MOdifier) has been given the most attention. Isolation of endogenous SUMOylated proteins in vivo is challenging due to the presence of active SUMO-specific proteases. Initial studies of SUMOylation in vivo were based on the molecular detection of specific SUMOylated proteins (e.g., by western blot). However, in many cases, antibodies, generally made with non-modified recombinant protein, did not immunoprecipitate SUMOylated forms of the protein of interest. Nickel chromatography has been the other approach to study SUMOylation by capturing histidine-tagged versions of SUMO molecules. This approach is mainly used in cells stably expressing or transiently transfected with His-SUMO molecules. To overcome these limitations, SUMO-binding entities (SUBEs) were developed to isolate endogenous SUMOylated proteins. Herein, we describe all the steps required for the enrichment, isolation, and identification of SUMOylated substrates from human hepatoma cells and hepatic tissues from a liver cancer mouse model by using SUBEs. Firstly, we describe methods involved in the preparation and lysis of the human hepatoma cells and liver tumor tissue samples. Then, a thorough explanation of the preparation of SUBEs and controls is detailed along with the protocol for the protein pull-down assays. Finally, some examples are provided regarding the options available for the identification and characterization of the SUMOylated proteome, namely the use of western-blot analysis for the detection of a specific SUMOylated substrate from liver tumors or the use of proteomics by mass spectrometry for high-throughput characterization of the SUMOylated proteome and interactome in hepatoma cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Sumoilação , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...