Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 159
Filtrar
1.
J Sleep Res ; : e13035, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212220

RESUMO

Depression is common in women with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but objective markers of depression have not yet been explored in such patients. We hypothesized that inflammation and antioxidant biomarkers may be associated with depression in a cohort of OSA women. We conducted a multicentre, cross-sectional study in 247 women diagnosed with moderate-to-severe OSA. Depression was assessed by the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (HAD-D) and defined as a score ≥11. Associations between tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels and depression were assessed. The women had a median (25th-75th percentiles) age of 58 (51-65) years, body mass index (BMI) of 33.5 (29.0-38.3) Kg/m2 , Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score of 10 (6-13) and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 33.3 (22.8-49.3). Logistic regression analyses revealed that only IL6 levels were associated with the presence of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.34), whereas linear regression further confirmed that IL6 levels were significantly associated with HAD-D scores (ß = .154; 95% CI, 0.03-0.30). Multivariate regression analysis showed that IL6 (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), ESS (OR, 1.10; 95% CI 1.02-1.19) and physical activity <30 min/day (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.25-5.05) were independent predictors of depression. Thus, we conclude that in a cohort of women with moderate-to-severe OSA, IL6 levels are independently associated with the presence of depression and correlate with depression scores. Low physical activity and higher ESS scores are also independent indicators of risk of depression in this population.

2.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(2): 12, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016549

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to present an overview of the recent literature on the importance of CPAP and antihypertensive treatment adherence in blood pressure control of hypertensive patients, especially those with obstructive sleep apnea. RECENT FINDINGS: Although it is unquestionable that a good adherence to CPAP and antihypertensive drugs is crucial to improvements in sleep-related symptoms, blood pressure levels (even the modest reductions of 2-2.5 mmHg achieved by CPAP treatment) and future cardiovascular risk, this adherence decreases over time, despite efforts made toward behavioral intervention and monitoring. Curiously, although taking a drug would seem to be easier than the use of CPAP treatment, based on current information, it seems that the compliance with drug treatment in hypertensive subjects is not better than that achieved with CPAP treatment in OSA patients with hypertension. However, some studies have shown some phenotypes of hypertensive and OSA patients with good adherence and better hypertensive effect, such as those with uncontrolled blood pressure (resistant and refractory hypertension), severe forms of sleep apnea, and more sleep-related symptoms, especially a higher degree of diurnal hypersomnia. The positive effect of antihypertensive drugs and CPAP treatment on blood pressure levels depends on the degree of treatment adherence, especially in forms of uncontrolled hypertension, but this adherence decreases over time. Educational programs and new devices are needed to improve adherence to treatment in these patients, along with fuller understanding of the different patterns and phenotypes of non-adherence.

3.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is some controversy about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE). However, the incidence of CVE among patients with both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) ans resistant hypertension (HR) has not been evaluated. Our objective was to analyze the long-term effect of CPAP treatment in patients with RH and OSA on the incidence of CVE. METHODS: Multi-center, observational and prospective study of patients with moderate-severe OSA and RH. All the patients were followed up every 3-6 months and the CVE incidence was measured. Patients adherent to CPAP (at least 4h/day) were compared with those with not adherent or those who had not been prescribed CPAP. RESULTS: Valid data were obtained from 163 patients with 64 CVE incidents. Treatment with CPAP was offered to 82%. After 58 months of follow-up, 58.3% of patients were adherent to CPAP. Patients not adherent to CPAP presented a non-significant increase in the total CVE incidence (HR:1.6; 95%CI: 0.96-2.7; p=0.07). A sensitivity analysis showed that patients not adherent to CPAP had a significant increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular events (HR: 3.1; CI95%: 1.07-15.1; p=0.041) and hypertensive crises (HR: 5.1; CI95%: 2.2-11.6; p=0.006), but the trend went in the opposite direction with respect to coronary events (HR: 0.22; CI95%: 0.05-1.02; p=0.053). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with RH and moderate-severe OSA, an uneffective treatment with CPAP showed a trend toward an increase in the incidence of CVE (particularly neurovascular events and hypertensive crises) without any changes with respect to coronary events.

4.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The SEPAR Spanish Bronchiectasis Registry (RIBRON) began as a platform for the collection of longitudinal data on patients with this disease. The objective of this study is to describe its operation and to analyze the characteristics of bronchiectasis patients according to sex. METHODS: A total of 1912 adult patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis in 43 centers were included between February 2015 and 2019. All patients had complete data consisting of at least 79 basic required variables, controlled by an external audit. RESULTS: Mean age was 67.6 (15.2) years; 63.9% were women. The most common symptom was productive cough (78.3%) which was mucopurulent-purulent in 45.9% of cases. The most common etiology was post-infectious (40.4%), while 18.5% were idiopathic. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently isolated microorganism (40.4%), of which 25.6% were associated with chronic infection. The annual number of mild-to-moderate/severe exacerbations was 1.62 (1.9)/0.59 (1.3). Half of the patients (50%) presented with airflow obstruction (17% severe). The most frequent radiological localization was lower lobes. The average FACED/E-FACED/BSI values were 2.06 (1.7)/2.67 (2.2)/7.8 (4.5), respectively. Overall, 66.7% of patients were taking inhaled corticosteroids, 19.2% macrolides, and 19.5% inhaled antibiotics. Women presented a less severe profile than men in clinical and functional terms, and a similar infectious, radiological and therapeutic profile. CONCLUSIONS: RIBRON represents an excellent map of the characteristics of bronchiectasis in our country. Two thirds of patients are women who presented lower disease severity as a specific characteristic.

5.
Menopause ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-enhances lung cancer progression in mice via altered host immune responses that are also age and sex-dependent. However, the interactions of menopause with IH on tumor malignant properties remain unexplored. Here, we aimed to investigate lung cancer outcomes in the context of ovariectomy (OVX)-induced menopause in a murine model of OSA. METHODS: Thirty-four female mice (C57BL/6, 12-week-old) were subjected to bilateral OVX or to Sham intervention. Six months after surgery, mice were pre-exposed to either IH or room air (RA) for 2 weeks. Then, 10 lung carcinoma (LLC1) cells were injected subcutaneously in the left flank, with IH or RA exposures continued for 4 weeks. Tumor weight, tumor invasion, and spontaneous lung metastases were assessed. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were isolated and subjected to flow cytometry polarity evaluation along with assessment of TAMs modulation of LLC1 proliferation in vitro. To determine the effect of IH and OVX on each experimental variable, a two-way analysis of variance was performed. RESULTS: IH and OVX promoted a similar increase in tumor growth (∼2-fold; P = 0.05 and ∼1.74-fold; P < 0.05, respectively), and OVX-IH further increased it. Regarding lung metastasis, the concurrence of OVX in mice exposed to IH enhanced the number of metastases (23.7 ±â€Š8.0) in comparison to those without OVX (7.9 ±â€Š2.8; P < 0.05). The pro-tumoral phenotype of TAMS, assessed as M2/M1 ratio, was increased in OVX (0.06 ±â€Š0.01; P < 0.01) and IH (0.06 ±â€Š0.01; P < 0.01) compared with sham/RA conditions (0.14 ±â€Š0.03). The co-culture of TAMS with naive LLC1 cells enhanced their proliferation only under IH. CONCLUSION: In female mice, both the IH that is characteristically present in OSA and OVX as a menopause model emerge as independent contributors that promote lung cancer aggressiveness and seemingly operate through alterations in the host immune response.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922913

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is controversial because it can reduce the risk of future exacerbations of the disease at the expense of increasing the risk of pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between the presence of chronic bacterial infection (CBI), reduced number of circulating eosinophils, ICS treatment and the risk of pneumonia in COPD patients. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: Post-hoc long-term observational study of an historical cohort of 201 COPD patients (GOLD II-IV) who were carefully characterized (including airway microbiology) and followed for a median of 84 months. Results were analysed by multivariate Cox regression and network analysis. MAIN RESULTS: Mean age was 70.3 years, 90.5% of patients were male, mean FEV1 was 49%, 71.6% of patients were treated with ICS, 57.2% of them had bronchiectasis and 20.9% <100 blood eosinophils/µL. Pathogenic microorganisms were isolated in 42.3% of patients (22.4% of patients fulfilled the definition of chronic bronchial infection (CBI). During follow-up, 38.8% of patients suffered ≥1 pneumonia, CBI (HR, 1.635) and <100 eosinophils/µL (HR, 1.975) being independently associated with the risk of pneumonia, particularly when both coexist (HR, 3.126). ICS treatment increased the risk of pneumonia in those patients with <100 eosinophils/µL and CBI (HR, 2.925). CONCLUSIONS: Less than 100 circulating eosinophils/L combined with the presence of CBI increase the risk of pneumonia in COPD patients treated with ICS.

9.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694223

RESUMO

Hypertension is one of the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors. The population of hypertensive patients includes some phenotypes whose blood pressure levels are particularly difficult to control, thus putting them at greater cardiovascular risk. This is especially true of so-called resistant hypertension (RH) and refractory hypertension (RfH). Recent findings suggest that the former may be due to an alteration in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, while the latter seems to be more closely related to sympathetic hyper-activation. Both these pathophysiological mechanisms are also activated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It is not surprising, therefore, that the prevalence of OSA in RH and RfH patients is very high (as reflected in several studies) and that treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) manages to reduce blood pressure levels in a clinically significant way in both these groups of hypertensive patients. It is therefore necessary to incorporate into the multidimensional treatment of patients with RH and RfH (changes in lifestyle, control of obesity and drug treatment) a study of the possible existence of OSA, as this is a potentially treatable disease. There are many questions that remain to be answered, especially regarding the ideal combination of treatment in patients with RH/RfH and OSA (drugs, renal denervation, CPAP treatment) and patients' varying response to CPAP treatment.

11.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 24(5): e603-e609, sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185677

RESUMO

Background: More than 90% of malignant tumors diagnosed in the oral cavity are Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCC) whose preferred location is the tongue. Classically, this disease has affected men preferentially, although recent studies suggest that trends are changing and the proportion of women with OSCC is increasing. In addition, the prevalence of oral cancer is also determined by some risk factors as alcohol consumption and to-bacco. Currently, the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification is employed to defined tumor stage and based on this guide specific treatments are established. However, 5-year-survival does not exceed 50% of cases. The objective of this study is to determine whether a histological risk pattern indicative of higher recurrence might be present in T1-T2 tumors located in the anterior two thirds of the tongue. Material and Methods: Samples from 26 patients with OSCC were analyzed and histological risk pattern of recur-rent and non-recurrent tumors were compared. We have analyzed histological variables described in Anneroth and Brandwein-Gensler classifications. Additionally, we have also examined both clinical variables such as age, sex or comorbidities, as well as habits such as tobacco or alcohol consumption. Results: We found that sex (male) and keratinization degree (high or moderate) are directly related with OSCC recurrence. In fact, free illness time is lower in men and higher in those cases with minimal or no keratinization. Conclusions: Based on the variables analyzed, it has not been possible to establish a histological risk pattern that, complementary to the TNM classification, could have a predictive role in these early-stage tongue carcinomas


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias da Língua , Neoplasias Bucais , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Projetos Piloto , Medição de Risco
12.
Chest ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (QoL) is one of the most important end points in bronchiectasis (BE). However, the majority of health-related QoL questionnaires are time-consuming or not validated in BE. The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is an easy-to-use questionnaire. The objective of this study was to perform a complete validation of the CAT in BE. METHODS: This was an observational, multicenter, prospective study in patients with BE. Psychometric properties of the CAT were measured: internal consistency (Cronbach α), repeatability (test-retest; intraclass correlation coefficient), discriminant validity (correlation with severity scores), convergent validity (correlation with some validated QoL questionnaire and other clinical variables of interest), longitudinal validity (measuring before and after each exacerbation during follow-up to determine the sensitivity to change and responsiveness), predictive validity to future exacerbations, and finally minimum clinically important difference. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients were included and followed up for 1 year. Their mean age was 62.2 (15.6) years (79.2% women). The CAT showed excellent internal consistency (α, 0.95) and repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.95). The validity of the CAT was excellent in all the measures (almost all with a Pearson coefficient > 0.40) except for the correlations with severity scores (Pearson coefficient between 0.22 and 0.26). Sensitivity to change before and after exacerbations was set at between 5.4 and 5.8 points. A CAT value ≥ 10 points showed prognostic value for patients with more than one exacerbation, and finally the minimum clinically important difference was set at 3 points. CONCLUSIONS: The CAT presented excellent psychometric properties and is a questionnaire that is easy to use and interpret in patients with BE.

13.
Rev. Soc. Esp. Dolor ; 26(4): 233-242, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-5183

RESUMO

La mayor parte de las consultas odontológicas están relacionadas con dolores intraorales que afectan a estructuras dentarias, periodontales y mucosas. Aunque generalmente la causa originaria del dolor y la estructura afectada coinciden en la localización, en ocasiones el dolor orofacial y, particularmente, el dolor oral, es referido. Esto es, el dolor puede deberse a procesos de origen extraoral localizados fuera del territorio maxilofacial. De igual manera, determinados trastornos orales, como un desequilibrio oclusivo, pueden afectar también estructuras extraorales, ocasionando tensión y dolor en cuello, cabeza y espalda. La investigación en dolor orofacial es, sin embargo, una disciplina emergente en comparación con otras áreas anatómicas, quizás debido, en parte, a que el dolor tiende a remitir con el tiempo o con la sanación del tejido afectado (si hubiera una lesión). Sin embargo, la mitad de los pacientes con algún tipo de dolor orofacial lo sufre de manera crónica y, a diferencia del dolor agudo, remitente, el dolor crónico no es ya un síntoma, sino una patología de difícil manejo, con escasa o ninguna relación con los mecanismos que lo originaron. Además, la falta de una adecuada anamnesis y exploración clínica, nomenclaturas inapropiadas o la dificultad de diagnóstico, hacen complicado en ocasiones un óptimo abordaje terapéutico. La mayoría de las clasificaciones de dolor oral siguen atendiendo a la estructura anatómica afectada más que al propio mecanismo nociceptivo. Por otra parte, la etiología exacta de muchas algias denominadas atípicas o del síndrome de boca ardiente sigue siendo desconocida. Esta revisión pretende describir los principales motivos de consulta por dolor en la clínica dental, poniendo particular énfasis en el tipo de dolor desde el punto de vista de su mecanismo: nociceptivo, inflamatorio, neuropático, psicogénico o mixto


Most dental consultations are related to intraoral pain disorders affecting dental, periodontal and mucosal structures. Although the originating cause of pain and the anatomical structure frequently co-localise, orofacial pain and particularly oral pain are sometimes referred. That is, pain may be caused by extraoral processes out of the maxillofacial territory. Likely, some intraoral conditions such as an occlusal imbalance may also affect extraoral structures, leading to tension and pain on the neck, head, and back. Orofacial pain research is however an emerging discipline in comparison to other anatomical regions. This may be due, in part, to the fact that oral pain tends to recede over time or after tissue healing -in case there was an injury-. Notwithstanding, half of the patients reporting any sort of orofacial pain suffers chronically. And unlike acute receding pain, chronic pain is no longer a symptom, but a diffi cult-to-manage pathology, with scarce or none relation to the mechanisms that caused it. Moreover, the lack of appropriate anamnesis and clinical examinations, inaccurate pain syndrome nomenclatures or difficulty in diagnosis hamper sometimes an optimal therapeutic approach. Most oral pain classifications are still based on the affected anatomical structure rather than on the nociceptive mechanism itself. On the other hand, the precise aetiology of most of the so-called atypical algiae or the burning mouth syndrome is still unknown. The present review article aims to describe the main reasons for pain consultation at the dental clinic, with particular emphasis on the type of pain from a mechanistically point of view: nociceptive, inflammatory, neuropathic, psychogenic or mixed

14.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 55(8): 427-433, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186100

RESUMO

En la mayoría de los ámbitos de la neumología se sigue utilizando un principio osleriano (basado en los síntomas y signos) en los que la enfermedad es el centro de toda actividad, pero este paradigma está cambiando. Actualmente, gracias al reconocimiento de la heterogeneidad y complejidad de las enfermedades pulmonares, la tendencia es a realizar una medicina más personalizada, de precisión, o centrada en el paciente. En la presente revisión se intentará establecer la situación actual sobre el conocimiento de las bronquiectasias, o mejor, del síndrome bronquiectásico, como una enfermedad multidimensional, sistémica, heterogénea y compleja, los pasos que ya se han dado en este sentido, y sobre todo, en los muchos que quedan por dar. Asimismo, se propondrán algunas herramientas que podrían facilitar la traslación de estos conceptos a la práctica clínica, y con ellos seguir avanzando hacia una imagen más holística de esta enfermedad


Most areas of respiratory medicine continue to use an Oslerian approach, based on signs and symptoms, in which the disease is the center of all activity. However, this paradigm is changing. Now that lung diseases have been recognized as heterogeneous and complex, we are moving towards more personalized, precise, patient-oriented medicine. The aim of this review was to define the current state of the knowledge on bronchiectasis, or, more accurately, the bronchiectasis syndrome, as a multidimensional, systemic, heterogeneous, complex disease. We explore the advances that have already been made, and above all the many steps that are still to be taken. We also propose some tools which might facilitate the application of these concepts in clinical practice, and help us continue our journey towards a more holistic view of this disease


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Recidiva , Qualidade de Vida , Saúde Holística
15.
Sleep ; 42(10)2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314107

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on mediators of cardiovascular disease and depression in women with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of CPAP therapy on a variety of biomarkers of inflammation, antioxidant activity, and depression in women with OSA. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized controlled trial in 247 women diagnosed with moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15). Women were randomized to CPAP (n = 120) or conservative treatment (n = 127) for 12 weeks. Changes in tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were assessed. Additional analyses were conducted in subgroups of clinical interest. RESULTS: Women had a median (25th-75th percentiles) age of 58 (51-65) years, body mass index 33.5 (29.0-38.3) kg/m2, and AHI 33.3 (22.8-49.3). No differences were found between groups in the baseline levels of the biomarkers. After 12 weeks of follow-up, there were no changes between groups in any of the biomarkers assessed. These results did not change when the analyses were restricted to sleepy women or to those with severe OSA. In women with CPAP use at least 5 hours per night, only TNFα levels decreased compared to the control group (-0.29 ± 1.1 vs -0.06 ± 0.53, intergroup difference -0.23 [95% CI = -0.03 to -0.50]; p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of CPAP therapy does not improve biomarkers of inflammation, antioxidant activity, or depression compared to conservative treatment in women with moderate-to-severe OSA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02047071.

17.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 21(8): 57, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183617

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to present an overview of the recently found association between refractory hypertension (RfH) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). RECENT FINDINGS: RfH was recently defined as an extreme phenotype of resistant hypertension characterized by the lack of blood pressure control despite using ≥ 5 antihypertensive drugs at optimal doses. Current data support that the pathophysiological pathway of both types of hypertension is different. The main mechanism involved in resistant hypertension is fluid retention whereas in the case of RfH is the sympathetic over-activity. OSA is now recognized as a cause of hypertension (especially in the case of difficult-to-treat hypertension). It seems that the biological mechanism linking OSA and arterial hypertension is the sympathetic over-activity related to the respiratory events (apnoeas and hypopnoeas) during the night. So, it is not surprising that, although the literature is scarce, some studies have found a very high prevalence of OSA and an excess of sympathetic activity in patients with RfH. Finally, a very recent study demonstrated that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, which controls sympathetic activation in OSA patients, achieves very significant reductions in blood pressure levels in RfH patients, even greater than in those with resistant (non-refractory) hypertension. The prevalence of OSA in patients with RfH is very high. CPAP treatment achieves a clinically significant reduction in blood pressure levels in those patients with RfH (especially in night readings). Patients with RfH must be sent to a sleep unit for a study.

19.
Hypertens Res ; 42(11): 1708-1715, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209397

RESUMO

Refractory hypertension (RfH) is defined as a lack of blood pressure control despite the administration of at least 5 anti-hypertensive drugs. The factors associated with its natural history are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate both the incidence of RfH in an cohort of patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and the factors involved in that progression. This was an observational prospective multicenter study (24 centers) with 172 patients with confirmed RH (24-h ABPM) who underwent a further 24 h ABPM study at the end of the follow-up. Prospective information was obtained from all patients in their corresponding Hypertension Units via a standard clinical protocol, and they all underwent a sleep study. Thirty patients were diagnosed with RfH (17.4%) after a mean follow-up of 57 months, despite the prescription of a greater number of long-acting thiazide-like diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The factors associated with progression to RfH were: a longer period since the diagnosis of RH (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.1, p = 0.007); the HbA1c concentration (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.42-1.8; p = 0.005); the initial heart rate (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09, p = 0.004); and poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in cases of obstructive sleep apnea (OR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.47-7.7, p = 0.004). In conclusion, a considerable percentage of patients evolved from the RH to the RfH phenotype despite changes in their treatment. Some easily measurable variables, such as heart rate, the time since the diagnosis, the HbA1c level, and the presence of untreated obstructive sleep apnea (or poor adherence to CPAP) have been demonstrated to be prognostic factors in the progression to RfH.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA