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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(2): 323-326, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961301

RESUMO

We report transcontinental expansion of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sequence type 36 into Lima, Peru. From national collections, we identified 7 isolates from 2 different Pacific Northwest complex lineages that surfaced during 2011-2016. Sequence type 36 is likely established in environmental reservoirs. Systematic surveillance enabled detection of these epidemic isolates.

3.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(28)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296688

RESUMO

Here, we report the genome sequences of three Salmonella enterica strains belonging to serovars Weltevreden (CFSAN047349), Saintpaul (CFSAN047351), and Thompson (CFSAN047352), isolated from river water in Sinaloa, Mexico. The genomes were closed by a combination of long-read and short-read sequencing. The strain sequence types (STs) are ST365, ST50, and ST26, respectively.

4.
ISME J ; 13(10): 2578-2588, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235840

RESUMO

Humans have profoundly affected the ocean environment but little is known about anthropogenic effects on the distribution of microbes. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is found in warm coastal waters and causes gastroenteritis in humans and economically significant disease in shrimps. Based on data from 1103 genomes of environmental and clinical isolates, we show that V. parahaemolyticus is divided into four diverse populations, VppUS1, VppUS2, VppX and VppAsia. The first two are largely restricted to the US and Northern Europe, while the others are found worldwide, with VppAsia making up the great majority of isolates in the seas around Asia. Patterns of diversity within and between the populations are consistent with them having arisen by progressive divergence via genetic drift during geographical isolation. However, we find that there is substantial overlap in their current distribution. These observations can be reconciled without requiring genetic barriers to exchange between populations if long-range dispersal has increased dramatically in the recent past. We found that VppAsia isolates from the US have an average of 1.01% more shared ancestry with VppUS1 and VppUS2 isolates than VppAsia isolates from Asia itself. Based on time calibrated trees of divergence within epidemic lineages, we estimate that recombination affects about 0.017% of the genome per year, implying that the genetic mixture has taken place within the last few decades. These results suggest that human activity, such as shipping, aquatic products trade and increased human migration between continents, are responsible for the change of distribution pattern of this species.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7488, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097761

RESUMO

Antarctic have been suggested as an attractive source for antibiotics discovery and members of Streptomyces genus have historically been studied as natural producers of antimicrobial metabolites. Nonetheless, our knowledge on antibiotic-producing Streptomyces from Antarctic is very limited. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of organic extracts from Antarctic Streptomyces strains was evaluated by disk diffusion assays and minimum inhibitory concentration. The strain Streptomyces sp. So13.3 showed the greatest antibiotic activity (MIC = 15.6 µg/mL) against Gram-positive bacteria and growth reduction of Gram‒negative pathogens. The bioactive fraction in the crude extract was revealed by TLC‒bioautography at Rf = 0.78 with molecular weight between 148 and 624 m/z detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The strain So13.3 was taxonomically affiliated as Streptomyces fildesensis. Whole genome sequencing and analysis suggested a 9.47 Mb genome size with 42 predicted biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and 56 putative clusters representing a 22% of total genome content. Interestingly, a large number of them (11 of 42 BGCs and 40 of 56 putative BGCs), did not show similarities with other known BGCs. Our results highlight the potential of the Antarctic Streptomyces strains as a promising source of novel antimicrobials, particularly the strain Streptomyces fildesensis So13.3, which first draft genome is reported in this work.

6.
Euro Surveill ; 24(16)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014417

RESUMO

Nineteen Salmonella strains were isolated from 5,907 randomly selected mussel samples during a monitoring programme for the presence of Salmonella in shellfish in Galicia, north-west Spain (2012-16). Serovars, sequence type and antimicrobial resistance genes were determined through genome sequencing. Presence of the mcr-1 gene in one strain belonging to serovar Rissen and ST-469 was identified. The mcr-1 gene had not been isolated previously in environmental Salmonella isolated from mussels in Spain.

8.
Mar Drugs ; 16(11)2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453540

RESUMO

The marine nemertean Cephalothrix simula originates from the Pacific Ocean but in recent years has been discovered in northern Europe. The species has been associated with high levels of the marine neurotoxin Tetrodotoxin, traditionally associated with Pufferfish Poisoning. This study reports the first discovery of two organisms of C. simula in the UK, showing the geographical extent of this species is wider than originally described. Species identification was initially conducted morphologically, with confirmation by Cox 1 DNA sequencing. 16S gene sequencing enabled the taxonomic assignment of the microbiome, showing the prevalence of a large number of bacterial genera previously associated with TTX production including Alteromonas, Vibrio and Pseudomonas. LC-MS/MS analysis of the nemertean tissue revealed the presence of multiple analogues of TTX, dominated by the parent TTX, with a total toxin concentration quantified at 54 µg TTX per g of tissue. Pseudomonas luteola isolated from C. simula, together with Vibrio alginolyticus from the native nemertean Tubulanus annulatus, were cultured at low temperature and both found to contain TTX. Overall, this paper confirms the high toxicity of a newly discovered invasive nemertean species with links to toxin-producing marine bacteria and the potential risk to human safety. Further work is required to assess the geographical extent and toxicity range of C. simula along the UK coast in order to properly gauge the potential impacts on the environment and human safety.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/microbiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Invertebrados/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Tetrodotoxina/metabolismo , Vibrio alginolyticus/metabolismo , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Inglaterra , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Microbiota , Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tetrodotoxina/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio alginolyticus/genética , Vibrio alginolyticus/isolamento & purificação
9.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 4(1): 8, 2018 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002421

RESUMO

Vibrio is a genus of ubiquitous bacteria found in a wide variety of aquatic and marine habitats; of the >100 described Vibrio spp., ~12 cause infections in humans. Vibrio cholerae can cause cholera, a severe diarrhoeal disease that can be quickly fatal if untreated and is typically transmitted via contaminated water and person-to-person contact. Non-cholera Vibrio spp. (for example, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus) cause vibriosis - infections normally acquired through exposure to sea water or through consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood. Non-cholera bacteria can lead to several clinical manifestations, most commonly mild, self-limiting gastroenteritis, with the exception of V. vulnificus, an opportunistic pathogen with a high mortality that causes wound infections that can rapidly lead to septicaemia. Treatment for Vibrio spp. infection largely depends on the causative pathogen: for example, rehydration therapy for V. cholerae infection and debridement of infected tissues for V. vulnificus-associated wound infections, with antibiotic therapy for severe cholera and systemic infections. Although cholera is preventable and effective oral cholera vaccines are available, outbreaks can be triggered by natural or man-made events that contaminate drinking water or compromise access to safe water and sanitation. The incidence of vibriosis is rising, perhaps owing in part to the spread of Vibrio spp. favoured by climate change and rising sea water temperature.


Assuntos
Vibrioses/fisiopatologia , Vibrioses/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cólera/complicações , Cólera/fisiopatologia , Cólera/terapia , Vacinas contra Cólera/uso terapêutico , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vibrio/patogenicidade , Vibrio/virologia , Vibrioses/complicações , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidade , Vibrio cholerae/virologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidade , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/virologia , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade , Vibrio vulnificus/virologia , Zinco/uso terapêutico
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(5): 852-859, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664388

RESUMO

Galicia in northwestern Spain has been considered a hotspot for Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. Infections abruptly emerged in 1998 and, over the next 15 years, were associated with large outbreaks caused by strains belonging to a single clone. We report a recent transition in the epidemiologic pattern in which cases throughout the region have been linked to different and unrelated strains. Global genome-wide phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the pathogenic strains isolated from infections were associated with globally diverse isolates, indicating frequent episodic introductions from disparate and remote sources. Moreover, we identified that the 2 major switches in the epidemic dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus in the regions, the emergence of cases and an epidemiologic shift in 2015-2016, were associated with the rise of sea surface temperature in coastal areas of Galicia. This association may represent a fundamental contributing factor in the emergence of illness linked to these introduced pathogenic strains.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Epidemias , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Filogenia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética
11.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 28(1): 43-54, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249164

RESUMO

This study was performed to evaluate in vitro the adherence and invasiveness capacity of Salmonella Oranienburg and Saintpaul (isolated from river water) exposed to laboratory and river water growth conditions and inoculated into epithelial HEp-2 cell. Results showed that Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Saintpaul showed lower ability to adhere and invade epithelial HEp-2 cells under both growth conditions as compared to Salmonella Typhimurium reference strain. S. Oranienburg adhesion capacity was not affected by the growth conditions, while S. Saintpaul exposed to river water significantly (p < 0.05) decreased its adhesion capacity by 75.7 %. On the contrary, S. Oranienburg exposed to river water reduced its invasion efficiency by 80 %, whereas S. Saintpaul showed no differences between growth conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that the exposure to non-host conditions, such as river water, adversely affects the adhesion and invasiveness of Salmonella serotypes differently, impacting on their ability to re-enter a new host.


Assuntos
Rios/microbiologia , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Aderência Bacteriana , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/fisiologia , Virulência
12.
mBio ; 8(6)2017 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138301

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related infections with illnesses undergoing a geographic expansion. In this process of expansion, the most fundamental change has been the transition from infections caused by local strains to the surge of pandemic clonal types. Pandemic clone sequence type 3 (ST3) was the only example of transcontinental spreading until 2012, when ST36 was detected outside the region where it is endemic in the U.S. Pacific Northwest causing infections along the U.S. northeast coast and Spain. Here, we used genome-wide analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the V. parahaemolyticus ST36 clone over the course of its geographic expansion during the previous 25 years. The origin of this lineage was estimated to be in ~1985. By 1995, a new variant emerged in the region and quickly replaced the old clone, which has not been detected since 2000. The new Pacific Northwest (PNW) lineage was responsible for the first cases associated with this clone outside the Pacific Northwest region. After several introductions into the northeast coast, the new PNW clone differentiated into a highly dynamic group that continues to cause illness on the northeast coast of the United States. Surprisingly, the strains detected in Europe in 2012 diverged from this ancestral group around 2000 and have conserved genetic features present only in the old PNW lineage. Recombination was identified as the major driver of diversification, with some preliminary observations suggesting a trend toward a more specialized lifestyle, which may represent a critical element in the expansion of epidemics under scenarios of coastal warming.IMPORTANCEVibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae represent the only two instances of pandemic expansions of human pathogens originating in the marine environment. However, while the current pandemic of V. cholerae emerged more than 50 years ago, the global expansion of V. parahaemolyticus is a recent phenomenon. These modern expansions provide an exceptional opportunity to study the evolutionary process of these pathogens at first hand and gain an understanding of the mechanisms shaping the epidemic dynamics of these diseases, in particular, the emergence, dispersal, and successful introduction in new regions facilitating global spreading of infections. In this study, we used genomic analysis to examine the evolutionary divergence that has occurred over the course of the most recent transcontinental expansion of a pathogenic Vibrio, the spreading of the V. parahaemolyticus sequence type 36 clone from the region where it is endemic on the Pacific coast of North America to the east coast of the United States and finally to the west coast of Europe.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Pandemias , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/classificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Recombinação Genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação
13.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(10): 107004, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some Vibrio spp. are pathogenic and ubiquitous in marine waters with low to moderate salinity and thrive with elevated sea surface temperature (SST). OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to monitor and project the suitability of marine conditions for Vibrio infections under climate change scenarios. METHODS: The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) developed a platform (the ECDC Vibrio Map Viewer) to monitor the environmental suitability of coastal waters for Vibrio spp. using remotely sensed SST and salinity. A case-crossover study of Swedish cases was conducted to ascertain the relationship between SST and Vibrio infection through a conditional logistic regression. Climate change projections for Vibrio infections were developed for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5. RESULTS: The ECDC Vibrio Map Viewer detected environmentally suitable areas for Vibrio spp. in the Baltic Sea in July 2014 that were accompanied by a spike in cases and one death in Sweden. The estimated exposure-response relationship for Vibrio infections at a threshold of 16°C revealed a relative risk (RR)=1.14 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.27; p=0.024) for a lag of 2 wk; the estimated risk increased successively beyond this SST threshold. Climate change projections for SST under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios indicate a marked upward trend during the summer months and an increase in the relative risk of these infections in the coming decades. CONCLUSIONS: This platform can serve as an early warning system as the risk of further Vibrio infections increases in the 21st century due to climate change. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2198.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 27(4): 252-263, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28565917

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to river water by non-indigenous micro-organisms such as Salmonella may affect metabolic adaptation to carbon sources. This study was conducted to determine differences in carbon source utilization of Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Saintpaul (isolated from tropical river water) as well as the control strain Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to laboratory, river water, and host cells (Hep-2 cell line) growth conditions. Results showed that Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Saintpaul showed better ability for carbon source utilization under the three growth conditions evaluated; however, S. Oranienburg showed the fastest and highest utilization on different carbon sources, including D-Glucosaminic acid, N-acetyl-D-Glucosamine, Glucose-1-phosphate, and D-Galactonic acid, while Salmonella Saintpaul and S. Typhimurium showed a limited utilization of carbon sources. In conclusion, this study suggests that environmental Salmonella strains show better survival and preconditioning abilities to external environments than the control strain based on their plasticity on diverse carbon sources use.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Rios/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/metabolismo , Salmonella enterica/genética , Sorogrupo
15.
J Clin Microbiol ; 55(6): 1682-1697, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28330888

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important human foodborne pathogen whose transmission is associated with the consumption of contaminated seafood, with a growing number of infections reported over recent years worldwide. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) database for V. parahaemolyticus was created in 2008, and a large number of clones have been identified, causing severe outbreaks worldwide (sequence type 3 [ST3]), recurrent outbreaks in certain regions (e.g., ST36), or spreading to other regions where they are nonendemic (e.g., ST88 or ST189). The current MLST scheme uses sequences of 7 genes to generate an ST, which results in a powerful tool for inferring the population structure of this pathogen, although with limited resolution, especially compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has become routine for trace back investigations, with core genome MLST (cgMLST) analysis as one of the most straightforward ways to explore complex genomic data in an epidemiological context. Therefore, there is a need to generate a new, portable, standardized, and more advanced system that provides higher resolution and discriminatory power among V. parahaemolyticus strains using WGS data. We sequenced 92 V. parahaemolyticus genomes and used the genome of strain RIMD 2210633 as a reference (with a total of 4,832 genes) to determine which genes were suitable for establishing a V. parahaemolyticus cgMLST scheme. This analysis resulted in the identification of 2,254 suitable core genes for use in the cgMLST scheme. To evaluate the performance of this scheme, we performed a cgMLST analysis of 92 newly sequenced genomes, plus an additional 142 strains with genomes available at NCBI. cgMLST analysis was able to distinguish related and unrelated strains, including those with the same ST, clearly showing its enhanced resolution over conventional MLST analysis. It also distinguished outbreak-related from non-outbreak-related strains within the same ST. The sequences obtained from this work were deposited and are available in the public database (http://pubmlst.org/vparahaemolyticus). The application of this cgMLST scheme to the characterization of V. parahaemolyticus strains provided by different laboratories from around the world will reveal the global picture of the epidemiology, spread, and evolution of this pathogen and will become a powerful tool for outbreak investigations, allowing for the unambiguous comparison of strains with global coverage.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/classificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Saúde Global , Humanos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação
16.
Trends Microbiol ; 25(1): 76-84, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27843109

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria - vibrios - are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures. In a rapidly warming marine environment, there are greater numbers of human infections, and most notably outbreaks linked to extreme weather events such as heatwaves in temperate regions such as Northern Europe. Because the growth of pathogenic vibrios in the natural environment is largely dictated by temperature, we argue that this group of pathogens represents an important and tangible barometer of climate change in marine systems. We provide a number of specific examples of the impacts of climate change on this group of bacteria and their associated diseases, and discuss advanced strategies to improve our understanding of these emerging waterborne diseases through the integration of microbiological, genomic, epidemiological, climatic, and ocean sciences.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Processos Climáticos , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vibrio vulnificus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/patologia , Microbiologia da Água
17.
J Water Health ; 14(6): 1019-1027, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27959880

RESUMO

We conducted a matched case-control study to examine the association between heavy precipitation events and waterborne outbreaks (WBOs) by linking epidemiological registries and meteorological data between 1992 and 2012 in four Nordic countries. Heavy precipitation events were defined by above average (exceedance) daily rainfall during the preceding weeks using local references. We performed conditional logistic regression using the four previous years as the controls. Among WBOs with known onset date (n = 89), exceedance rainfall on two or more days was associated with occurrence of outbreak, OR = 3.06 (95% CI 1.38-6.78), compared to zero exceedance days. Stratified analyses revealed a significant association with single household water supplies, ground water as source and for outbreaks occurring during spring and summer. These findings were reproduced in analyses including all WBOs with known outbreak month (n = 186). The vulnerability of single households to WBOs associated with heavy precipitation events should be communicated to homeowners and implemented into future policy planning to reduce the risk of waterborne illness.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Chuva , Neve , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 22(7): 1216-20, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314874

RESUMO

During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens.


Assuntos
Raios Infravermelhos , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vibrio/classificação , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 22(7): 1235-7, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27315090

RESUMO

In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/classificação , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Peru/epidemiologia , Software , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética
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