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1.
Chemistry ; 25(50): 11670-11679, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237368

RESUMO

Three CoII octaazacryptates, with different substituents on the aromatic rings (Br, NO2 , CCH), were synthesised and characterised. These and the already published non-substituted cryptate catalysed CO2 photoreduction to CO and CH4 under blue visible light at room temperature. Although CO was observed after short irradiation times and a large range of catalyst concentrations, CH4 was only observed after longer irradiation periods, such as 30 h, but with a small catalyst concentration (25 nm). Experiments with 13 C labelled CO2 showed that CO is formed and reacts further when the reaction time is long. The CCH catalyst is deactivated faster than the others and the more efficient catalyst for CH4 production is the one with Br. This reactivity trend was explained by an energy decomposition analysis based on DFT calculations.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 48(13): 4239-4247, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843914

RESUMO

An amphiphilic iron(iii) complex with a tridentate Schiff-base ligand was prepared by condensation of a hexadecyloxy functionalised salycylaldehyde with a diamine followed by complexation with FeCl2 and anion methathesis with NaClO4. The complex shows spin crossover both in the solid state and solution. However in solution self-assembly and consequently aggregation of individual molecules form concentration dependent particles with sizes of 300 nm for higher concentrations, or 5 nm for lower concentrations. Aggregate formation was confirmed by NANO-flex 180° DLS Size, scan-rate dependent cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. Molecular simulations were used to investigate the self-assembly of the complex in solution, including the role of residual water molecules. The simulations showed the self-assembly of reverse micelle-like structures when a small water cluster is inserted in solution, whereas no large aggregates formed in dehydrated environments. The perchlorate anions were found near the metal centres, stabilizing the aggregates around the water pool. Simulations of pre-assembled structures further showed the lack of stability of large aggregates in the absence of water. The larger aggregates promoted efficient communication between the iron(iii) centres and the compound displayed spin crossover in solution at around 220 K with a 10 K hysteresis window, as measured by NMR and SQUID magnetometry.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 47(20): 7013-7019, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737355

RESUMO

Two polymorphic species of the [Fe(5-Br-salEen)2]ClO4 compound were obtained, each of them being selectively recovered after evaporation of the solvent at a controlled rate. While polymorph 1a is formed during slow evaporation, fast evaporation favors polymorph 1b. The importance of the evaporation rate was recognized after detailed studies of the reaction temperature, solvent evaporation rate and crystallization temperature effects. The complex in the new polymorphic form 1a showed an abrupt spin crossover at 172 K with a small 1 K hysteresis window and over a narrow 10 K range. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, complemented by X-ray studies for both the high-spin and low-spin forms, were used to further characterize the new polymorphic phase 1a. Both polymorphs are based on the same Fe(iii) complex cation hydrogen bonded to the perchlorate anion. These units are loosely bound in the crystals via weak interactions. In the new polymorph 1a, the hydrogen bonds are stronger, while the weak hydrogen and halogen bonds, as well as π-π stacking, create a cooperative network, not present in 1b, responsible for the spin transition profile.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 45(37): 14725-33, 2016 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27294979

RESUMO

New Cu(ii)/Ni(ii) heterodinuclear complexes with salphen-type ligands were synthesised via a stepwise template method. DFT studies were performed to understand their electronic properties, showing localisation of the HOMO on the Ni(ii) fragment, while in the oxidised species the spin density was high at some carbon phenolate atoms. These new complexes were potentiodynamically electropolymerised on glassy carbon and platinum. Atomic force microscopy was used to evaluate the influence of the metal centres on the morphology of the polymers, revealing how the presence of Cu(ii) increased the surface roughness. The oxygen reduction reaction was observed on both glassy carbon and platinum modified electrodes in neutral medium.

5.
Chem Sci ; 7(7): 4251-4258, 2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155072

RESUMO

The thermosalient effect is still a rare and poorly understood phenomenon, where crystals suddenly jump, bend, twist or explode upon undergoing a thermally activated phase transition. The synthesis and characterisation of the new spin transition Fe(iii) compound [Fe(5-Br-salEen)2][ClO4] (salEen = N-ethyl-N-(2-aminoethyl)salicylaldiminate) is described and its thermosalient behaviour reported. It is the first example of a thermosalient effect with a spin transition and magnetic, calorimetric, diffraction, microscopy and computational studies are used to characterise these effects. Both thermosalient effect and spin transition occur around 320 K upon heating and are accompanied by an anisotropic unit cell change with conservation of crystal symmetry that causes a large enough stress of the crystal lattice to induce crystal explosion. This stress can ultimately be traced back to a diffusionless and distortive structural perturbation resulting in a coupled spin transition-thermosalient effect.

6.
ACS Nano ; 9(4): 4496-507, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25835284

RESUMO

We investigate if the functionality of spin crossover molecules is preserved when they are assembled into an interfacial device structure. Specifically, we prepare and investigate gold nanoparticle arrays, into which room-temperature spin crossover molecules are introduced, more precisely, [Fe(AcS-BPP)2](ClO4)2, where AcS-BPP = (S)-(4-{[2,6-(dipyrazol-1-yl)pyrid-4-yl]ethynyl}phenyl)ethanethioate (in short, Fe(S-BPP)2). We combine three complementary experiments to characterize the molecule-nanoparticle structure in detail. Temperature-dependent Raman measurements provide direct evidence for a (partial) spin transition in the Fe(S-BPP)2-based arrays. This transition is qualitatively confirmed by magnetization measurements. Finally, charge transport measurements on the Fe(S-BPP)2-gold nanoparticle devices reveal a minimum in device resistance versus temperature, R(T), curves around 260-290 K. This is in contrast to similar networks containing passive molecules only that show monotonically decreasing R(T) characteristics. Backed by density functional theory calculations on single molecular conductance values for both spin states, we propose to relate the resistance minimum in R(T) to a spin transition under the hypothesis that (1) the molecular resistance of the high spin state is larger than that of the low spin state and (2) transport in the array is governed by a percolation model.

7.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 5: 1664-1674, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25383278

RESUMO

We prepare and investigate two-dimensional (2D) single-layer arrays and multilayered networks of gold nanoparticles derivatized with conjugated hetero-aromatic molecules, i.e., S-(4-{[2,6-bipyrazol-1-yl)pyrid-4-yl]ethynyl}phenyl)thiolate (herein S-BPP), as capping ligands. These structures are fabricated by a combination of self-assembly and microcontact printing techniques, and are characterized by electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Selective binding of the S-BPP molecules to the gold nanoparticles through Au-S bonds is found, with no evidence for the formation of N-Au bonds between the pyridine or pyrazole groups of BPP and the gold surface. Subtle, but significant shifts with temperature of specific Raman S-BPP modes are also observed. We attribute these to dynamic changes in the orientation and/or increased mobility of the molecules on the gold nanoparticle facets. As for their conductance, the temperature-dependence for S-BPP networks differs significantly from standard alkanethiol-capped networks, especially above 220 K. Relating the latter two observations, we propose that dynamic changes in the molecular layers effectively lower the molecular tunnel barrier for BPP-based arrays at higher temperatures.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 43(17): 6468-79, 2014 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24619336

RESUMO

The mono-dentate, pyridyl containing, nitro naphthalimide ligands N-(4-pyridyl)-4-nitro-1,8-naphthalimide (L1) and N-(3-pyridyl)-4-nitro-1,8-naphthalimide (L2) were prepared and complexed with a selection of copper salts [Cu(OAc)2, Cu(CF3SO3)2 and Cu(ClO4)2]. Crystallographic studies were undertaken and revealed that dinuclear acetate bridged complexes resulted from reactions with Cu(OAc)2, while mononuclear systems resulted from reactions with Cu(CF3SO3)2 and Cu(ClO4)2. Despite the differing coordination environments the naphthalimide based ligands provided a range of interesting π-based interactions in the form of π···π, anion···π, nitro···π, solvent···π and C=O···π associations. Solid state EPR spectra were in agreement with the coordination environments observed from crystallography.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Cobre/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Naftalimidas/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Conformação Molecular
9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 51(50): 12597-601, 2012 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23129209

RESUMO

Mind the gap: A complete, cooperative spin transition for a mononuclear Mn(III) complex is reported with an 8 K hysteresis window. Raman spectra collected at a single temperature in warming and cooling modes confirm the electronic bistability within the hysteresis loop. The source of the cooperativity is a disconnection in the hydrogen-bonded 1D chains that connect adjacent cations owing to an order-disorder transition in the PF(6)(-) counterion.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 41(25): 7461-3, 2012 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22499230

RESUMO

A hysteretic spin transition is induced in a solution assembly of a mononuclear Fe(III) amphiphilic complex which exhibits only gradual spin crossover in the solid state. The hysteretic behavior is dependent on dynamic solution assembly and removal of solvent causes reversion to the original bulk solid magnetic response.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Cloreto de Metileno/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Estrutura Molecular , Soluções , Tensoativos/química
12.
Dalton Trans ; 40(9): 1855-65, 2011 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21286645

RESUMO

New amphiphilic and spin-labile Mn(III) complexes based on dianionic N(4)O(2)-hexadentate sal(2)trien or sal(2)bapen ligands, which contain OC(6)H(13), OC(12)H(25), or OC(18)H(37) alkoxy substituents at different positions of the salicylidene unit were prepared (H(2)sal(2)trien = N,N'''-bis(salicylidene)-1,4,7,10-tetraazadecane, H(2)sal(2)bapen = N,N'''-bis(salicylidene)-1,5,8,12-tetraazadodecane). According to electrochemical measurements, these complexes undergo two (quasi)reversible redox processes. Temperature-dependent magnetic measurements revealed a high-spin configuration for all sal(2)trien complexes (S = 2) and gradual spin crossover for sal(2)bapen complexes from high to low spin (S = 1). The chain length strongly influences the spin crossover, as C(18)-functionalization stabilizes the low spin state at much higher temperatures than shorter alkyl chains. Moreover, long alkyl chains allow for spontaneous self-assembly of the molecules, which was investigated in single crystals and in Langmuir-films at the air-water interface. Long alkyl chains (C(12) or C(18)) as well as a mutual syn-orientation of these molecular recognition sites were required for the Langmuir monolayers to be stable.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 39(19): 4508-16, 2010 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20372732

RESUMO

New sal2(trien) ligands that contain alkoxy substituents of various length in meta position of the phenolate entities were coordinated to electronically and magnetically active iron(III) and cobalt(III) centers. The electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of these amphiphilic complexes are virtually unaffected upon alteration of the alkoxy substituents, thus providing a system in which the physical behavior and the metal-centered chemical activity can be tailored independently. The amphiphilic character has been exploited for preparing Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface and for constructing Langmuir-Blodgett films, hence allowing for hierarchical assembling of electronically and magnetically active systems. While Langmuir films were stable, transfer onto solid supports was limited, which restricted the magnetic analysis of the Langmuir-Blodgett assemblies.

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