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1.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 27(4): 260-267, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274579
2.
Neuroscience ; 410: 128-139, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095985

RESUMO

Transient ischemic attack (TIA) represents brief neurological dysfunction of vascular origin without detectable infarction. Despite major clinical relevance characterization of post-TIA molecular changes using appropriate experimental model is lacking and no therapeutic agent has been established yet. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) arose as one of the candidates for cerebral ischemia treatment but its effects on TIA-like condition remain unknown. Seeking an animal model applicable for investigation of molecular alterations in mild ischemic conditions such as TIA, 15-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion with 24-h reperfusion was performed to induce ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury in adult male Wistar rats. Additionally, effects of 4-h post-operative DHEA treatment (20 mg/kg) were investigated in physiological and I/R conditions in hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The study revealed absence of sensorimotor deficits, cerebral infarcts and neurodegeneration along with preserved HIP and PFC overall neuronal morphology and unaltered malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione level following I/R and/or DHEA treatment. I/R induced nitric oxide burst in HIP and PFC was accompanied with increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein level exclusively in HIP. DHEA had no effects in physiological conditions, while increase of Bax/Bcl2 ratio and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in treated I/R group suggested DHEA-mediated exacerbation of post-ischemic changes that might lead to pro-apoptotic events in HIP. Interestingly, DHEA restored I/R-induced NO to the control level in PFC. Obtained results indicated that I/R may serve as an appropriate model for investigation of molecular changes and treatment outcome following mild ischemic conditions such as TIA.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1351-1356, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050392

RESUMO

Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital limb malformation typically limited to a defect of the central rays of the autopod, presenting as a median cleft of hands and feet. It can be associated with long bone deficiency or included in more complex syndromes. Among the numerous genetic causes, WNT10B homozygous variants have been recently identified in consanguineous families, but remain still rarely described (SHFM6; MIM225300). We report on three novel SHFM families harboring WNT10B variants and review the literature, allowing us to highlight some clinical findings. The feet are more severely affected than the hands and there is a frequent asymmetry without obvious side-bias. Syndactyly of third-fourth fingers was a frequent finding (62%). Polydactyly, which was classically described in SHFM6, was only present in 27% of patients. No genotype-phenotype correlation is delineated but heterozygous individuals might have mild features of SHFM, suggesting a dose-effect of the WNT10B loss-of-function.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 213-228, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639323

RESUMO

Primary defects in lung branching morphogenesis, resulting in neonatal lethal pulmonary hypoplasias, are incompletely understood. To elucidate the pathogenetics of human lung development, we studied a unique collection of samples obtained from deceased individuals with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed interstitial neonatal lung disorders: acinar dysplasia (n = 14), congenital alveolar dysplasia (n = 2), and other lethal lung hypoplasias (n = 10). We identified rare heterozygous copy-number variant deletions or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) involving TBX4 (n = 8 and n = 2, respectively) or FGF10 (n = 2 and n = 2, respectively) in 16/26 (61%) individuals. In addition to TBX4, the overlapping ∼2 Mb recurrent and nonrecurrent deletions at 17q23.1q23.2 identified in seven individuals with lung hypoplasia also remove a lung-specific enhancer region. Individuals with coding variants involving either TBX4 or FGF10 also harbored at least one non-coding SNV in the predicted lung-specific enhancer region, which was absent in 13 control individuals with the overlapping deletions but without any structural lung anomalies. The occurrence of rare coding variants involving TBX4 or FGF10 with the putative hypomorphic non-coding SNVs implies a complex compound inheritance of these pulmonary hypoplasias. Moreover, they support the importance of TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in human lung organogenesis and help to explain the histopathological continuum observed in these rare lethal developmental disorders of the lung.


Assuntos
Fator 10 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/genética , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Pneumopatias/genética , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Fator 10 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/metabolismo , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/patologia , Pulmão/embriologia , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/patologia , Masculino , Herança Materna , Organogênese , Herança Paterna , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo
5.
Clin Genet ; 95(3): 384-397, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614526

RESUMO

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an emblematic ciliopathy associated with retinal dystrophy, obesity, postaxial polydactyly, learning disabilities, hypogonadism and renal dysfunction. Before birth, enlarged/cystic kidneys as well as polydactyly are the hallmark signs of BBS to consider in absence of familial history. However, these findings are not specific to BBS, raising the problem of differential diagnoses and prognosis. Molecular diagnosis during pregnancies remains a timely challenge for this heterogeneous disease (22 known genes). We report here the largest cohort of BBS fetuses to better characterize the antenatal presentation. Prenatal ultrasound (US) and/or autopsy data from 74 fetuses with putative BBS diagnosis were collected out of which molecular diagnosis was established in 51 cases, mainly in BBS genes (45 cases) following the classical gene distribution, but also in other ciliopathy genes (6 cases). Based on this, an updated diagnostic decision tree is proposed. No genotype/phenotype correlation could be established but postaxial polydactyly (82%) and renal cysts (78%) were the most prevalent symptoms. However, autopsy revealed polydactyly that was missed by prenatal US in 55% of the cases. Polydactyly must be carefully looked for in pregnancies with apparently isolated renal anomalies in fetuses.

6.
Clin Genet ; 95(3): 420-426, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633342

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS; OMIM 180849) is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, broad thumbs and halluces associated with intellectual disability. RSTS is caused by alterations in CREBBP (about 60%) and EP300 genes (8%). RSTS is often diagnosed at birth or during early childhood but generally not suspected during antenatal period. We report nine cases of well-documented fetal RSTS. Two cases were examined after death in utero at 18 and 35 weeks of gestation and seven cases after identification of ultrasound abnormalities and termination of pregnancy. On prenatal sonography, a large gallbladder was detected in two cases, and brain malformations were noted in four cases, especially cerebellar hypoplasia. However, the diagnosis of RSTS has not been suggested during pregnancy. Fetal autopsy showed that all fetuses had large thumbs and/or suggestive facial dysmorphism. A CREBBP gene anomaly was identified in all cases. Alterations were similar to those found in typical RSTS children. This report will contribute to a better knowledge of the fetal phenotype to consider the hypothesis of RSTS during pregnancy. Genotyping allows reassuring genetic counseling.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388224

RESUMO

Mutations in KIF14havepreviously been associated with either severe, isolated or syndromic microcephaly with renal hypodysplasia (RHD). Syndromic microcephaly-RHD was strongly reminiscent of clinical ciliopathies, relating to defects of the primary cilium, a signalling organelle present on the surface of many quiescent cells.KIF14 encodes a mitotic kinesin which plays a key role at the midbody during cytokinesisand has not previously been shown to be involved in cilia-related functions. Here, we analysed four families with foetuses presenting with the syndromic form and harbouring biallelic variantsin KIF14. Our functional analyses showthat the identified variantsseverely impact the activity of KIF14 and likely correspond to loss-of-function mutations. Analysis in human foetal tissues further revealed the accumulation of KIF14-positive midbody remnants in the lumen of ureteric bud tips indicating a shared function of KIF14 during brain and kidney development. Subsequently, analysis of a kif14mutant zebrafish line showed a conserved role for this mitotic kinesin. Interestingly, ciliopathy-associated phenotypes were also present in mutant embryos,supportinga potential direct or indirect role for KIF14 at cilia. However, our in vitro and in vivoanalyses did not provide evidence of a direct role for KIF14 in ciliogenesis and suggestedthat loss ofkif14causesciliopathy-like phenotypesthrough an accumulation ofmitotic cells in ciliated tissues. Altogether, our results demonstrate that KIF14 mutations result in a severe syndrome associating microcephaly and RHD through its conserved functionin cytokinesis during kidney and brain development.

8.
Prenat Diagn ; 38(10): 772-778, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949202

RESUMO

We report a multiplex family with a GATA1 gene mutation responsible for a massive fetal cerebral hemorrhage occurring at 36 weeks. Two other stillbirth cousins presented with fetal hydrops and congenital hemochromatosis' phenotype at 37 and 12 weeks of gestation. Molecular screening revealed the presence of a c.613G>A pathogenic allelic variation in exon 4 of GATA1 gene in the 3 male siblings and their carrier mothers. The diagnosis of a GATA1 gene mutation may be suspected in cases of male fetuses with intracerebral bleeding, particularly if a history of prior fetal loss(es) and mild maternal thrombocytopenia are also present.

9.
Prenat Diagn ; 38(9): 638-644, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neonatal mortality and morbidity up to 6 months in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with or without a hernia sac. METHODS: Seventy-two cases of isolated CDH were included in a retrospective single-center study between January 2010 and December 2016. Hernia sac was defined at the time of surgery or at postmortem examination if the neonate died before surgery. RESULTS: Seventeen newborns (23.6%) had a hernia sac. Survival at 6 months was significantly greater for isolated CDH with a hernia sac: 100% versus 63.6% (P = .003). High-frequency oscillatory ventilation was used significantly more in the no hernia sac group (P = .04). At surgery, the need for patch repair was significantly lower in the hernia sac group: 12% versus 50% (P = .005). The prenatal observed/expected lung-to-head ratio was significantly higher in the hernia sac group than in the no hernia sac group: 49.7% versus 38.6% (P < .05). CONCLUSION: The presence of a hernia sac in CDH is associated with better outcome, especially survival at 6 months. If the presence of a hernia sac is recognized as a particular entity, which carries a good prognosis, it is necessary to be able to diagnose it prenatally, especially in the era of prenatal fetal surgery.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845839

RESUMO

Different variables determine the performance of cyclists, which brings up the question how these parameters may help in their classification by specialty. The aim of the study was to determine differences in cardiorespiratory parameters of male cyclists according to their specialty, flat rider (N=21), hill rider (N=35) and sprinter (N=20) and obtain the multivariate model for further cyclists classification by specialties, based on selected variables. Seventeen variables were measured at submaximal and maximum load on the cycle ergometer Cosmed E 400HK (Cosmed, Rome, Italy) (initial 100W with 25W increase, 90-100 rpm). Multivariate discriminant analysis was used to determine which variables group cyclists within their specialty, and to predict which variables can direct cyclists to a particular specialty. Among nine variables that statistically contribute to the discriminant power of the model, achieved power on the anaerobic threshold and the produced CO2 had the biggest impact. The obtained discriminatory model correctly classified 91.43% of flat riders, 85.71% of hill riders, while sprinters were classified completely correct (100%), i.e. 92.10% of examinees were correctly classified, which point out the strength of the discriminatory model. Respiratory indicators mostly contribute to the discriminant power of the model, which may significantly contribute to training practice and laboratory tests in future.

11.
Brain Res ; 1688: 73-80, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577884

RESUMO

Excessive glutamate efflux and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) over-activation represent well-known hallmarks of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, still, expression of proteins involved in this aspect of I/R pathophysiology show inconsistent data. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been proposed as potent NMDAR modulator, but its influence on I/R-induced changes up to date remains questionable. Therefore, I/R-governed alteration of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1), synaptic NMDAR subunit composition, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and neuronal morphology alone or following DHEA treatment were examined. For that purpose, adult male Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of vehicle or DHEA (20 mg/kg i.p.) 4 h following sham operation or 15 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. Western blot was used for analyses of synaptic protein expressions in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, while neuronal morphology was assessed using Nissl staining. Regional-specific postischemic changes were detected on protein level i.e. signs of neuronal damage in CA1 area was accompanied with hippocampal vGluT1, NR1, NR2B enhancement and PSD-95 decrement, while histological changes observed in layer III were associated with decreased NR1 subunit in prefrontal cortex. Under physiological conditions DHEA had no effect on protein and histological appearance, while in ischemic milieu it restored hippocampal PSD-95 and NR1 in prefrontal cortex to the control level. Along with intact neurons, ones characterized by morphology observed in I/R group were also present. Future studies involving NMDAR-related intracellular signaling and immunohistochemical analysis will reveal precise effects of I/R and DHEA treatment in selected brain regions.

12.
Clin Chim Acta ; 481: 1-8, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476731

RESUMO

PURPOSES: Hydrops fetalis is a life-threatening fetal condition, and 85% of all cases are classified as nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF). Up to 15% of NIHF cases may be due to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), but a large proportion of cases linked to metabolic disorders remains undiagnosed. This lack of diagnosis may be related to the limitations of conventional biological procedures, which involve sequential investigations and require multiple samples and steps. In addition, this approach is time consuming. We have developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel to investigate metabolic causes of NIHF, ascites, and polyhydramnios associated to another fetal abnormality. METHODS: The hydrops fetalis (HydFet) panel was designed to cover the coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of 41 genes. A retrospective study of amniotic fluid samples from 40 subjects was conducted. A prospective study was subsequently initiated, and six samples were analyzed using the NGS panel. RESULTS: Five IEM diagnoses were made using the HydFet panel (Niemann-Pick type C (NPC), Barth syndrome, HNF1Β deficiency, GM1 gangliosidosis, and Gaucher disease). This analysis also allowed the identification of 8p sequence triplication in an additional case. CONCLUSION: NGS combined with robust bioinformatics analyses is a useful tool for identifying the causative variants of NIHF. Subsequent functional characterization of the protein encoded by the altered gene and morphological studies may confirm the diagnosis. This paradigm shift allows a significant improvement of IEM diagnosis in NIHF.


Assuntos
Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Hidropisia Fetal/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Adulto , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hidropisia Fetal/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
13.
Brain ; 141(4): 979-988, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444212

RESUMO

See Meschia (doi:10.1093/brain/awy066) for a scientific commentary on this article.Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vasculature representing 30% of all paediatric vascular malformations. We conducted whole exome sequencing in 19 unrelated patients presenting this malformation and subsequently screened candidate genes in a cohort of 32 additional patients using either targeted exome or Sanger sequencing. In a cohort of 51 patients, we found five affected individuals with heterozygous mutations in EPHB4 including de novo frameshift (p.His191Alafs*32) or inherited deleterious splice or missense mutations predicted to be pathogenic by in silico tools. Knockdown of ephb4 in zebrafish embryos leads to specific anomalies of dorsal cranial vessels including the dorsal longitudinal vein, which is the orthologue of the median prosencephalic vein and the embryonic precursor of the vein of Galen. This model allowed us to investigate EPHB4 loss-of-function mutations in this disease by the ability to rescue the brain vascular defect in knockdown zebrafish co-injected with wild-type, but not truncated EPHB4, mimicking the p.His191Alafs mutation. Our data showed that in both species, loss of function mutations of EPHB4 result in specific and similar brain vascular development anomalies. Recently, EPHB4 germline mutations have been reported in non-immune hydrops fetalis and in cutaneous capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation. Here, we show that EPHB4 mutations are also responsible for vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, indicating that heterozygous germline mutations of EPHB4 result in a large clinical spectrum. The identification of EPHB4 pathogenic mutations in patients presenting capillary malformation or vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation should lead to careful follow-up of pregnancy of carriers for early detection of anomaly of the cerebral vasculature in order to propose optimal neonatal care. Endovascular embolization indeed greatly improved the prognosis of patients.

14.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(7): 598-602, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The RTTN gene encodes Rotatin, a large centrosomal protein involved in ciliary functions. RTTN mutations have been reported in seven families and are associated with two phenotypes: polymicrogyria associated with seizures and primary microcephaly associated with primordial dwarfism. CASE: A targeted exome sequencing of morbid genes causing cerebral malformations identified novel RTTN compound heterozygous mutations in a family where three pregnancies were terminated because a severe fetal microcephaly was diagnosed. An autopsy performed on the second sib showed moderate growth restriction and a microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern. The histopathological study discovered a malformed cortical plate. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the involvement of RTTN gene mutations in microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern and describes the observed abnormal neuropathological findings.

15.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(6): 322-328, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366875

RESUMO

Proximal 19p13.12 microdeletion has been rarely reported. Only five postnatal cases with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, branchial arch defects and overlapping deletions involving proximal 19p13.12 have been documented. Two critical intervals were previously defined: a 700 kb for branchial arch defects and a 350 kb for hypertrichosis-synophrys-protruding front teeth. We describe the first prenatal case, a fetal death in utero at 39 weeks of gestation. Agilent 180K array-CGH analysis identified a heterozygous interstitial 745 kb deletion at 19p13.12 chromosome region, encompassing both previously reported critical intervals, including at least 6 functionally relevant genes: NOTCH3, SYDE1, AKAP8, AKAP8L, WIZ and BRD4. Quantitative PCR showed that the deletion occurred de novo with a median size of 753 kb. NOTCH3 and SYDE1 were candidate genes for placental pathology whilst AKAP8, AKAP8L, WIZ and BRD4 were highly expressed in the branchial arches. Molecular characterization and sequencing of candidate genes for placental pathology and branchial arch defects were carried out in order to correlate the genotype-phenotype relationship and unravel the underlying mechanism of proximal 19p13.12 microdeletion syndrome. This case also contributes to define the novel critical interval and expand the clinical phenotype spectrum of proximal 19p13.12 microdeletion syndrome.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19 , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico , Doenças Fetais/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Região Branquial/anormalidades , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Síndrome
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 218(1): 121.e1-121.e12, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injury to the levator ani muscle or pelvic nerves during pregnancy and vaginal delivery is responsible for pelvic floor dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: We sought to demonstrate the presence of smooth muscular cell areas within the levator ani muscle and describe their localization and innervation. STUDY DESIGN: Five female human fetuses were studied after approval from the French Biomedicine Agency. Specimens were serially sectioned and stained by Masson trichrome and immunostained for striated and smooth muscle, as well as for somatic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and nitriergic nerve fibers. Slides were digitized for 3-dimensional reconstruction. One fetus was reserved for electron microscopy. We explored the structure and innervation of the levator ani muscle. RESULTS: Smooth muscular cell beams were connected externally to the anococcygeal raphe and the levator ani muscle and with the longitudinal anal muscle sphincter. The caudalmost part of the pubovaginal muscle was found to bulge between the rectum and the vagina. This bulging was a smooth muscular interface between the levator ani muscle and the longitudinal anal muscle sphincter. The medial (visceral) part of the levator ani muscle contained smooth muscle cells, in relation to the autonomic nerve fibers of the inferior hypogastric plexus. The lateral (parietal) part of the levator ani muscle contained striated muscle cells only and was innervated by the somatic nerve fibers of levator ani and pudendal nerves. The presence of smooth muscle cells within the medial part of the levator ani muscle was confirmed under electron microscopy in 1 fetus. CONCLUSION: We characterized the muscular structure and neural control of the levator ani muscle. The muscle consists of a medial part containing smooth muscle cells under autonomic nerve influence and a lateral part containing striated muscle cells under somatic nerve control. These findings could result in new postpartum rehabilitation techniques.


Assuntos
Diafragma da Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiologia
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 803-814, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100091

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute a major cause of chronic kidney disease in children and 20% of prenatally detected anomalies. CAKUT encompass a spectrum of developmental kidney defects, including renal agenesis, hypoplasia, and cystic and non-cystic dysplasia. More than 50 genes have been reported as mutated in CAKUT-affected case subjects. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to bilateral kidney agenesis (BKA) remain largely elusive. Whole-exome or targeted exome sequencing of 183 unrelated familial and/or severe CAKUT-affected case subjects, including 54 fetuses with BKA, led to the identification of 16 heterozygous variants in GREB1L (growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1-like), a gene reported as a target of retinoic acid signaling. Four loss-of-function and 12 damaging missense variants, 14 being absent from GnomAD, were identified. Twelve of them were present in familial or simplex BKA-affected case subjects. Female BKA-affected fetuses also displayed uterus agenesis. We demonstrated a significant association between GREB1L variants and BKA. By in situ hybridization, we showed expression of Greb1l in the nephrogenic zone in developing mouse kidney. We generated a Greb1l knock-out mouse model by CRISPR-Cas9. Analysis at E13.5 revealed lack of kidneys and genital tract anomalies in male and female Greb1l-/- embryos and a slight decrease in ureteric bud branching in Greb1l+/- embryos. We showed that Greb1l invalidation in mIMCD3 cells affected tubulomorphogenesis in 3D-collagen culture, a phenotype rescued by expression of the wild-type human protein. This demonstrates that GREB1L plays a major role in early metanephros and genital development in mice and humans.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Nefropatias/congênito , Rim/anormalidades , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Criança , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Feto/anormalidades , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Nefropatias/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Sistema Urinário/anormalidades , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética
18.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 56(5): 677-680, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 20 (i(20q)) is a rare structural abnormality in prenatal diagnosis. Thirty prenatal cases of mosaic i(20q) have been reported, among which only four are associated with fetal malformations. We describe a new prenatal case of i(20q) with fetal malformations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We also observed a discrepancy between uncultured and cultured amniotic fluid cells by using conventional cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization and array-SNP analysis. RESULTS: The short arm deletion of chromosome 20 arising from the isochromosome encompassed two candidate genes PAX1 and JAG1 involved in cranio-facial and vertebral development. CONCLUSION: The data would allow establishing a phenotype-genotype correlation. Thus, we proposed to define a recognizable syndrome combining cranio-facial dysmorphism, vertebral bodies' anomalies, feet and cerebral malformations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20/genética , Pé Chato/genética , Isocromossomos/genética , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Aborto Induzido , Adulto , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/embriologia , Feminino , Pé Chato/diagnóstico , Pé Chato/embriologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Coluna Vertebral/embriologia
19.
Brain ; 140(10): 2597-2609, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969387

RESUMO

Microlissencephaly is a rare brain malformation characterized by congenital microcephaly and lissencephaly. Microlissencephaly is suspected to result from abnormalities in the proliferation or survival of neural progenitors. Despite the recent identification of six genes involved in microlissencephaly, the pathophysiological basis of this condition remains poorly understood. We performed trio-based whole exome sequencing in seven subjects from five non-consanguineous families who presented with either microcephaly or microlissencephaly. This led to the identification of compound heterozygous mutations in WDR81, a gene previously associated with cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability and quadrupedal locomotion. Patient phenotypes ranged from severe microcephaly with extremely reduced gyration with pontocerebellar hypoplasia to moderate microcephaly with cerebellar atrophy. In patient fibroblast cells, WDR81 mutations were associated with increased mitotic index and delayed prometaphase/metaphase transition. Similarly, in vivo, we showed that knockdown of the WDR81 orthologue in Drosophila led to increased mitotic index of neural stem cells with delayed mitotic progression. In summary, we highlight the broad phenotypic spectrum of WDR81-related brain malformations, which include microcephaly with moderate to extremely reduced gyration and cerebellar anomalies. Our results suggest that WDR81 might have a role in mitosis that is conserved between Drosophila and humans.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/citologia , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia , Mitose/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pathol Res Pract ; 213(10): 1264-1270, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast carcinomas (BC) belong to a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases. Correct categorization of BC based on molecular biomarkers has a very important role in deciding the proper course of therapy for each patient. It has been already shown that the decrease of TIMP metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 (TIMP-3) together with overexpression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) might be involved in the process of BC invasion. This is the first study that examined relationship among miR-21, TIMP-3 mRNA and TIPM-3 protein levels in BC groups formed according to invasiveness. METHODS: In this study, we used 46 breast cancer samples. Estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR) protein levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) method. TIMP-3 mRNA expression was examined by two-step real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Western blot analysis was performed for 16 samples. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in TIMP-3 expression levels between invasive groups were discovered in ER positive (ER+) (p=0.015), Her-2 negative (p=0.026) subgroups, and patients without lymph-node metastasis (p=0.039). Interestingly, significant positive correlation was detected between miR-21 and TIMP-3 mRNA levels (P<0.001, ρ=0.949) in the group of in situ tumors. TIMP-3 mRNA expression levels highly negatively correlated with levels of miR-21 in PR+ invasive BCs (p=0.007, ρ=-0.641). TIMP-3 protein levels negatively correlated with miR-21 levels in pure invasive BCs. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that signaling pathways involved in formation and progression of BCs in groups formed according to invasiveness might be different. Our findings propose that TIMP-3 mRNA expression levels could be significant prognostic parameter, but within specific BC subtypes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Mama in situ/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Western Blotting , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/química , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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