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1.
AIDS Care ; : 1-6, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801367

RESUMO

Suicide is an important problem in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The importance of mental disorders and social vulnerability on suicidal behaviors is described in the literature; however, the impact of childhood traumatic events in this scenario is not clear. The aim of this study was to verify the mediation effect of mental disorder comorbidities and social vulnerability in association with childhood trauma intensity and suicide risk level. This cross-sectional study of HIV-positive outpatients was conducted in a specialized care service in the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Sociodemographic data and HIV-related information were collected and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was applied. A total of 364 patients underwent psychiatric evaluation using MINI Plus including module C of suicide risk severity. Suicide risk was present in 39.3% of the sample. The relation between childhood traumatic events and the level of suicide risk is mediated by mental disorder comorbidities and socioeconomic vulnerability. Specific psychosocial interventions in PLWHA should consider the potential role of abusive traumatic experiences in the current mental health conditions and suicidal behaviors.

3.
JDR Clin Trans Res ; : 2380084419894576, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847730

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Investigating preschool children's social behaviors and the association with oral health variables helps to understand child development. Besides that, different perceptions need to be explored regarding the impact of oral problems on the social behavior between the child's self-report and parent's/caregiver's proxy report. OBJECTIVE: To determine which socioeconomic and oral factors are associated with difficulty sleeping and playing and the avoidance of smiling in preschoolers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative random sample of 769 pairs of parents/caregivers and 5-y-old preschoolers. The preschoolers answered a questionnaire on difficulty sleeping, difficulty playing, and the avoidance of smiling for reasons related to oral problems. The parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics as well as the use of dental services. Two calibrated dentists examined the children for the determination of dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI), malocclusion, and bruxism. Descriptive and Poisson regression analysis for complex samples with robust variance was used to test the associations (α = 5%). RESULTS: The variables associated with difficulty sleeping were low household income (confidence interval [CI]: 1.40-3.01), number of untreated dental caries (CI, 1.02-1.04), dental pain (CI, 1.76-3.59), TDI (CI, 1.08-2.11), and anterior open bite (CI, 1.11-2.20). Difficulty playing also was associated with the low household income (CI, 1.34-3.15), number of untreated dental caries (CI, 1.01-1.04), dental pain (CI,1.42-3.61), and TDI (CI, 1.13-2.33). The number of untreated dental caries (CI, 1.02-1.05), dental pain (CI, 1.03-2.88), anterior open bite (CI, 1.30-3.26), and not using dental services (CI, 1.13-2.73) were determinant factors for the avoidance of smiling. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic, symptomatic, and/or oral esthetic problems exerted an impact on the social behavior of the preschoolers analyzed, such as playing, sleeping, and smiling. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: The results of the present study may help parents and clinicians to understand better the association of oral problems with the social behavior of preschool children. Moreover, this study shows the importance of listening to children in clinical decisions. These results also can help in the elaboration of oral health policies.

4.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 377(2161): 20190004, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707960

RESUMO

Semilocal strings-a particular limit of electroweak strings-are an interesting example of a stable non-topological defect whose properties resemble those of their topological cousins, the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortices. There is, however, one important difference: a network of semilocal strings will contain segments. These are 'dumbbells' whose ends behave almost like global monopoles that are strongly attracted to one another. While closed loops of string will eventually shrink and disappear, the segments can either shrink or grow, and a cosmological network of semilocal strings will reach a scaling regime. We discuss attempts to find a 'thermodynamic' description of the cosmological evolution and scaling of a network of semilocal strings, by analogy with well-known descriptions for cosmic strings and for monopoles. We propose a model for the time evolution of an overall length scale and typical velocity for the network as well as for its segments, and some supporting (preliminary) numerical evidence. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Topological avatars of new physics'.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 697-702, Nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001477

RESUMO

Abstract This study evaluated the antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of the essential oil of Psidium guajava leaves (PG-EO), traditionally used in folk medicine. The essential oil was obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus. The major PG-EO chemical constituents were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID as being β-caryophyllene (16.1%), α-humulene (11.9%), aromadendrene oxide (14.7%), δ-selinene (13.6%), and selin-11-en-4α-ol (12.5%). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of P. guajava leaves was determined in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) using the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. PG-EO had moderate activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 µg/mL), S. mitis (MIC = 200 µg/mL), S. sanguinis (MIC = 400 µg/mL), S. sobrinus (MIC = 100 µg/mL), and S. salivarius (MIC = 200 µg/mL). The antiproliferative activity was evaluated against different tumor cell lines: breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), and human gliobastoma (M059J). A normal human cell line (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) was included. The antiproliferative activity was evaluated using the XTT assay and the results were expressed as IC50. The essential oil showed significantly lower IC50 values against MCF-7 and M059J lines than that obtained for the normal line, showing selectivity. Our results suggest that the essential oil of Psidium guajava L. has promising biological activities and can be considered a new source of bioactive compounds.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou as atividades antibacteriana e antiproliferativa do óleo essencial das folhas frescas de Psidium guajava (PG-OE), tradicionalmente utilizadas na medicina popular. O óleo essencial foi obtido por hidrodestilação das folhas frescas, utilizando aparelho do tipo Clevenger. Os principais constituintes químicos de PG-OE identificados por CG-EM e CG-DIC foram: β-cariofileno (16,1%), α-humuleno (11,9%), óxido de aromadendreno (14,7%), δ-selineno (13,6%) e selin-11-en-4α-ol (12,5%). A atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial das folhas de P. guajava foi determinada em termo de sua concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) utilizando o método de microdiluição de caldo em microplacas de 96 poços. PG-OE apresentou moderada atividade contra Streptococcus mutans (CIM = 200 μg/mL), S. mitis (CIM = 200 μg/mL), S. sanguinis (CIM = 400 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (CIM = 100 μg/mL) e S. salivarius (CIM = 200 μg/mL). A atividade antiproliferativa foi avaliada frente a diferentes linhagens de células tumorais como: adenocarcinoma de mama (MCF-7), adenocarcinoma cervical humano (HeLa) e gliobastoma humano (M059J). Foi incluída uma linhagem celular humana normal (GM07492A, fibroblastos pulmonares). A atividade antiproliferativa foi avaliada utilizando o ensaio XTT e os resultados foram expressos como CI50. As linhagens MCF-7 e M059J mostraram valores significativamente mais baixos de CI50 do que os obtidos para a linhagem normal, mostrando seletividade. Nossos resultados sugerem que o óleo essencial das folhas frescas de Psidium guajava L. possui atividades biológicas promissoras e pode ser considerado como uma nova fonte de compostos bioativos.

6.
Pulmonology ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591057

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Height is one of the variables used to derive reference values for respiratory function but it is not always available. To fulfil this need, different formulas are described in literature. AIM: To understand which method best estimate height in order to obtain Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st second (FEV1) reference values. METHODS: The true stature (TS) and five alternative anthropometric measures that estimate height [arm span using a regression equation (ASR), arm span using a fix correction factor (ASF), half arm span, knee height and ulnar length] were measured for all patients. To assess the differences between the TS versus the estimated heights and the respective reference values of FVC and FEV1, T Student Test and Wilcoxon test were used. Agreement was evaluated by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and by Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: A total of 160 subjects were recruited but 14 patients were excluded due to skeletal deformities. The predicted FVC and FEV1 using all alternative anthropometric measures were statistically different from those calculated by TS, except for ASF. The limits of agreement were wide for all alternative measures. With the exception of ASF, predicted FVC and FEV1 were overestimated when using all other alternative measures. CONCLUSIONS: For the purpose of replacing height in order to obtain predicted values of FVC and FEV1, the ASF was shown to be the most accurate and recommendable method. However, we must be aware there is a possible degree of error.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12930, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506557

RESUMO

True green pigments in the animal kingdom are scarce and are almost invariably porphyrinoids. Endogenous porphyrins resulting from the breakdown of haem are usually known as "bile pigments". The pigmentation of intertidal Polychaeta has long gained attention due to its variety and vivid patterning that often seems incompatible with camouflage, as it occurs with Eulalia viridis, one of the few truly green Polychaeta. The present study combined UV and bright-field microscopy with HPLC to address the presence and distribution of pigments in several organs. The results showed two major types of porphyrin-like pigments, yellowish and greenish in colour, that are chiefly stored as intraplasmatic granules. Whereas the proboscis holds yellow pigments, the skin harbours both types in highly specialised cells. In their turn, oocytes and intestine have mostly green pigments. Despite some inter-individual variation, the pigments tend to be stable after prolonged storage at -20 °C, which has important implications for future studies. The results show that, in a foraging predator of the intertidal where melanins are circumscribed to lining the nervous system, porphyrinoid pigments have a key role in protection against UV light, in sensing and even as chemical defence against foulants and predators, which represents a remarkable adaptive feature.

9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 8999-9016, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421886

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate productive and reproductive effects of replacing solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM) with extruded soybean meal (ESBM) in a total mixed ration for early-lactation dairy cows. Thirty-four Holstein cows (12 primiparous and 22 multiparous) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with 17 cows per treatment. Feeding was ad libitum for 5 to 10% refusals. A fresh-cow diet was fed the first 21 d in milk followed by a lactation diet from 22 to 60 d in milk. Milk and dry matter intake data were collected throughout the experiment, and samples were collected for blood chemistry and amino acid profile, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and enteric methane emission using the GreenFeed system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). Dry matter intake, milk yield, and feed efficiency were not different between SSBM and ESBM. Energy-corrected milk yield and efficiency were also not different between diets. Diet had no effect on milk composition, except that milk true protein yield was decreased by ESBM. Enteric methane emission, yield, and intensity were not different between SSBM and ESBM. Because of its greater fat content, ESBM triggered expected changes in milk fatty acid (FA) profile: decreased sum of C16, saturated, and odd- and branched-chain FA and increased sum of preformed FA, polyunsaturated, and trans FA. The ESBM diet increased or tended to increase some essential amino acids in plasma. In this study, ESBM did not affect dry matter intake and did not improve lactational performance or onset of ovarian function in early-lactation dairy cows, and it decreased milk protein yield, possibly due to greater unsaturated FA intake compared with SSBM.

10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105260, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336222

RESUMO

Due to the role of Cytochrome P450, Family 1, Subfamily A (CYP1A) in the detoxification of many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), there has been an effort to characterise the gene and the products from its expression in organisms that are relevant for biomonitoring and toxicity testing procedures. Nonetheless, the existence of functional homologues in aquatic invertebrates is not entirely consensual, especially in bivalve molluscs, which pose as one of the most important models for aquatic toxicologists, especially mytilids. After isolation and sequencing of CYP1A-like mRNA from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, phylogenetics incorporating homologues from molluscs and other eumetazoans, vertebrates included, yielded notorious similarity to sequences belonging to the CYP2 Family. Altogether, the findings further indicate that CYP1A-like CYPs may be absent in bivalves, in lieu of Families CYP2, 3 and 4, suggesting caution when interpreting data from common biomarkers of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons that have been developed for CYP1A activity and expression in higher deuterostomes.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Mytilus/enzimologia , Mytilus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(6): 913-925, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253542

RESUMO

Mycotoxins constitute a relevant group of food contaminants with several associated health outcomes such as estrogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic and teratogenic effects. Although scarce data are available in Portugal, human biomonitoring studies have been globally developed to assess the exposure to mycotoxins at individual level. In order to overcome this lack of data, the present study concerned the analysis of mycotoxins in 24h urine and first-morning urine paired samples from 94 participants enrolled within the scope of the National Food, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Survey of the Portuguese General Population (2015-2016). Following a salt-assisted matrix extraction, urine samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of 37 urinary mycotoxins' biomarkers and data obtained used to estimate the probable daily intake as well as the risk characterization applying the Hazard Quotient approach. Results revealed the exposure of Portuguese population to zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, alternariol, citrinin and fumonisin B1 through the quantification in 24h urine and first-morning urine paired samples. Risk characterization data revealed a potential concern to some reported mycotoxins since the reference intake values were exceeded by some of the considered participants. Alternariol was identified for the first time in urine samples from a European country; however, risk characterization was not performed due to lack of reference intake value. These results confirmed mycotoxins as part of the human exposome of the Portuguese population reinforcing the need for further studies regarding the determinants of exposure.

12.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(2): 133-140, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-180801

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in children worldwide. Some children have severe and persistent CMPA, with near-fatal reactions after exposure to trace amounts of cow's milk-proteins (CMP). Strict avoidance diet is difficult, negatively affects quality of life and represents a conservative approach. Therefore, different therapeutic strategies are necessary. Objective: We aimed to assess long-term efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapy (OIT) in children with severe and long-lasting IgE-mediated CMPA. Materials and methods: The authors present four case reports of patients with CMPA who underwent CMP-OIT, that have been under long-term follow-up up to nine years. We provide information about the clinical and laboratory evaluation. Skin prick tests (SPT), specific IgE and IgG4 were performed before, during, and after OIT. Immune profile after OIT was assessed by flow cytometry (lymphocyte subsets, regulatory T and B cells). Results: The success rate was 100%, and all patients currently have a free diet with minimal diary ingestion of 200mL CMP or equivalent. Specific IgE levels and SPT to CMP have progressively decreased, and specific IgG4 levels have increased. CD4+CD25+CD127/dim regulatory T cells were increased after OIT. Conclusions: OIT ensured a clinical tolerance state after up to nine years, confirmed by both clinical and immune profile, allowing a diet without restrictions, with high satisfaction from patients and caregivers. We emphasize that OIT should be performed only by allergy experts in the hospital setting, and that only motivated families should be enrolled, since it is essential to ensure CMP daily intake at home


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Bovinos , Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/imunologia , Seguimentos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(5): 4165-4178, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879826

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of crude protein degradability and corn processing on lactation performance, milk protein composition, milk ethanol stability (MES), heat coagulation time (HCT) at 140°C, and the efficiency of N utilization for dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows with an average of 162 ± 70 d in milk, 666 ± 7 kg of body weight, and 36 ± 7.8 kg/d of milk yield (MY) were distributed in a Latin square design with 5 contemporaneous balanced squares, 4 periods of 21 d, and 4 treatments (factorial arrangement 2 × 2). Treatment factor 1 was corn processing [ground (GC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC)] and factor 2 was crude protein (CP) degradability (high = 10.7% rumen-degradable protein and 5.1% rumen-undegradable protein; low = 9.5% rumen-degradable protein and 6.3% rumen-undegradable protein; dry matter basis). A significant interaction was observed between CP degradability and corn processing on dry matter intake (DMI). When cows were fed GC with low CP degradability, DMI increased by 1.24 kg/d compared with cows fed GC with high CP degradability; however, CP degradability did not change DMI when cows were fed SFC. Similar interactions were observed for MY, HCT, and lactose content. When cows were fed GC diets, high CP degradability reduced MY by 2.3 kg/d, as well as HCT and lactose content, compared with low CP degradability. However, no effect of CP degradability was observed on those variables when cows were fed SFC diets. The SFC diets increased dry matter and starch total-tract digestibility and reduced ß-casein (CN) content (% total milk protein) compared with GC diets. Cows fed low-CP degradability diets had higher glycosylated κ-CN content (% total κ-CN) and MES, as well as milk protein content, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and efficiency of N for milk production, than cows fed high-CP degradability diets. Therefore, GC and high-CP degradability diets reduced milk production and protein stability. Overall, low CP degradability increased the efficiency of dietary N utilization and MES, probably due to changes in casein micelle composition, as CP degradability or corn processing did not change the milk concentration of ionic calcium. The GC diets increased ß-CN content, which could contribute to reducing HTC when cows were fed GC and high-CP degradability diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Lactação , Proteínas do Leite/química , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Lactose/metabolismo , Leite/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
14.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(29): 293001, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921786

RESUMO

The spin-orbit Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 has attracted a lot of interest in recent years from theory and experiment due to its close connection to isostructural high-temperature copper oxide superconductors. Despite not being superconductive, its spectral features closely resemble those of the cuprates, including Fermi surface and pseudogap properties. In this article, we review and extend recent work in the theoretical description of the spectral function of pure and electron-doped Sr2IrO4 based on a cluster extension of dynamical mean-field theory ('oriented-cluster DMFT') and compare it to available angle-resolved photoemission data. Current theories provide surprisingly good agreement for pure and electron-doped Sr2IrO4, both in the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. Most notably, one obtains simple explanations for the experimentally observed steep feature around the M point and the pseudo-gap-like spectral feature in electron-doped Sr2IrO4.

15.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 29(1): 841-846, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700951

RESUMO

Background: Little attention has been paid to screening of depression among stroke survivors in outpatient physiotherapy clinics. Post-stroke depression is reported to have a negative impact on functional recovery. However, the exact influence on the outcome of rehabilitation such as level of functional independence remains controversial. This study aims at ascertaining the influence of post-stroke depression on functional independence in activities of daily living. Methods: The study is a cross sectional survey of stroke survivors attending outpatient physiotherapy clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, and the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH). Participants were evaluated for socio-demographic characteristics. Post-stroke depression and level of functional recovery in Activities of Daily Living were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Barthel Index respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23, with α set at 0.01. Results: A total of 66 participants, 42 females and 24 males, were purposively recruited into the study. Over 80% (56) of the participant had depression, with over 50% (32) being severely depressed. Post-stroke depression was associated with less functional independence in activities of daily living (p=0.000). A significant difference was found in the level of functional independence between participants with and without depression (p=0.00). Conclusion: Participants with post-stroke depression have less independence in activities of daily living. A longitudinal study with a larger sample size is, however, recommended so as to improve the external validity. In the mean time, outpatient rehabilitation of depressed stroke survivors should include pharmacological and psychological components.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 167: 525-545, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784884

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, complex and progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Exogenous antioxidants can be beneficial for decreasing oxidative stress, as they are able to reward the lack of efficacy of the endogenous defense systems and raise the overall antioxidant response in a pathological condition. Along our overarching project related with the design and development of potent and safe multi-target mitochondriotropic antioxidants, based on dietary antioxidants, novel derivatives were obtained. Overall, mitochondriotropic antioxidants showed remarkable antioxidant and chelating properties, presenting low cytotoxic effects on human differentiated neuronal (SH-SY5Y) and hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells and exhibited neuroprotective properties on SH-SY5Y cells against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative insults. Moreover, compounds 58, 59, 62, 63, 66 and 67 were able to permeate a layer of hCMEC/D3 cells in a time-dependent manner. Mitochondriotropic antioxidant 67 stands out by its remarkable iron chelating and neuroprotective properties toward both H2O2 and 6-OHDA-induced oxidative damage, drug-like properties and BBB permeability.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Doenças Mitocondriais/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/síntese química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidopamina/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Climacteric ; 22(2): 162-168, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between the Mediterranean diet (MD), body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 105 apparently healthy postmenopausal women aged between 45 and 65 years were included. BMD, percentage body fat, and appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, appendicular lean mass/height squared) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Assessment of MD adherence was based on intake of cereals, vegetables, fruits, meats, dairy products, fish, red wine, and olive oil, and expressed as the Mediterranean diet score (MDS). RESULTS: Women with higher adherence to the MD had higher ALMI (6.6 ± 0.8 kg/m2 vs. 6.3 ± 0.7 kg/m2; p = 0.039) and lumbar spine BMD (1.076 ± 0.149 vs. 0.997 ± 0.143 g/cm2; p = 0.007) compared to those with lower MDS. Linear regression analysis adjusted for previous hormone therapy, previous smoking behavior, and habitual physical activity showed an independent positive contribution of MDS to lumbar spine BMD (mean difference 0.088 g/cm2, 95% confidence interval 0.028-0.147; p = 0.004) and ALMI (mean difference 0.296 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval 0.020-0.591; p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and ALMI were positively associated with the MDS in a sample of postmenopausal women from a non-Mediterranean region.

18.
J Small Anim Pract ; 60(2): 131, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276814
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(1): 388-394, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527988

RESUMO

Three cafeteria feeding design experiments were conducted to test whether young ruminants have flavor preferences. Experiment 1 was with 11 Dorset × Suffolk weaned lambs of both sexes, aged 5 mo and averaging 47.5 (standard deviation = 5.8) kg of body weight. The lambs were offered a choice of 5 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and an unflavored control for 5 min 4 times over 10 d. The FCP were prepared by mixing 200 to 300 g/t (as-is basis) of synthetic flavors (vanilla, milky, spicy/fenugreek, red summer fruits, and molasses) into a basal diet. The unflavored control and the milky flavor were consumed in greater amounts than all other flavors at 83.9 and 65.8 g/test, respectively. The consumption rate of FCP (g/min) was similar among treatments. Lambs spent more time consuming the milky flavor and the control at 123 and 144 s/test, respectively, compared with all other FCP (average of 65 s/test). In experiment 2, 12 weaned female Holstein Friesian calves (56-68 d of age) averaging 75.8 kg (standard deviation = 8.45) of body weight were offered a choice of 4 FCP (vanilla, milky, spicy/fenugreek, and red summer fruits) at an inclusion rate of 150 to 200 g/t (as-is basis) and the unflavored control for 5 min 4 times over 10 d. The average consumption rate was 27.8 g/min, and there were no differences among FCP. In experiment 3, a choice of 4 FCP with 2 different flavor combinations (vanilla-fenugreek and milky-vanilla) included at 75 g/t (as-is basis; low) or 150 g/t (high) was offered to a total of 12 weaned female Holstein Friesian calves (47-62 d of age) with an average body weight of 65.3 kg (standard deviation = 7.91). The FCP were offered daily for 14 d for 30 to 60 min/d. Vanilla-fenugreek (low) was consumed less at 57.5 g/test per calf compared with the other FCP (average of 87.5 g/test per calf). There were no other differences among FCP in experiment 3. Overall, compared with the control, flavors used in the present experiments did not affect feed intake of weaned lambs and calves. Other factors, such as taste, sight, texture of the feed, effect of the dams as previous experience (via maternal ingestion, which influences neonatal feeding), and their interactions, may also play a role in flavor preferences of young ruminants.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Aromatizantes , Masculino , Paladar , Desmame
20.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 48(1): 90-96, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843950

RESUMO

The use of short implants as an alternative to bone reconstruction techniques for the placement of standard-length dental implants is a debated topic. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to assist in the clinical decision making about the most appropriate approach for the fixed rehabilitation of the posterior atrophic partially edentulous lower jaws. Only randomized trials with at least 1-year follow-up were included. Of the 1024 studies initially retrieved, 14 articles were selected and independently evaluated by two reviewers. Finally, four studies were included, and underwent data extraction and meta-analysis with the Bayesian approach. Both treatment approaches provide high implant survival rate after 1year of function. However, the probability of survival rate of short implants being greater than standard length implants is 84%, and the probability of complications using short implants being greater than standard-length implants is 15.7%. In spite of similar survival rates when the residual bone is sufficient for placement of short implants, the latter should be preferred to augmentation techniques and standard-length implants due to fewer complications, lower morbidity and greater comfort for patients.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/cirurgia , Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Implantes Dentários , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Arcada Parcialmente Edêntula/cirurgia , Mandíbula/patologia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Reconstrução Mandibular/métodos , Atrofia , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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