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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 518-521, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482939

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 489-492, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411313

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite with a wide range of hosts, including humans. However, only a few Cryptosporidium species have been described in birds (C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. galli and C. avium). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of eared doves (Zenaida auriculata), followed by molecular characterization of the parasite. A total of 196 animals of both sexes were trap-captured; the animals were culled and the intestinal contents were collected for DNA extraction. After extraction, a nested-PCR (nPCR), which amplifies a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp., was performed. The amplicons obtained were purified and sequenced. PCR analysis revealed that 30 animals (15.3%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. There was no significant sex-dependent enrichment of Cryptosporidium occurrence (p > 0.05). Only 15 out of the 30 positive samples were successfully sequenced and their species determined, of which, 13 (86.7%) and 2 (13.3%) were C. meleagridis and C. galli, respectively. Herein, we present for the first time a molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium from feces of eared doves (Z. auriculata) and propose that these birds are a potential source of C. meleagridis infection in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
3.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105068, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226252

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular tissue cyst-forming coccidian parasite and it was first described in dogs. Despite the relevance of wild canids in the transmission chain of N. caninum, there are few studies in Brazil. The aim of the present study was to detect N. caninum DNA in feces of free-range and captive crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from different states of northeastern Brazil. Fecal samples of eighteen crab-eating foxes (fifteen individually and three pools) were collected in sterile containers and were kept cool at -20 °C until further processing. All fecal samples were subjected to DNA extraction. A nested PCR targeting the ITS-1 gene was performed for N. caninum. All the positive bands were extracted from the gel and purified. Forward and reverse strands were sequenced and the nucleotide sequences obtained were compared with N. caninum sequences deposited in Genbank. The alignment was edited and phylogenetic reconstruction was based on the ITS1 gene sequences. Thirteen stool samples were PCR-positive for N. caninum DNA. Nine out of thirteen positive samples showed similarity between 99%-100% for N. caninum in relation to the sequence U25044.1 stored at GenBank. The crab-eating fox could have an important role in the sylvatic cycle of Neospora caninum in Brazil. Experimental infections studies involving these wild canids may confirm if the crab-eating foxes are definitive hosts of N. caninum.

4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 291-297, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188950

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Molecular characterization of these pathogens in sewage may provide insight on their occurrence and prevalence in Brazil. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in raw and treated sewage from Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Samples were collected every two weeks during a year. Samples were concentrated, then DNA was extracted and subjected to a nested PCR targeting the Giardia 18S rRNA gene and the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene. Species of Cryptosporidium were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). All raw sewage and 76% of the treated sewage were positive for Giardia; 84% of raw sewage samples and 8% of treated sewage were positive for Cryptosporidium. C. muris, C. hominis, C. baileyi, C. parvum and C. suis were detected in 100%, 19%, 9%, 9% and 4% of raw sewage, respectively. C. muris was the only species found in treated sewage. Multiple species of Cryptosporidium were present in 19.04% of the raw sewage. Treated sewage water can pose a threat to human health. The speciation of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of non-common zoonotic species as C. suis and C. muris.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Esgotos/parasitologia , Brasil , Cryptosporidium/genética , Giardia/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , População Urbana
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 291-297, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013743

RESUMO

Abstract Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Molecular characterization of these pathogens in sewage may provide insight on their occurrence and prevalence in Brazil. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in raw and treated sewage from Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Samples were collected every two weeks during a year. Samples were concentrated, then DNA was extracted and subjected to a nested PCR targeting the Giardia 18S rRNA gene and the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene. Species of Cryptosporidium were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). All raw sewage and 76% of the treated sewage were positive for Giardia; 84% of raw sewage samples and 8% of treated sewage were positive for Cryptosporidium. C. muris, C. hominis, C. baileyi, C. parvum and C. suis were detected in 100%, 19%, 9%, 9% and 4% of raw sewage, respectively. C. muris was the only species found in treated sewage. Multiple species of Cryptosporidium were present in 19.04% of the raw sewage. Treated sewage water can pose a threat to human health. The speciation of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of non-common zoonotic species as C. suis and C. muris.


Resumo Cryptosporidium e Giardia são protozoários causadores de diarreia em animais e humanos. A caracterização molecular destes protozoários em esgoto pode prover dados ainda desconhecidos da ocorrência de espécies. O objetivo do presente estudo foi monitorar a ocorrência de Giardia e espécies de Cryptosporidium em esgoto bruto e tratado em uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) de Londrina, Paraná. Amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado foram coletadas no período de um ano, com periodicidade quinzenal. A ocorrência destes protozoários foi caracterizada por meio de concentração das amostras e posterior extração de DNA seguida de nested-PCR para amplificação de fragmentos dos genes 18S rRNA de Giardia e 18S rRNA de Cryptosporidium. A caracterização das espécies de Cryptosporidium foi realizada por meio de análise por polimorfismo de comprimento do fragmento de restrição (RFLP) dos produtos obtidos. Foram coletadas no total 25 amostras de cada, esgoto bruto e esgoto tratado. Para Giardia, todas as amostras de esgoto bruto e 76% das de esgoto tratado foram positivas. Cryptosporidium esteve presente em 84% das amostras de esgoto bruto e em 8% do tratado. No esgoto tratado foi encontrado apenas C. muris, já nas amostras de esgoto bruto foram encontradas cinco espécies: C. muris, C. hominis, C. baileyi, C. suis e C. parvum em 100%, 19%, 9%, 9% e 4%, respectivamente. A presença de espécies mistas foi observada em 19,04% das amostras. A presença de Giardia e Cryptosporidium em esgoto tratado pode pôr em risco a saúde humana. A discriminação de espécies de Cryptosporidium revelou a presença de espécies zoonóticas incomuns como C. suis e C. muris.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212375, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763391

RESUMO

Human toxoplasmosis, a protozoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has been described as a worldwide foodborne disease with important public health impact. Despite infection has reportedly varied due to differences in alimentary, cultural and hygienic habits and geographic region, social vulnerability influence on toxoplasmosis distribution remains to be fully established. Accordingly, the present study has aimed to assess T. gondii seroprevalence and factors associated to social vulnerability for infection in households of Ivaiporã, southern Brazil, with 33.6% population making half minimum wage or less, ranked 1,055th in population (31,816 habitants), 1,406th in per capita income (U$ 211.80 per month) and 1,021st in HDI (0.764) out of 5,570 Brazilian cities. Serum samples and epidemiological questionnaires were obtained from citizen volunteers with official City Secretary of Health assistance in 2015 and 2016. In overall, serosurvey has revealed 526/715 (73.57%) positive samples for anti-T. gondii antibodies by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Logistic regression has shown a significant increase associated to adults (p = 0.021) and elderly (p = 0.014) people, illiterates (p = 0.025), unemployment (p <0.001) and lack of household water tank (p = 0.039). On the other hand, sex (male or female), living area (urban or rural), yard hygiene, meat ingestion, sand or land contact, owning pets (dog, cat or both) were not significant variables of positivity for anti-T. gondii antibodies in the surveyed population. Although no significant spatial cluster was found, high intensity areas of seropositive individuals were located in the Kernel map where the suburban neighborhoods are located. In conclusion, socioeconomic vulnerability determinants may be associated to Toxoplasma gondii exposure. The increased risk due to illiteracy, adult or elderly age, unemployment and lack of household water tank were confirmed by multivariate analysis and the influence of low family income for seropositivity by the spatial analysis.

7.
J Water Health ; 16(5): 857-860, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285966

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in a water treatment plant (WTP) using settling sludge and backwash water (BW) samples in previous and post the deflocculation of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) flacks. Eleven collections were performed. BW and settling sludge (SSF) were concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation, and another aliquot of settling sludge (SSC) by centrifugation. The samples were divided as follows: Group A, containing 33 samples without degradation of PAC flakes, and Group B, with degradation by alkalinization with 10 M NaOH. Sample DNA was extracted with a commercial kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis. All samples from Group A were negative for Cryptosporidium spp., and 6.1% (2/33) were positive for G. duodenalis in SSC samples. While the absence of Cryptosporidium may be due to a low contamination level of the water resource, the presence of G. duodenalis indicates contamination of the raw water. The detection of G. duodenalis in SSC samples indicates that this detection method was the most effective. The 33 samples from Group B were negative for both protozoa, probably due to the presence of aluminium and humic substances.

8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 27(3): 327-337, 2018 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183998

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with vegetable contamination with zoonotic protozoan. Samples of water, soil and vegetables were collected from July/2014 to May/2016, totaling 83 samples, 21 properties of Londrina region, Paraná, Brazil. DNA amplification of Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in the samples was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR results were positive for T. gondii in 12.9% (8/62), Cryptosporidium spp. in 11.3% (7/62) and G. intestinalis in 25.8% (16/62) of the samples. DNA sequencing identified C. parvum in five samples and G. intestinalis Assemblage E in three. The statistical associations demonstrated greater probability of positive samples for T. gondii and for at least one of the three protozoa when the source of irrigation water was the river; a greater chance of positive samples for Cryptosporidium spp. when deer were present on the property; and a smaller chance of positive samples for at least one of the three etiologic agents when soil was supplemented with limestone. The results expose some critical contamination points, providing support for training farmers on good management practices during the production process.

9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 327-337, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-959196

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with vegetable contamination with zoonotic protozoan. Samples of water, soil and vegetables were collected from July/2014 to May/2016, totaling 83 samples, 21 properties of Londrina region, Paraná, Brazil. DNA amplification of Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in the samples was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR results were positive for T. gondii in 12.9% (8/62), Cryptosporidium spp. in 11.3% (7/62) and G. intestinalis in 25.8% (16/62) of the samples. DNA sequencing identified C. parvum in five samples and G. intestinalis Assemblage E in three. The statistical associations demonstrated greater probability of positive samples for T. gondii and for at least one of the three protozoa when the source of irrigation water was the river; a greater chance of positive samples for Cryptosporidium spp. when deer were present on the property; and a smaller chance of positive samples for at least one of the three etiologic agents when soil was supplemented with limestone. The results expose some critical contamination points, providing support for training farmers on good management practices during the production process.


Resumo O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os fatores associados à contaminação de vegetais por protozoários zoonóticos. Amostras de água, solo e vegetais foram coletadas de julho/2014 a maio/2016, totalizando 83 amostras de 21 propriedades da região de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. A amplificação de fragmentos de DNA de T. gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia intestinalis foi realizada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Os resultados da PCR foram positivos para T. gondii em 12,9% (8/62), Cryptosporidium spp. em 11,3% (7/62) e G. intestinalis. em 25,8% (16/62) das amostras. O sequenciamento de DNA identificou C. parvum em cinco amostras e G. intestinalis, Assemblage E em três amostras. As associações estatísticas evidenciaram maior probabilidade de amostras serem positivas para T. gondii ou para pelo menos um dos três protozoários quando a fonte de água de irrigação era o rio; uma maior chance de amostras positivas para Cryptosporidium spp. quando havia cervos na propriedade; e uma menor chance das amostras serem positivas para pelo menos um dos três agentes etiológicos quando o solo era suplementado com calcário. Os resultados expõem alguns pontos críticos de contaminação, fornecendo suporte para capacitar os agricultores em boas práticas de gestão durante o processo de produção.

10.
Parasitol Res ; 117(9): 3033-3038, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959518

RESUMO

Cats and dogs are hosts of a large number of gastrointestinal parasites and can shed helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts in their feces. The close relationship between companion animals and humans intensifies human exposure to zoonosis caused by parasites. In this study, 177 fecal samples were collected: 128 from dogs and 49 from cats of both sexes and varied ages. One or more intestinal parasites were observed in 56.2% (72/128) of the dog fecal samples and in 53.0% (26/49) of the cat fecal samples. Parasitic monoinfection was present in 70.8% (51/72) of dog samples and in 46.1% (12/26) of cat samples, whereas multi-infection was observed in 29.2% (21/72) and 53.8% (14/26) of dog and cat samples, respectively. The detection frequency of Cryptosporidium spp. was 22.6% (40/177) using Ziehl-Neelsen staining. DNA was extracted from all samples and the Cryptosporidium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene was amplified from 5.6% (10/177) of the fecal samples using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplification was achieved in 4.6% (6/128) of the dog samples and in 8.2% (4/49) of the cat samples. DNA sequencing of the nested PCR positive samples identified Cryptosporidium canis in 66.6% (4/6) and Cryptosporidium parvum in 33.3% (2/6) of the dog samples and Cryptosporidium felis in 75% (3/4) and Cryptosporidium parvum in 25% (1/4) in the cat samples. The present study thus demonstrated significant levels of gastrointestinal parasite infection in companion animals and highlighted the presence of zoonosis agents.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 27(2): 248-253, 2018 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924145

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in cattle and sheep from the North Pioneer mesoregion of the state of Paraná. For this, 317 stool samples were collected from cattle and sheep on 16 properties in six municipalities in the North Pioneer mesoregion of Paraná. For detection of Cryptosporidium species, molecular analysis was performed using nested-PCR techniques targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Of the 37 beef cows and 115 calves analyzed, four (10.8%) and 14 (12.2%), respectively, were positive for Cryptosporidium. Of the 12 cows and 52 calves, one (8.3%) and 14 (26.9%), respectively, were positive for Cryptosporidium; and of the 42 ewes and 59 lambs, six (14.3%) and 12 (20.3%), respectively were positive for Cryptosporidium. Cattle (15.3%) and sheep (17.8%) were both susceptible to infection. All the properties of the municipalities of Assaí, Ibaiti and, Leópolis presented infected animals. The study showed that Cryptosporidium occurs in most municipalities assessed, that dairy calves had a higher risk (Odds Ratio=2,66, p-value=0,018) for infection than beef calves, and that sheep are just as susceptible to infection as are cattle, and that further Cryptosporidium studies are developed.

12.
Prev Vet Med ; 154: 47-53, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685444

RESUMO

Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. in dog owners and their dogs in the city of Londrina, a county seat in southern Brazil with a population of half a million people and ranked 18th in population and 145th in the human development index (HDI) out of 5570 Brazilian cities. Overall, 564 households were surveyed and included 597 homeowners and their 729 dogs. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in 9/597 (1.50%) dog owners and in 32/729 (4.38%) dogs, with significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0042) in dogs. Spatial analysis revealed associations between seropositive dogs and households located up to 500 m from the local railway. No clusters were found for either owner or dog case distributions. In summary, the seroepidemiological and spatial results collectively show a lack of association of the factors for infection, and the results demonstrated higher exposure for dogs than their owners. However, railway areas may provide favorable conditions for the maintenance of infected phlebotomines, thereby causing infection in nearby domiciled dogs. In such an urban scenario, local sanitary barriers should be focused on the terrestrial routes of people and surrounding areas, particularly railways, via continuous vector surveillance and identification of phlebotomines infected by Leishmania spp.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 118: 181-183, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514125

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium can infect a wide variety of vertebrate animals, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and fish. There are few molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium isolated from water buffalo. Thus, the present study investigated the occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in water buffalos by nested-PCR. Non-diarrheic feces were obtained from 122 water buffalo calves. All samples were tested by nested-PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene, after which positive samples were analyzed by RFLP and genetic sequencing. Sixteen fecal (13.1%) samples were positive, and RFLP showed that fifteen presented patterns consistent with C. ryanae and one with C. parvum. Sequencing of the gp60 gene from the C. parvum positive sample indicated the subtype IIaA20G1R1. This is the first identification of the IIaA20G1R1 subtype in water buffalos.

15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 472-478, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-899301

RESUMO

Abstract Rearing free-range chicken is based on grazing feeding patterns, and these animals could be potential environmental contaminants of Cryptosporidium oocysts for humans and other animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the molecular prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in free-range chickens from Brazil. A total of 351 fecal samples from chickens were examined from 20 farms. For detection of Cryptosporidium spp., 18S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using a nested PCR reaction. Positive samples were sent for sequencing. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 25.6% (95% CI = 21.2% - 30.6%). Sequencing of the amplified fragments allowed for the identification of three species: C. meleagridis in 57 (62.6%), C. baileyi in 15 (16.4%), C. parvum in 3 (3.2%) samples, and a new Cryptosporidium genotype (C. genotype BrPR1) in 3 (3.2%) samples. Cryptosporidium genotype BrPR1 has not yet been classified as a species, and its host spectrum is not known. Cryptosporidium, including zoonotic species, exists at a high prevalence in free-range chickens within the region studied.


Resumo A criação de galinhas no estilo colonial/caipira é baseada em padrões de alimentação de pastagem, o que as torna potenciais contaminantes ambientais de oocistos de Cryptosporidium para humanos e outros animais. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. em galinhas criadas em sistema colonial/caipira. Um total de 351 amostras de fezes de frangos foram examinadas em 20 fazendas. Para a detecção de Cryptosporidium spp., os fragmentos do gene rRNA 18S foram amplificados utilizando-se a reação de nested-PCR. A prevalência global de Cryposporidium foi de 25,6% (IC 95% = 21,2% - 30,6%). O sequenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados permitiu a identificação de três espécies que infectam aves: C. meleagridis em 57 (62,6%), C. baileyi em 15 (16,4%), C. parvum em 3 (3,2%) amostras, bem como, um novo genótipo de Cryptosporidium (C. genótipo BrPR1) foi identificado em 3 (3,2%) amostras. Cryptosporidium genotipo BrPR1 não foi ainda classificado como uma espécie, e seu espectro de hospedeiros é desconhecido. O presente trabalho permitiu concluir que Cryptosporidium, incluindo espécies zoonóticas, existe com alta prevalência em galinhas criadas em sistema colonial/caipira na região estudada.

16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 26(4): 472-478, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185602

RESUMO

Rearing free-range chicken is based on grazing feeding patterns, and these animals could be potential environmental contaminants of Cryptosporidium oocysts for humans and other animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the molecular prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in free-range chickens from Brazil. A total of 351 fecal samples from chickens were examined from 20 farms. For detection of Cryptosporidium spp., 18S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using a nested PCR reaction. Positive samples were sent for sequencing. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 25.6% (95% CI = 21.2% - 30.6%). Sequencing of the amplified fragments allowed for the identification of three species: C. meleagridis in 57 (62.6%), C. baileyi in 15 (16.4%), C. parvum in 3 (3.2%) samples, and a new Cryptosporidium genotype (C. genotype BrPR1) in 3 (3.2%) samples. Cryptosporidium genotype BrPR1 has not yet been classified as a species, and its host spectrum is not known. Cryptosporidium, including zoonotic species, exists at a high prevalence in free-range chickens within the region studied.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Prevalência
17.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180906, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732033

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T. gondii infection as their owners. Thus, epidemiological assessment of the intra-domiciled environment, especially among socio-economically different human populations, may provide novel information regarding the actual role of dogs in animal and human toxoplasmosis. Despite spatial approaches being recently used for other water and foodborne diseases, no study has been conducted on the simultaneous spatial seroprevalence of both human and animal IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in urban areas of major cities. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to assess the seroprevalence and associated variables of Toxoplasma infection in owners and their domiciled dogs in Londrina, southern Brazil. Human and canine seroprevalence rates and variables associated with seroprevalence were investigated through representative random sampling among 564 households, which included 597 owners and 729 dogs. Overall, statistically significant differences between the seroprevalence of human and dog anti-T. gondii antibodies were found by Immunofluorescence Antibody Testing in 248/597 (41.54%) owners and 119/729 (16.32%) dogs. Through multiple analysis, significant concomitant variables for seropositivity of household individuals (people and dogs) were determined, including public sewer service, yard cleaning frequency, and having a dirty yard. Although no statistically significant multiple logistic model was observed among owners, univariate analysis detected associations with monthly income, soil contact, and occupation. Among dogs, the absence of other dogs and the absence of a dirty yard were concomitant significantly protective associated factors. Age differences between seropositive and seronegative individuals was significant only for human beings, with the median age of negative individuals significantly higher than positive individuals. Although no spatial clusters were identified for humans or residences, a significant cluster was identified for dogs. In conclusion, characteristics of urban toxoplasmosis may include significantly higher owner seroprevalence than their owned dogs, with canine seroprevalence directly associated with having more dogs and a dirty backyard, and spatial differences in both human and dog exposures. Although not a good indicator for human foodborne diseases, dogs may be a reliable sentinel for environmental infection. Moreover, such a holistic approach may provide crucial information for more focused prevention and monitoring programs, particularly in households with multiple pets and trash-filled backyards.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Brasil , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Animais de Estimação/sangue , Animais de Estimação/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175311, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28403147

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to verify the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in animal feces and drinking water on dairy farms and to identify a possible relation between the exposure factors and the presence of these parasites. Fecal samples from cattle and humans and water samples were collected on dairy farms in Paraná, Brazil. Analysis of (oo)cysts in the feces was performed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining and centrifugal flotation in zinc sulfate. Test-positive samples were subjected to nested PCR amplification of the 18SSU ribosomal RNA gene for identification of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and of the gp60 gene for subtyping of Cryptosporidium. Microbiological analysis of water was carried out by the multiple-tube method and by means of a chromogenic substrate, and parasitological analysis was performed on 31 samples by direct immunofluorescence and nested PCR of the genes mentioned above. Identification of the species of Cryptosporidium was performed by sequencing and PCR with analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was higher in calves than in adults. Among the samples of cattle feces, Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in 41 (64%), C. ryanae in eight (12.5%), C. bovis in four (6.3%), C. andersoni in five (7.8%), and a mixed infection in 20 samples (31.3%). These parasites were not identified in the samples of human feces. Thermotolerant coliform bacteria were identified in 25 samples of water (45.5%). Giardia duodenalis and C. parvum were identified in three water samples. The gp60 gene analysis of C. parvum isolates revealed the presence of two strains (IIaA20G1R1 and IIaA17G2R2) in the fecal samples and one (IIaA17G2R1) in the water samples. The presence of coliforms was associated with the water source, structure and degradation of springs, rain, and turbidity. The prevalence of protozoa was higher in calves up to six months of age. C. parvum and G. duodenalis were identified in the water of dairy farms, as were thermotolerant coliforms; these findings point to the need for guidance on handling of animals, preservation of water sources, and water treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Água Potável/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/transmissão , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Fazendas , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/parasitologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27074322

RESUMO

The role of rodents in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. One hundred and eighty-one Rattus rattus and one Mus musculus were caught in 37 places. Blood and tissues were collected and submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the bioassay. Serum samples from 61 contacting dogs were also collected. Sixteen rats (8.8%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, but just two of them were positive by serology and bioassay test. Antibodies were found in nine (4.9%) rats. Tissues of nine rats bioassayed were positive and four isolates were obtained. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed using 12 markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG2-alt, C22-8, C29-2, L358, PK1, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, Apico, CS3). Genotyping revealed that the four strains isolated from this study have been isolated before in cats and chickens from Brazil. None of the isolates was identified like clonal archetypal T-types I, II, and III. The rats presented lower serologic Toxoplasma gondii prevalence (8.8%) compared to contacting dogs (70.5%).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Genótipo , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(3): 303-308, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-761129

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR) and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. em um sistema público de tratamento de água. Amostras de água bruta e tratada foram coletadas e concentradas, utilizando-se a técnica de filtração em membranas. Foi realizada a técnica de Imunofluorescência Direta nas amostras. A extração de DNA foi realizada, utilizando-se um kit comercial, e o DNA extraído foi submetido a uma reação de nested-PCR (n-PCR). Na imunofluorescência, 2/24 (8,33%) amostras de água bruta foram positivas para Giardiaspp.. Na n-PCR, 2/24 (8,33%) amostras de água bruta foram positivas para Giardia spp., e 2/24 (8,33%) amostras foram positivas para Cryptosporidium spp.. O sequenciamento demonstrou DNA de Cryptosporidium parvum e de Giardia duodenalis. Na água bruta, houve correlação moderada entre turbidez, cor e Cryptosporidium spp. e entre a turbidez e Giardia spp.. A presença desses protozoários na água indica a necessidade de monitoramento pelas empresas de tratamento de água.

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