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6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(5): 729-730, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484512
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(6): 643-651, nov.- dez. 2018. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-979982

RESUMO

Sepsis remains the leading cause of mortality and critical illness worldwide. Myocardial dysfunction is one of the most clinically relevant manifestations of sepsis and results from a complex interaction among genetic, molecular, metabolic, and structural changes. Despite the prominence given to the occurrence of systolic dysfunction during sepsis, the association between diastolic dysfunction and mortality is controversial, while diastolic dysfunction and right ventricular dysfunction are identified as independent predictors of mortality in the most recent studies. Elevation of biomarkers during sepsis may result from several mechanisms, and although the role of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal portion of its prohormone (NT-proBNP) as independent predictors of mortality is well defined, the same cannot be said about cardiac troponins due to conflicting results among currently available studies. The objective of the present review is to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial dysfunction induced by sepsis in adults and the role of echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers as tools for prognostic evaluation in this clinical setting


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Biomarcadores , Sepse/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Canais de Cálcio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Adulto
9.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(6): 577-584, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226917

RESUMO

Pulmonary congestion is an important clinical finding in patients with heart failure (HF). Physical examination and chest X-ray have limited accuracy in detecting congestion. Pulmonary ultrasound (PU) has been incorporated into clinical practice in the evaluation of pulmonary congestion. This paper aimed to perform a systematic review of the use of PU in patients with HF, in different scenarios. A search was performed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases in February 2017 involving articles published between 2006 and 2016. We found 26 articles in the present review, 11 of which in the emergency setting and 7 in the outpatient setting, with diagnostic and prognosis defined value and poorly studied therapeutic value. PU increased accuracy by 90% as compared to physical examination and chest X-ray for the diagnosis of congestion, being more sensitive and precocious. The skill of the PU performer did not interfere with diagnostic accuracy. The presence of B-lines ≥ 15 correlated with high BNP values (≥ 500) and E/e' ratio ≥ 15, with prognostic impact in IC patients at hospital discharge and those followed up on an outpatient basis. In conclusion, when assessing pulmonary congestion in HF, PU has an incremental value in the diagnostic and prognostic approach in all scenarios studied.

10.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(2): 205-212, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183988

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed tumor in women worldwide, with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Chemotherapy and hormone therapy have significantly reduced mortality; however, the adverse effects are significant. Aspirin has been incorporated into clinical practice for over 100 years at a low cost, making it particularly attractive as a potential agent in breast cancer prevention and as an adjunct treatment to endocrine therapy in the prophylaxis of cardiovascular complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of aspirin in reducing the incidence of breast cancer and to evaluate the impact of its use on morbidity and mortality and reduction of cardiovascular events as adjuvant therapy during breast cancer treatment with selective estrogen receptor modulators. A systematic review was performed using the PRISMA methodology and PICO criteria, based on the MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. The original articles of clinical trials, cohort, case-control studies and meta-analyses published from January 1998 to June 2017, were considered. Most studies showed an association between the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators and the increase in thromboembolic events. The studies suggest a protective effect of aspirin for cardiovascular events during its concomitant use with selective estrogen receptor modulators and in the prevention of breast cancer. This systematic review suggests that aspirin therapy combines the benefit of protection against cardiovascular events with the potential reduction in breast cancer risk, and that the evaluation of the benefits of the interaction of endocrine therapy with aspirin should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(2): 205-212, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950222

RESUMO

Abstract Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed tumor in women worldwide, with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Chemotherapy and hormone therapy have significantly reduced mortality; however, the adverse effects are significant. Aspirin has been incorporated into clinical practice for over 100 years at a low cost, making it particularly attractive as a potential agent in breast cancer prevention and as an adjunct treatment to endocrine therapy in the prophylaxis of cardiovascular complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of aspirin in reducing the incidence of breast cancer and to evaluate the impact of its use on morbidity and mortality and reduction of cardiovascular events as adjuvant therapy during breast cancer treatment with selective estrogen receptor modulators. A systematic review was performed using the PRISMA methodology and PICO criteria, based on the MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. The original articles of clinical trials, cohort, case-control studies and meta-analyses published from January 1998 to June 2017, were considered. Most studies showed an association between the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators and the increase in thromboembolic events. The studies suggest a protective effect of aspirin for cardiovascular events during its concomitant use with selective estrogen receptor modulators and in the prevention of breast cancer. This systematic review suggests that aspirin therapy combines the benefit of protection against cardiovascular events with the potential reduction in breast cancer risk, and that the evaluation of the benefits of the interaction of endocrine therapy with aspirin should be further investigated.


Resumo O câncer de mama é o tumor mais frequentemente diagnosticado em mulheres de todo o mundo, com impacto importante na morbimortalidade. A quimioterapia e a terapia hormonal reduziram significativamente a mortalidade, mas os efeitos adversos são consideráveis. A aspirina está incorporada à prática clínica há mais de 100 anos, com baixo custo, tornando-a particularmente atraente como potencial agente na prevenção do câncer de mama e auxiliar durante o tratamento endócrino, na profilaxia de complicações cardiovasculares. Objetivou-se avaliar o papel da aspirina na redução da incidência do câncer de mama e avaliar o impacto de seu uso na morbimortalidade e na redução de eventos cardiovasculares como terapia adjuvante durante o tratamento do câncer de mama com moduladores seletivos do receptor do estrogênio. Procedeu-se à revisão sistemática utilizando-se a metodologia PRISMA e os critérios PICO, nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE e LILACS. Foram considerados os artigos originais do tipo ensaio clínico, coorte, caso-controle e metanálises, publicados no período de janeiro de 1998 até junho de 2017. Na maioria dos estudos, houve relação entre o uso dos moduladores seletivos do receptor do estrogênio e o aumento de eventos tromboembólicos. Os estudos sugerem efeito protetor da aspirina para eventos cardiovasculares em uso concomitante aos moduladores seletivos do receptor do estrogênio e na prevenção do câncer de mama. Esta revisão sistemática sugere que o tratamento com aspirina combina o benefício da proteção contra eventos cardiovasculares com a potencial redução do risco de câncer de mama, e que a avaliação dos benefícios da interação da terapia endócrina com a aspirina deve ser melhor investigada.

12.
J Bras Pneumol ; 44(3): 195-201, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two cognitive behavioral therapy-based smoking cessation interventions initiated during hospitalization and to evaluate the factors related to relapse after discharge. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized study involving 90 smokers hospitalized in a university hospital. We collected data related to sociodemographic characteristics, reasons for admission, smoking-related diseases, smoking history, the degree of nicotine dependence (ND), and the level of craving. Patients were divided into two treatment groups: brief intervention (BrInter, n = 45); and intensive intervention with presentation of an educational video (InInterV, n=45). To assess relapse, all patients were assessed by telephone interview in the first, third, and sixth months after discharge. Abstinence was confirmed by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO). RESULTS: Of the 90 patients evaluated, 55 (61.1%) were male. The mean age was 51.1 ± 12.2 years. The degree of ND was elevated in 39 (43.4%), and withdrawal symptoms were present in 53 (58.9%). The mean eCO at baseline was 4.8 ± 4.5 ppm. The eCO correlated positively with the degree of ND (r = 0.244; p = 0.02) and negatively with the number of smoke-free days (r = -0.284; p = 0.006). There were no differences between the groups in terms of the variables related to socioeconomic status, smoking history, or hospitalization. Of the 81 patients evaluated at 6 months, 33 (40.7%) remained abstinent (9 and 24 BrInter and InInterV group patients, respectively; p = 0.001), and 48 (59.3%) had relapsed (31 and 17 BrInter and InInterV group patients, respectively; p= 0.001). Moderate or intense craving was a significant independent risk factor for relapse, with a relative risk of 4.0 (95% CI: 1.5-10.7; p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of an educational video proved effective in reducing relapse rates. Craving is a significant risk factor for relapse.

13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(6): 577-584, June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950170

RESUMO

Abstract Pulmonary congestion is an important clinical finding in patients with heart failure (HF). Physical examination and chest X-ray have limited accuracy in detecting congestion. Pulmonary ultrasound (PU) has been incorporated into clinical practice in the evaluation of pulmonary congestion. This paper aimed to perform a systematic review of the use of PU in patients with HF, in different scenarios. A search was performed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases in February 2017 involving articles published between 2006 and 2016. We found 26 articles in the present review, 11 of which in the emergency setting and 7 in the outpatient setting, with diagnostic and prognosis defined value and poorly studied therapeutic value. PU increased accuracy by 90% as compared to physical examination and chest X-ray for the diagnosis of congestion, being more sensitive and precocious. The skill of the PU performer did not interfere with diagnostic accuracy. The presence of B-lines ≥ 15 correlated with high BNP values (≥ 500) and E/e' ratio ≥ 15, with prognostic impact in IC patients at hospital discharge and those followed up on an outpatient basis. In conclusion, when assessing pulmonary congestion in HF, PU has an incremental value in the diagnostic and prognostic approach in all scenarios studied.


Resumo A congestão pulmonar é um achado clínico importante em paciente com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). Exame físico e radiografia do tórax têm acurácia limitada na detecção da congestão. A ultrassonografia pulmonar (UP) vem sendo incorporada à prática clínica na avaliação da congestão pulmonar. Este artigo teve como objetivo realizar revisão sistemática sobre a utilização da UP em pacientes com IC, nos diferentes cenários. Foi realizada uma pesquisa nas bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS no mês de fevereiro de 2017 envolvendo artigos publicados entre 2006 e 2016. Foram encontrados 26 artigos na presente revisão, 11 deles no cenário da emergência e 7 em cenário ambulatorial, com valor diagnóstico e prognóstico definido e valor terapêutico pouco estudado. A UP aumentou a acurácia em 90% em relação ao exame físico e à radiografia do tórax para o diagnóstico da congestão, sendo mais sensível e precoce. A qualificação do executor da UP não interferiu na acurácia diagnóstica. O achado de linhas B ≥ 15 teve correlação com BNP elevado (≥ 500) e relação E/e' ≥ 15, com impacto prognóstico em pacientes com IC ambulatoriais e na alta hospitalar. Conclui-se que, na avaliação da congestão pulmonar na IC, a UP tem valor incremental na abordagem diagnóstica e prognóstica em todos os cenários encontrados.

14.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 37(6): 539.e1-539.e2, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753564

RESUMO

Patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) are mostly asymptomatic and TAA is rarely related to heart failure (HF). We report the case of an 80-year-old female patient, with type A TAA without dissection, with right pulmonary artery and left atrium compression, who presented with HF, preserved ejection fraction and acute pulmonary edema.

16.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(3): 195-201, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954559

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two cognitive behavioral therapy-based smoking cessation interventions initiated during hospitalization and to evaluate the factors related to relapse after discharge. Methods: This was a prospective randomized study involving 90 smokers hospitalized in a university hospital. We collected data related to sociodemographic characteristics, reasons for admission, smoking-related diseases, smoking history, the degree of nicotine dependence (ND), and the level of craving. Patients were divided into two treatment groups: brief intervention (BrInter, n = 45); and intensive intervention with presentation of an educational video (InInterV, n=45). To assess relapse, all patients were assessed by telephone interview in the first, third, and sixth months after discharge. Abstinence was confirmed by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO). Results: Of the 90 patients evaluated, 55 (61.1%) were male. The mean age was 51.1 ± 12.2 years. The degree of ND was elevated in 39 (43.4%), and withdrawal symptoms were present in 53 (58.9%). The mean eCO at baseline was 4.8 ± 4.5 ppm. The eCO correlated positively with the degree of ND (r = 0.244; p = 0.02) and negatively with the number of smoke-free days (r = −0.284; p = 0.006). There were no differences between the groups in terms of the variables related to socioeconomic status, smoking history, or hospitalization. Of the 81 patients evaluated at 6 months, 33 (40.7%) remained abstinent (9 and 24 BrInter and InInterV group patients, respectively; p = 0.001), and 48 (59.3%) had relapsed (31 and 17 BrInter and InInterV group patients, respectively; p= 0.001). Moderate or intense craving was a significant independent risk factor for relapse, with a relative risk of 4.0 (95% CI: 1.5-10.7; p < 0.00001). Conclusions: The inclusion of an educational video proved effective in reducing relapse rates. Craving is a significant risk factor for relapse.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia de duas intervenções de cessação de tabagismo baseadas na terapia cognitivo-comportamental em pacientes internados e avaliar os fatores relacionados à recaída após a alta hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, com 90 tabagistas internados em um hospital universitário. Foram coletados dados relacionados a características sociodemográficas, motivo da internação, doenças relacionadas ao tabagismo, carga tabágica, grau de dependência de nicotina (DN) e grau de fissura. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos de tratamento: intervenção breve (InB; n = 45) e intervenção intensiva com apresentação de um vídeo educativo (InIV; n = 45). Para avaliar recaídas, todos os pacientes foram entrevistados por contato telefônico no primeiro, terceiro e sexto mês após a alta. A abstinência foi confirmada pela medida de monóxido de carbono no ar expirado (COex). Resultados: Dos 90 pacientes avaliados, 55 (61,1%) eram homens. A média de idade foi de 51,1 ± 12,2 anos. O grau de DN foi elevado em 39 (43,4%), e sintomas de abstinência estavam presentes em 53 (58,9%). A média de COex inicial foi de 4,8 ± 4,5 ppm. O COex se correlacionou positivamente com o grau de DN (r = 0,244; p = 0,02) e negativamente com o número de dias sem fumar (r = −0,284; p = 0,006). Não houve diferenças entre os grupos quanto a variáveis relacionadas com nível socioeconômico, carga tabágica ou internação. Dos 81 pacientes avaliados após 6 meses de segmento, 33 (40,7%) continuaram abstinentes (9 e 24 nos grupos InB e InIV, respectivamente; p = 0,001) e 48 (59,3%) recaíram (31 e 17 nos grupos InB e InIV, respectivamente; p = 0,001). O grau de fissura (moderado ou intenso) foi um fator de risco independente significativo para a recaída, com um risco relativo de 4,0 (IC95%: 1,5-10,7; p < 0,00001). Conclusões: A inclusão de um vídeo educativo provou ser eficaz na redução das taxas de recaída. O grau de fissura foi um fator de risco significativo para a recaída.

19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(3): 248-252, Sept. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887926

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue with implications on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Objective: To compare HRQL, estimated by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), in patients with and without HF in the community. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 633 consecutive individuals aged 45 years or older, registered in primary care. The subjects were selected from a random sample representative of the population studied. They were divided into two groups: group I, HF patients (n = 59); and group II, patients without HF (n = 574). The HF group was divided into HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF - n = 35) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF - n = 24). Results: Patients without HF had a mean SF-36 score significantly greater than those with HF (499.8 ± 139.1 vs 445.4 ± 123.8; p = 0.008). Functional capacity - ability and difficulty to perform common activities of everyday life - was significantly worse (p < 0.0001) in patients with HF independently of sex and age. There was no difference between HFpEF and HFrEF. Conclusion: Patients with HF had low quality of life regardless of the syndrome presentation (HFpEF or HFrEF phenotype). Quality of life evaluation in primary care could help identify patients who would benefit from a proactive care program with more emphasis on multidisciplinary and social support. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Resumo Fundamento: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) é um importante problema de saúde pública, com implicações na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS). Objetivo: Comparar a QVRS, estimada através do Questionário SF-36 (Short-Form Health Survey), em pacientes com e sem IC na comunidade. Métodos: Estudo transversal incluindo 633 indivíduos consecutivos com idade igual ou superior a 45 anos, registrados na atenção primária e selecionados de uma amostra aleatória representativa da população estudada. Foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I, pacientes com IC (n = 59); e grupo II, pacientes sem IC (n = 574). O grupo I foi dividido em pacientes com IC com fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP - n = 35) e pacientes com IC com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFER - n = 24). Resultados: Pacientes sem IC tiveram um escore médio do SF-36 significativamente maior do que aqueles com IC (499,8 ± 139,1 vs 445,4 ± 123,8; p = 0,008). A capacidade funcional - habilidade e dificuldade para realizar atividades comuns da vida diária - foi significativamente pior (p < 0,0001) nos pacientes com IC independentemente de sexo e idade. Não houve diferença entre ICFEP e ICFER. Conclusão: Pacientes com IC mostraram baixa qualidade de vida a despeito da apresentação da síndrome (fenótipo ICFEP ou ICFER). A avaliação da qualidade de vida na atenção primária poderia auxiliar a identificar pacientes que se beneficiariam de um programa de atenção à saúde pró-ativo com maior ênfase em suporte multidisciplinar e social. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(3): 248-252, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue with implications on health-related quality of life (HRQL). OBJECTIVE: To compare HRQL, estimated by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), in patients with and without HF in the community. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 633 consecutive individuals aged 45 years or older, registered in primary care. The subjects were selected from a random sample representative of the population studied. They were divided into two groups: group I, HF patients (n = 59); and group II, patients without HF (n = 574). The HF group was divided into HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF - n = 35) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF - n = 24). RESULTS: Patients without HF had a mean SF-36 score significantly greater than those with HF (499.8 ± 139.1 vs 445.4 ± 123.8; p = 0.008). Functional capacity - ability and difficulty to perform common activities of everyday life - was significantly worse (p < 0.0001) in patients with HF independently of sex and age. There was no difference between HFpEF and HFrEF. CONCLUSION: Patients with HF had low quality of life regardless of the syndrome presentation (HFpEF or HFrEF phenotype). Quality of life evaluation in primary care could help identify patients who would benefit from a proactive care program with more emphasis on multidisciplinary and social support. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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