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Cureus ; 10(5): e2563, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974018


Background Teaching during patient care is an important competency for faculty. Little is known about anesthesiology resident preferences for teaching by anesthesiology faculty in the operating room (OR). If the behaviors and characteristics of anesthesia teaching in the OR that are most valued by residents were identified, faculty could incorporate that best practice to teach residents during OR cases. The objective of this phenomenological study was to interview anesthesiology residents to determine what they perceive the best faculty teachers are doing in the OR to educate residents. Methods Thirty randomly selected anesthesiology residents (10 in each post-graduate year class) were interviewed using a semi-structured approach with a predetermined question: "Based on your experiences as a resident, when you think about the best-attending teachers in the OR, what are the best-attending teachers doing in the OR to teach that other faculty maybe are not doing?" Interviews were recorded, transcribed, converted into codes, and grouped into themes derived from the cognitive apprenticeship framework, which includes content, teaching methods, sequencing, and social characteristics. Results Resident responses were separated into a total of 134 answers, with similar answers grouped into one of 27 different codes. The most commonly mentioned codes were: autonomy - step back and let resident work through (mentioned by 13 residents), reasoning - explain why attending does things (12), context - teach something relevant to the case (8), commitment - take time to teach (8), literature - bring relevant papers (8), prior knowledge - assess the baseline level (7), flexibility - be open to trying different approaches (7), focus on just a few learning points (6), reflection - ask resident questions (6), provide real-time feedback (6), teach back - ask residents to explain what they were taught in their own words (5), belonging - facilitate communication with the OR team (5), psychological safety - be open and approachable (5), equanimity - stay calm and collected (5), select proper timing for instruction when the resident is not occupied with patient care (5), visualization - use graphs or diagrams (5), and specify learning goals ahead of time (5). Conclusion The best practice for OR teaching, as perceived by anesthesia residents, includes social characteristics, such as context, commitment, psychological safety, equanimity, and proper timing, as well as teaching methods, such as autonomy, reasoning, literature, prior knowledge, flexibility, reflection, real-time feedback, and teach back. Further studies can determine if training anesthesiology faculty to incorporate these elements increases the caliber of daily teaching in the OR.

A A Pract ; 11(7): 193-197, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688921


The goal of this study was to use the American Board of Anesthesiology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) content outline as a blueprint to develop and administer a 9-station mock OSCE with station-specific checklists to senior residents (n = 14). The G- and Ф-coefficient reliability estimates were 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. Residents judged the scenarios as either extremely or somewhat realistic (88%). It is feasible to develop and administer a mock OSCE with rigorous psychometric characteristics.

Anestesiologia/educação , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Anestesiologia/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Internato e Residência , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
Adv Simul (Lond) ; 1: 29, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449998


We submit that interaction patterns within healthcare teams should be more comprehensively explored during debriefings in simulation-based training because of their importance for clinical performance. We describe how circular questions can be used for that purpose. Circular questions are based on social constructivism. They include a variety of systemic interviewing methods. The goals of circular questions are to explore the mutual dependency of team members' behavior and recurrent behavior patterns, to generate information, to foster perspective taking, to "fluidize" problems, and to put actions into relational contexts. We describe the nature of circular questions, the benefits they offer, and ways of applying them during debriefings.

Simul Healthc ; 10(3): 178-87, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25932706


INTRODUCTION: Assessment in simulation is gaining importance, as are scenario design methods increasing opportunity for assessment. We present our approach to improving measurement in complex scenarios using PARTS [Phase-Augmented Research and Training Scenarios], essentially separating cases into clearly delineated phases. METHODS: We created 7 PARTS with real-time rating instruments and tested these in 63 cases during 4 weeks of simulation. Reliability was tested by comparing real-time rating with postsimulation video-based rating using the same instrument. Validity was tested by comparing preintervention and postintervention total results, by examining the difference in improvement when focusing on the phase-specific results addressed by the intervention, and further explored by trying to demonstrate the discrete improvement expected from proficiency in the rare occurrence of leader inclusive behavior. RESULTS: Intraclass correlations [3,1] between real-time and postsimulation ratings were 0.951 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.794-0.990), 1.00 (95% CI, --to--), 0.948 (95% CI, 0.783-0.989), and 0.995 (95% CI, 0.977-0.999) for 3 phase-specific scores and total scenario score, respectively. Paired t tests of prelecture-postlecture performance showed an improvement of 14.26% (bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap [BCa] 95% CI, 4.71-23.82; P = 0.009) for total performance but of 28.57% (BCa 95% CI, 13.84-43.30; P = 0.002) for performance in the respective phase. The correlation of total scenario performance with leader inclusiveness was not significant (rs = 0.228; BCa 95% CI. -0.082 to 0.520; P = 0.119) but significant for specific phase performance (rs = 0.392; BCa 95% CI, 0.118-0.632; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The PARTS allowed for improved reliability and validity of measurements in complex scenarios.

Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Treinamento por Simulação/normas
J Clin Microbiol ; 42(8): 3813-5, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15297536


A real-time PCR assay targeting the capsulation locus of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was developed. The linear detection range was from 1 to 10(6) microorganisms per reaction mixture. No H. influenzae other than Hib or any other control bacteria typically found in the upper respiratory tract was detected.

Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , Sistemas de Computação , Primers do DNA , Haemophilus influenzae/classificação , Haemophilus influenzae/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sorotipagem