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1.
Immunotherapy ; 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784782

RESUMO

Background: Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. Methods: To provide a real-world experience with anti-PD-1/PD-L1-based therapy in UTUC patients, we involved an Italian network in a multicenter retrospective analysis. Results: A total of 78 UTUC patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 25.1 months. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.2 months (95% CI 1.8-2.6), and the median OS (mOS) was 6.0 months (95% CI 3.6-8.4). The Sonpavde score (including performance status > 0, hemoglobin < 10 g/dl, liver metastases, time from prior chemotherapy ≥ 3 months) split the patients into three groups (0 vs 1 vs 2-4 factors), efficiently predicting the OS and PFS outcome at the multivariate analyses (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of unselected UTUC patients is still unsatisfactory. The Sonpavde score was validated for the first time in an UTUC population, as a useful tool for the treatment decision-making process.

2.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(12): 147, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748099

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic alternatives to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are increasing, and combination therapies, including antiangiogenic agents and tyrosine kinase/mTOR/immune checkpoint inhibitors, are identified as the gold standard driven by the results of recent clinical studies. Nevertheless, the real-world RCC population is very heterogeneous, with categories of patients not represented in the enrolled trial population who may not benefit more from these treatments. The purpose of this expert review is to assess the rationale on which tyrosine kinase alone may still be a viable first-line treatment option for some subgroups of patients with mRCC. RECENT FINDINGS: The first-line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy can still be considered an effective tool for addressing selected mRCCs, as highlighted by the successful outcome in a range of subjects such as favorable-risk patients, the ones suffering from autoimmune diseases, those with pancreatic or lung metastases, or previously undergoing organ transplantation and elderly subjects. Some selected categories of patients may still benefit from monotherapy with TKI, and smart sequential therapies can also be considered instead of a combination strategy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors can also act as immune modulator agents, boosting the immune response to facilitate and potentiate the therapeutic effectiveness of subsequent immunotherapy.

3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 5089-5096, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Distinguishing true oligometastatic disease from early polymetastatic disease is vital in patients with soft tissue sarcoma as contemporary treatment strategies differ significantly. Clinical factors such as tumour biology, organ involved, number of lesions, and patient fitness influence clinical decisions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of a prospective database identified patients with new distant relapse, treated between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: A total of 223 patients were included, and oligometastases were diagnosed in 81 (36%) patients, which were pulmonary in just over half of cases. These were treated with local therapy in 66 of 89 cases, and 7 patients received subsequent treatment for additional oligometastases. Metastasectomy was the most common treatment modality. A total of 16/66 patients (24%) underwent active surveillance for >6 months prior to local therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with oligometastatic disease can experience durable disease control with timely multimodality treatment approaches for evolving metastatic disease, where disease biology allows.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Metastasectomia/mortalidade , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 328, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe immune-related Adverse Events (irAEs) develop in 10-27% of patients treated with Immune-Oncology (IO) [Powles (Lancet 391:748-757, 2018); Galsky (Lancet 395:1547-1557, 2020); Haanen (Ann Oncol 28:119-142, 2017)]. The aim of our study was to evaluate efficacy and clinical outcome of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients who stopped Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) due to early Grade (G) 3-G4 irAEs. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 204 mRCC patients treated with ICIs in 6 Italian referral centers adhering to the Meet-Uro group, between February 2017 and January 2020. To properly weight the results, patients who did not report early G3-G4 toxicities have been included as control group. Primary endpoint was to evaluate 6 months Progression Free Survival (PFS) after early treatment interruption for Grade (G) 3-4 toxicities compared to the control group. Secondary endpoints were to evaluate Time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS) in both groups. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 19.00, SPSS, Chicago). RESULTS: 18/204 (8.8%) patients had early treatment interruption for serious (G3-G4) irAEs. Early was defined as interruption of IO after only one or two administrations. Immune related nephritis and pancreatitis were the most common irAE that lead to treatment interruption. 6/18 patients received IO-IO combination whereas 12/18 patients antiPD1. In the study group, 12/18 (66.6%) were free from progression at 6 months since IO interruption, TTF was 1.6 months (95% CI 1.6-2.1), mPFS was 7.4 months (95% CI 3.16-11.6) and mOS was 15.5 months (5.1-25.8). In the control group 111/184 (60.3%) patients were free from progression at 6 months, TTF was 4.6 months (95% CI 3.5-5.6), mPFS was 4.6 months (95% CI 3.5-5.6) and mOS was 19.6 months (95% CI 15.1-24.0). In the overall population, mPFS was 5.0 months (95% CI 4.0-5.9) and mOS was 19.6 months (95% CI 15.1-24.0). CONCLUSIONS: ICIs seem to maintain efficacy even after early interruption due to severe irAE.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 56-63, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical data suggest that docetaxel and enzalutamide interfere with androgen receptor translocation and signalling. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of their concurrent administration in the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase II trial, previously untreated mCRPC patients were randomised 1:1 to receive eight 21-d courses of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily and oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d (arm DE), or the same treatment without enzalutamide (arm D). The primary end-point was the percentage of patients without investigator-assessed disease progression 6 months after the first docetaxel administration. RESULTS: The 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel, prednisone and enzalutamide (n = 120) or docetaxel and prednisone (n = 126). The 6-month progression rate was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-20.6) in arm DE and 27.8% (95% CI 22.8-39.4) in arm D (chi-squared test 10.01; P = 0.002). The most frequent grade III-IV adverse events were fatigue (12.5% in arm DE versus 5.6% in arm D), febrile neutropenia (9.3% versus 4.0%) and neutropenia (7.6% versus 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of enzalutamide and docetaxel appears to be more clinically beneficial than docetaxel alone in previously untreated mCRPC patients, although serious adverse events were more frequent. Our findings suggest that first-line treatment with this combination could lead to an additional clinical benefit when prompt and prolonged disease control is simultaneously required. Clearly, these results should be considered cautiously because of the study's phase II design and the absence of an overall survival benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2014-000175-43 - NCT02453009.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 682449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168997

RESUMO

Background: Immune-Oncology (IO) improves Overall Survival (OS) in metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic impact of previous Cytoreductive Nephrectomy (CN) and radical nephrectomy (RN), with curative intent, in patients treated with IO is not well defined. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the impact of previous nephrectomy on outcome of mRCC patients treated with IO. Methods: 287 eligible patients were retrospectively collected from 16 Italian referral centers adhering to the MeetUro association. Patients treated with IO as second and third line were included, whereas patients treated with IO as first line were excluded. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were performed to compare Progression Free Survival (PFS) and OS between groups. In our analysis, both CN and RN were included. The association between nephrectomy and other variables was analyzed in univariate and multivariate setting using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: 246/287 (85.7%) patients had nephrectomy before IO treatment. Median PFS in patients who underwent nephrectomy (246/287) was 4.8 months (95%CI 3.9-5.7) vs 3.7 months (95%CI 1.9-5.5) in patients who did not it (HR log rank 0.78; 95%CI 0.53 to 1.15; p = 0.186). Median OS in patients who had previous nephrectomy (246/287) was 20.9 months (95%CI 17.6-24.1) vs 13 months (95%CI 7.7-18.2) in patients who did not it (HR log rank 0.504; 95%CI 0.337 to 0.755; p = 0.001). In the multivariate model, nephrectomy showed a significant association with OS (HR log rank 0.638; 95%CI 0.416 to 0.980), whereas gland metastases were still associated with better outcome in terms of both OS (HR log rank 0.487; 95%CI 0.279 to 0.852) and PFS (HR log rank 0.646; 95%CI 0.435 to 0.958). Conclusions: IO treatment, in patients who had previously undergone nephrectomy, was associated with a better outcome in terms of OS. Further prospective trials would assess this issue in order to guide clinicians in real word practice.

7.
Oncologist ; 26(9): 740-750, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) correlate with adverse prognosis in patients with breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer. Little data are available for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a multicenter prospective observational study to assess the correlation between CTC counts and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic RCC treated with an antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor as a first-line regimen; overall survival (OS) and response were secondary objectives. CTC counts were enumerated by the CellSearch system at four time points: day 0 of treatment, day 28, day 56 and then at progression, or at 12 months in the absence of progression. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-five eligible patients with a median age of 69 years were treated with sunitinib (77.5%) or pazopanib (21%). At baseline, 46.7% of patients had one or more CTCs per milliliter (range, 1 to 263). Thirty patients had at least three CTCs, with a median PFS of 5.8 versus 15 months in the remaining patients (p = .002; hazard ratio [HR], 1.99), independently of the International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium score at multivariate analysis (HR, 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.14). Patients with at least three CTCs had a shorter estimated OS of 13.8 months versus 52.8 months in those with fewer than three CTCs (p = .003; HR, 1.99; multivariate analysis HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 0.95-2.93). Baseline CTC counts did not correlate with response; neither did having CTC sequencing counts greater than or equal to one, two, three, four, or five. CONCLUSION: We provide prospective evidence that the presence of three or more CTCs at baseline is associated with a significantly shorter PFS and OS in patients with metastatic RCC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This prospective study evaluated whether the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood correlates with activity of first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This study demonstrated that almost half of patients with metastatic RCC have at least one CTC in their blood and that those patients with at least three CTCs are at increased risk of early progressive disease and early death due to RCC. Studies incorporating CTC counts in the prognostic algorithms of metastatic RCC are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.

9.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

Background: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. Results: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. Conclusion: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 626104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796462

RESUMO

Androgen Receptor-Targeted Agents (ARTA) have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC), but 20-40% of these patients progress early after start of ARTA treatment. The present study investigated the potential utility of plasma cell-free microRNAs (cfmiRNAs) as prognostic markers by analyzing a prospective cohort of 31 mCRCP patients treated with abiraterone (N = 10) or enzalutamide (N = 21). Additional potential prognostic factors were extracted from clinical records and outcome was evaluated as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). cfmiRNAs were measured in plasma samples using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Linear correlation among clinical factors and cfmiRNAs was assessed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The association with survival was studied using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Continuous variables were dichotomized with the cut points corresponding to the most significant relation with the outcome. Univariate analysis indicated that plasma levels of miR-21-5p, miR-141-3p and miR-223-3p, time to development of castration-resistance (tCRPC), and blood hemoglobin (Hb) levels strongly correlated with both PFS and OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that low plasma levels of miR-21, shorter tCRPC, and lower Hb values were independent factors predicting reduced PFS and OS. These findings suggest that the integrated analysis of cfmiRNAs, tCRPC, and Hb may provide a promising, non-invasive tool for the prognostic stratification of mCRPC patients treated with ARTA.

11.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 160: 103282, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675905

RESUMO

Oncological patients increasingly require second medical opinions to feel more likely confident with their oncologists and treatments, although this could lead to wrong opinions and delay in the start of treatments. Second opinions can be required also by physicians to obtain advices, especially in case of rare tumors. The request of new opinions is documented in radiology and pathology settings too, with not negligible discrepancy rate. Conversely, the role in general medical/surgical conditions has not been well established. Literature is poor of studies relative to second opinions or they are more focused on patient's motivations. For these reasons, AIOM (Italian Association of Medical Oncology) and AIOM Foundation faced this topic during the 7th Annual Meeting on Ethics in Oncology (Ragusa, 4-5 t h May 2018). In this position paper we report reasons, limits, advantages and outcomes of second medical opinion and the respective Decalogue in the oncological setting.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Médicos , Humanos , Itália , Encaminhamento e Consulta
13.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(3): 121-125, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to collect data about of the outcome of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients who progressed after immune checkpoint inhibitors in order to enhance data about efficacy and safety of treatment beyond immune-oncology (IO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 162 eligible patients, progressing to IO, were enrolled from 16 Italian referral centers adhering to the Meet-Uro association. Baseline characteristics, outcome data and toxicities were retrospectively collected. Descriptive analysis was made using median values and ranges. Kaplan-Meier method and Mantel-Haenszel log-rank test were performed to compare differences between groups. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients (68.5%) were treated after IO progression. In all, 51 patients (31.5%) did not receive further treatment for clinical deterioration. Median IO progression free survival (PFS) was 4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.1-4.8). IO-PFS tends to be longer in patients reporting adverse events (AE) of any grade (5.03 [95% CI: 3.8-6.1] vs. 2.99 [95% CI: 2.4-3.5] months P=0.004). Subsequent therapies included cabozantinib (n=79, 48%), everolimus (n=11, 6.7%), and others (n=21, 12.9%).Median PFS post-IO was 6.5 months (95% CI: 5.1-7.8). Cabozantinib showed longer PFS compared with everolimus (7.6 mo [95% CI: 5.2-10.1] vs. 3.2 mo [95% CI: 1.8-4.5]) (hazard ratio: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1026-0.7968) and other drugs (4.3 mo [95% CI: 1.3-7.4]) (hazard ratio: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.35-1.23). All grade AE were reported in 83 patients (74%) and G3 to G4 AE in 39 patients (35%). Target therapies post-IO showed median overall survival of 14.7 months (95% CI: 0.3-21.4). CONCLUSIONS: In our real world experience after progression to IO, vascular endotelial groth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, given to patients, proved to be active and safe choices. Cabozantinib was associated with a better outcome in terms of median PFS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Minerva Urol Nefrol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study analyzes patient health-related quality of life (QoL) 24-month after prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis within the PROState cancer monitoring in ITaly from the National Research Council (Pros-IT CNR) study. METHODS: Pros-IT CNR is an ongoing, longitudinal and observational study, considering a convenience sample of patients enrolled at PCa diagnosis and followed at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months from the diagnosis. Patients were grouped according to the treatment received: nerve sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP), non-nerve sparing radical prostatectomy (NNSRP), radiotherapy (RT), radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation (RT plus ADT) and active surveillance (AS). QoL was measured through the Italian versions of SF-12 and UCLA-PCI questionnaires at diagnosis and at 6-12 and 24-month. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was defined as half a standard deviation of the baseline domain. RESULTS: Overall, 1 537 patients were included in the study. The decline in urinary function exceeded the MCID at each timepoint only in the NSRP and NNSRP groups (at 24 months -14.7, p<0.001 and - 19.7, p<0.001, respectively). The decline in bowel function exceeded the MCID only in the RT (-9.1, p=0.02) and RT plus ADT groups at 12 months (-10.3, p=0.001); after 24 months, most patients seem to recover their bowel complaints. The decline in sexual function exceeded the MCID at each timepoint in the NNSRP, NSRP and RT plus ADT groups (at 6 months -28.7, p<0.001, -37.8, p<0.001, -20.4, p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although all the treatments were relatively well-tolerated over the 24 month period following PCa diagnosis, each had a different impact on QoL.

15.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 12(2): 290-297, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is poor data on the prognostic role of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) in older patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with first line Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of mRCC patients older than 70 years treated at our Institute with first-line Sunitinib or Pazopanib for at least 6 months. Every patient received a CGA at baseline and was identified as fit, vulnerable or frail according to Balducci's Criteria. We then assessed the impact of CGA category on survival, disease control and tolerability of TKIs. RESULTS: We identified 86 eligible patients. Median age: 74.5 years, 56% males; 45.4% were fit, 37.2% vulnerable and 17.4% frail at CGA. There were no significant differences in the rate of Grade (G)1-2 and G3-4 toxicities, dose reduction rates, PFS and OS between Sunitinib and Pazopanib. Fit, vulnerable and frail patients achieved significantly different median PFS (18.9 vs 11.2 vs 5.1 months; p < 0.001) and OS (35.5 vs 14.6 vs 10.9 months; p < 0.001). Patients categorized as fit had higher chance of receiving a second-line treatment (66.6% vs 28.9% in vulnerable/frail; p = 0.002). The incidence of G3/4 events was significantly lower in the fit subgroup (19% vs 45% in vulnerable/frail; p = 0.0025). CONCLUSIONS: In our retrospective single-center experience, CGA could accurately discriminate patients with higher risk of experiencing G3/4 toxicities, shorter PFS, and lower chance of receiving a second line treatment. CGA strongly impacted on OS, independently from International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) classification.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Indazóis , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Prognóstico , Pirimidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Anticancer Drugs ; 32(2): 222-225, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868643

RESUMO

In the past few years, the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) nivolumab has become standard of care in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) progressing after antiangiogenic agents. To date, neither expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) nor any other biomarker can be used to predict responses to ICIs, although intermediate-poor International Metastatic Database of Renal Carcinoma (IMDC) risk patients and those with sarcomatoid tumors appear to achieve superior benefit from immunotherapy. Paradoxically, ICIs may sometimes increase the speed of tumor growth. This rare phenomenon, called hyperprogression, has first been described in patients with melanoma and lung cancer treated with ICIs and is associated with poor survival. Here, we present the case of a patient affected by an intermediate IMDC risk mRCC with diffuse sarcomatoid features who achieved long disease control with first-line sunitinib and then started a second-line treatment with nivolumab. Unexpectedly, he experienced a dramatic acceleration of tumor growth and died soon after the third infusion of nivolumab. Then, we review the frequency of hyperprogression in mRCC and discuss the biological peculiarity of sarcomatoid RCC in terms of different responses to ICIs and antiangiogenic agents.

17.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224275

RESUMO

Background: This prospective, multicentre, observational INVIDIa-2 study is investigating the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination in advanced-cancer patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), enrolled in 82 Italian centres, from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until 30 April 2020. All the ILI episodes, laboratory tests, complications, hospitalizations and pneumonitis were recorded. Therefore, the study prospectively recorded all the COVID-19 ILI events. Patients and methods: Patients were included in this non-prespecified COVID-19 analysis, if alive on 31 January 2020, when the Italian government declared the national emergency. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was detected as ILI episode with laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2. Cases with clinical-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 (COVID-like ILIs), were also reported. Results: Out of 1257 enrolled patients, 955 matched the inclusion criteria for this unplanned analysis. From 31 January to 30 April 2020, 66 patients had ILI: 9 of 955 cases were confirmed COVID-19 ILIs, with prevalence of 0.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3-2.4], a hospitalization rate of 100% and a mortality rate of 77.8%. Including 5 COVID-like ILIs, the overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5-3.1), with 100% hospitalization and 64% mortality. The presence of elderly, males and comorbidities was significantly higher among patients vaccinated against influenza versus unvaccinated (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.2% for vaccinated (six of 482 cases, all confirmed) and 1.7% for unvaccinated (8 of 473, 3 confirmed COVID-19 and 5 COVID-like), p = 0.52. The difference remained non-significant, considering confirmed COVID-19 only (p = 0.33). Conclusion: COVID-19 has a meaningful clinical impact on the cancer-patient population receiving ICIs, with high prevalence, hospitalization and an alarming mortality rate among symptomatic cases. Influenza vaccination does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

18.
Eur J Cancer ; 140: 140-146, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of complicated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but it is still unclear if the risk of mortality is influenced by cancer type or ongoing anti-cancer treatments. An interesting debate concerning the potential relationship between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been opened in the case of prostate cancer (PC), and the aim of this multi-centre cohort study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostrate cancer (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients with mCRPC who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and recorded their baseline clinical characteristics, their history of PC and SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their oncological status and treatment at the time of infection. The primary study end point was the death rate and the possible impact of the patients' PC-related history and treatments on mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-four of the 1433 patients with mCRPC attending the participating centres (2.3%) developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 22 (64.7%) of whom were hospitalised. Most of the patients were symptomatic, the most frequent symptoms being fever (70.6%), dyspnoea (61.8%), cough (52.9%) and fatigue (38.2%). After a median follow-up of 21 days (interquartile range: 13-41), 13 patients had died (38.2%), 17 recovered (50.0%) and four (11.7%) were still infected. The number of treatments previously administered for mCRPC had a significant impact on mortality (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute additional data to the current debate concerning the postulated protective role of ADT, which seems to be less in patients with metastatic PC.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Ósseas/virologia , COVID-19 , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Oncologist ; 25(10): e1509-e1515, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a public health emergency affecting frail populations, including patients with cancer. This poses the question of whether cancer treatments can be postponed or modified without compromising their efficacy, especially for highly curable cancers such as germ cell tumors (GCTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To depict the state-of-the-art management of GCTs during the COVID-19 pandemic, a survey including 26 questions was circulated by e-mail among the physicians belonging to three cooperative groups: (a) Italian Germ Cell Cancer Group; (b) European Reference Network-Rare Adult Solid Cancers, Domain G3 (rare male genitourinary cancers); and (c) Genitourinary Medical Oncologists of Canada. Percentages of agreement between Italian respondents (I) versus Canadian respondents (C), I versus European respondents (E), and E versus C were compared by using Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous answers and chi square test for trends for the questions with three or more options. RESULTS: Fifty-three GCT experts responded to the survey: 20 Italian, 6 in other European countries, and 27 from Canada. Telemedicine was broadly used; there was high consensus to interrupt chemotherapy in COVID-19-positive patients (I = 75%, C = 55%, and E = 83.3%) and for use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor primary prophylaxis for neutropenia (I = 65%, C = 62.9%, and E = 50%). The main differences emerged regarding the management of stage I and stage IIA disease, likely because of cultural and geographical differences. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the common efforts of GCT experts in Europe and Canada to maintain high standards of treatment for patients with GCT with few changes in their management during the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Despite the chaos, disruptions, and fears fomented by the COVID-19 illness, oncology care teams in Italy, other European countries, and Canada are delivering the enormous promise of curative management strategies for patients with testicular cancer and other germ cell tumors. At the same time, these teams are applying safe and innovative solutions and sharing best practices to minimize frequency and intensity of patient contacts with thinly stretched health care capacity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Canadá/epidemiologia , Institutos de Câncer/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/tendências
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