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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 350-362, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The influence of childhood trauma on the treatment outcomes of pharmacological and/or psychological interventions for adolescents and adults with bipolar disorder was systematically reviewed. METHODS: Randomised and non-randomised studies of interventions for bipolar disorder that included an assessment of childhood trauma were eligible. MEDLINE Complete, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Two independent reviewers completed the screening and extraction process. Two independent reviewers assessed the risk of bias in the included studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Alongside a narrative synthesis, random-effects meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: Twelve studies (1175 participants) were included. The narrative review highlighted differential treatment outcomes among individuals with a history of childhood trauma. The meta-analyses suggested that childhood trauma was unrelated to treatment response (five studies, 426 participants; odds ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.27-1.25, p = .164) but may be associated with greater improvement in global functioning (three studies, 210 participants; Hedge's g 0.65, 95% CI 0.04-1.26, p = .037). LIMITATIONS: The impact of childhood trauma on the effectiveness of specific pharmacological/psychological interventions could not be explored due to the small body of research identified. CONCLUSION: The overall quality of the extant evidence is low, which precludes definitive comment on the role of childhood trauma in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Additional research that uses large and representative samples is required to ascertain whether a history of childhood trauma affects the treatment outcomes of interventions for individuals with bipolar disorder.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 767975, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764875

RESUMO

An increasing body of evidence highlights the strong potential for a diet rich in fruit and vegetables to delay, and often prevent, the onset of chronic diseases, including cardiometabolic, neurological, and musculoskeletal conditions, and certain cancers. A possible protective component, glucosinolates, which are phytochemicals found almost exclusively in cruciferous vegetables, have been identified from preclinical and clinical studies. Current research suggests that glucosinolates (and isothiocyanates) act via several mechanisms, ultimately exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and chemo-protective effects. This review summarizes the current knowledge surrounding cruciferous vegetables and their glucosinolates in relation to the specified health conditions. Although there is evidence that consumption of a high glucosinolate diet is linked with reduced incidence of chronic diseases, future large-scale placebo-controlled human trials including standardized glucosinolate supplements are needed.

5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 483-493, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768070

RESUMO

Depression is a disabling, highly prevalent, frequently chronic, and difficult-to-treat disorder with an immense cognitive, social, and economic burden. Given that many of the advances in other non-communicable disorders like cancer have been in prevention rather than treatment, the prevention of depression is currently an unmet public health priority. We sought to provide an overview of the meta-analytic literature through conducting a systematic umbrella review of universally delivered preventive interventions for depression. The search was conducted on March 18, 2021 utilising the following databases (all accessed through EBSCOHost); Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CINAHL Complete, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, MEDLINE Complete and APA PsychArticles. The following search terms related to depression, prevention, and trial study design. Two authors independently screened articles and a third resolved discrepancies. Eligibility criteria sought to identify meta-analyses that investigated the prevention of depression (i.e., reduced incidence) through intervention studies that were universal, in that they were designed to be delivered to entire populations Six meta-analyses on psychological interventions, two school-based meta-analyses, and one eHealth meta-analysis were included in this umbrella review. Findings indicated that all identified studies were of good quality and one was of fair quality. One previous meta-review that examined physical activity to prevent depression was included in results, comprising eight meta-analyses. Preventive interventions have primarily and successfully utilized psychological therapeutic components, delivered at the school, community, and workplace settings. Both school- and eHealth-based interventions hold some utility for depression prevention. There is meta-analytic evidence that physical activity is efficacious for depression prevention. However, universal prevention is inconsistently defined. There is a pressing need for well-designed randomized controlled preventative interventions for depression before recommendations can be universally accepted with convincing level of evidence.

6.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783286

RESUMO

People with severe mental illness (SMI), such as major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, experience numerous risk factors that may predispose them to food insecurity; however, the prevalence of food insecurity and its effects on health are under-researched in this population group. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to describe the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in people with SMI. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted up to March 2021. Random effects meta-analysis was employed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity in SMI, and odds ratio (OR) of food insecurity in people with SMI compared to non-psychiatric controls/general population. Twenty-nine unique datasets (31 publications) were included. Prevalence estimate of food insecurity in people with SMI was 40% (95% CI 29-52%, I2 = 99.7%, N = 27). People with SMI were 2.71 (95% CI 1.72-3.25) times more likely to report food insecurity than the comparator group (Z = 11.09, p < 0.001, I2 = 95%, N = 23). The odds of food insecurity in SMI were higher in high/high-middle income countries compared to low/low-middle income countries, likely due to the high food insecurity rates in the general population of lower income countries. There was no difference in food insecurity rates by diagnosis. Food insecurity should be a consideration for health professionals working with community-dwelling people with SMI.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836024

RESUMO

Lifestyle factors including diet, sleep, physical activity, and substance use cessation, are recognised as treatment targets for common mental disorders (CMDs). As the field of lifestyle-based mental health care evolves towards effectiveness trials and real-world translation, it is timely to consider how such innovations can be integrated into clinical practice. This paper discusses the utility and scale-up of lifestyle interventions for CMDs and draws on diabetes prevention literature to identify enablers and barriers to translation efforts. We discuss the extent to which lifestyle interventions aimed at managing CMDs and preventing diabetes share commonalities (program content, theoretical underpinnings, program structures, interventionists, frameworks promoting fidelity, quality, sustainability). Specific considerations when utilising these programs for mental health include personalising content with respect to symptoms and trajectories of depression and anxiety, medication regimen and genetic risk profile. As this field moves from efficacy to effectiveness and implementation, it is important to ensure issues in implementation science, including "voltage drop", "program drift", logistics, funding, and resourcing, are in line with evidence-based models that are effective in research settings. Ongoing considerations includes who is best placed to deliver this care and the need for models to support implementation including long-term financing, workforce training, supervision, stakeholder and organisational support.

9.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716791

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Olive oil polyphenols have been associated with cardiovascular health benefits. This study examined the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of extra-virgin high polyphenol olive oil (HPOO) vs. low polyphenol olive oil (LPOO) in healthy Australian adults. METHODS: In a double-blind cross-over trial, 50 participants (aged 38.5 ± 13.9 years, 66% females) were randomized to consume 60 mL/day of HPOO (320 mg/kg polyphenols) or LPOO (86 mg/kg polyphenols) for three weeks. Following a 2-week wash-out period, participants crossed-over to the alternate treatment. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Fourty-three participants completed the study. Although there were no significant differences between treatments in the total sample, plasma ox-LDL decreased by 6.5 mU/mL (95%CI - 12.4 to - 0.5) and TAC increased by 0.03 mM (95% CI 0.006-0.05) only in the HPOO arm. Stratified analyses were also performed by cardiovascular disease risk status defined by abdominal obesity (WC > 94 cm in males, > 80 cm in females) or inflammation (hs-CRP > 1 mg/L). In the subgroup with abdominal obesity, ox-LDL decreased by 13.5 mU/mL (95% CI - 23.5 to - 3.6) and TAC increased by 0.04 mM (95% CI 0.006-0.07) only after HPOO consumption. In the subgroup with inflammation, hs-CRP decreased by 1.9 mg/L (95% CI - 3.7 to -0.1) only in the HPOO arm. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were no significant differences between treatments, the changes observed after HPOO consumption demonstrate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of this oil, which is more pronounced in adults with high cardiometabolic risk (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12618000706279).

10.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449930

RESUMO

A systematic review and a meta-analytic approach were considered to investigate the effects of lemon balm as a medicinal herb on anxiety and depression in clinical trials and its side effects. All randomized clinical trials published up to October 30, 2020 that examined lemon balm in patients with symptoms of depression or anxiety, with acute or chronic manifestations, were searched in 12 online databases. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan software. Continuous data were analyzed using standardized mean differences. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using Chi2 , I2 , and p value tests. Based on meta-analysis results, lemon balm significantly improved mean anxiety and depression scores compared with the placebo (SMD: -0.98; 95% CI: -1.63 to -0.33; p = 0.003), (SMD: -0.47; 95% CI: -0.73 to -0.21; p = 0.0005) respectively, without serious side effects. Current evidence suggests that lemon balm may be effective in improving anxiety and depressive symptoms, particularly in the acute setting. Due to the high level of heterogeneity between studies, results should be interpreted with caution. The small number of clinical trials and differences between their methods were the limitations of the present study. Further high-quality studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of the lemon balm.

11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 376-383, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438354

RESUMO

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) acts on glutamatergic and redox systems, two systems implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). This has led to the investigation of NAC as a potential candidate for the treatment of BD. The aim of this study was to investigate metabolomic markers to identify predictors of NAC response in a cohort of BD participants. This study is a secondary analysis of a 16-week, multi-site, randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial in BD participants with a current acute depressive episode. This study included trial participants who received either NAC 2000 mg/day, or placebo. Participants (NAC: n = 31, placebo: n = 29) were assessed at baseline and week 16 using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and were dichotomised into "responders" (MADRS at week 16 < 50% of MADRS at baseline) and "non-responders" (MADRS at week 16 > 50% at baseline). Untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was performed to analyse baseline levels of 68 serum metabolites. Of the nine metabolites that differentiated placebo and NAC groups, five were amino acids with lower levels in the NAC responder group compared with the NAC non-responders. Further analysis generated a predictive model of MADRS improvement including glycine, norleucine, threonine, proline, phenylalanine, tyrosine, glutamic acid, lysine and leucine (R2 = 0.853; adjusted R2 = 0.733). This prediction model predicted 85% of the variance in MADRS outcome after adjunctive treatment with NAC. BD participants with lower serum levels of free amino acids at baseline may be more likely to respond to adjunctive treatment with NAC.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Transtorno Bipolar , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265322

RESUMO

Lithium remains the gold standard maintenance treatment for Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, weight gain is a side effect of increasing relevance due to its metabolic implications. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at summarizing evidence on the use of lithium and weight change in BD. We followed the PRISMA methodology, searching Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science. From 1003 screened references, 20 studies were included in the systematic review and 9 included in the meta-analysis. In line with the studies included in the systematic review, the meta-analysis revealed that weight gain with lithium was not significant, noting a weight increase of 0.462 Kg (p = 0158). A shorter duration of treatment was significantly associated with more weight gain. Compared to placebo, there were no significant differences in weight gain. Weight gain was significantly lower with lithium than with active comparators. This work reveals a low impact of lithium on weight change, especially compared to some of the most widely used active comparators. Our results could impact clinical decisions.

13.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 626486, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211410

RESUMO

Background: Cognitive impairment is prevalent and often highly burdensome in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate if mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract may be an effective intervention to improve cognitive performance in this population. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a larger randomized placebo-controlled trial that investigated a 24-weeks intervention of mangosteen pericarp extract supplementation in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. A subset of n = 114 participants with completed cognitive outcomes at follow up were included in this analysis. Using the Cogstate Brief Battery, the following cognitive outcomes were assessed: psychomotor function, attention, visual learning and memory (visual and working). Subgroup analyses investigated whether baseline clinical parameters (baseline cognitive functioning, illness severity and duration, depressive symptoms) moderated the relationship between mangosteen pericarp extract intervention and change in cognitive outcomes. Results: There were no significant between-group changes in any cognitive outcomes assessed. Subgroup analysis based on baseline cognition and clinical characteristics did not reveal any significant between-group difference in change. Conclusions: Mangosteen pericarp extract did not affect cognitive outcomes in people with schizophrenia. Further investigation regarding optimal dosing strategies for mangosteen interventions and the testing of additional cognitive domains may be warranted. Trial Registration: ANZCTR.org.au identifier: ACTRN12616000859482, registered 30 June 3 2016.

14.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 172: 101-122, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062263

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders is complex and multifactorial. Polyphenols possess a range of potentially beneficial mechanisms of action that relate to the implicated pathways in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight the emerging clinical trial and preclinical efficacy data regarding the role of polyphenols in mental and brain health, elucidate novel mechanisms of action including the gut microbiome and gene expression, and discuss the factors that may be responsible for the mixed clinical results; namely, the role of interindividual differences in treatment response and the potentially pro-oxidant effects of some polyphenols. Further clarification as part of larger, well conducted randomized controlled trials that incorporate precision medicine methods are required to inform clinical efficacy and optimal dosing regimens.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico
15.
Cytokine ; 144: 155593, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074585

RESUMO

An analysis of published data appertaining to the cytokine storms of COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) reveals many common immunological and biochemical abnormalities. These include evidence of a hyperactive coagulation system with elevated D-dimer and ferritin levels, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) and microthrombi coupled with an activated and highly permeable vascular endothelium. Common immune abnormalities include progressive hypercytokinemia with elevated levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß, proinflammatory chemokines, activated macrophages and increased levels of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Inflammasome activation and release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) is common to COVID-19, H1N1, and MAS but does not appear to be a feature of CRS. Elevated levels of IL-18 are detected in patients with COVID-19 and MAS but have not been reported in patients with H1N1 influenza and CRS. Elevated interferon-γ is common to H1N1, MAS, and CRS but levels of this molecule appear to be depressed in patients with COVID-19. CD4+ T, CD8+ and NK lymphocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of CRS, MAS, and possibly H1N1 but are reduced in number and dysfunctional in COVID-19. Additional elements underpinning the pathophysiology of cytokine storms include Inflammasome activity and DAMPs. Treatment with anakinra may theoretically offer an avenue to positively manipulate the range of biochemical and immune abnormalities reported in COVID-19 and thought to underpin the pathophysiology of cytokine storms beyond those manipulated via the use of, canakinumab, Jak inhibitors or tocilizumab. Thus, despite the relative success of tocilizumab in reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients already on dexamethasone and promising results with Baricitinib, the combination of anakinra in combination with dexamethasone offers the theoretical prospect of further improvements in patient survival. However, there is currently an absence of trial of evidence in favour or contravening this proposition. Accordingly, a large well powered blinded prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test this hypothesis is recommended.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/patologia , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Mod Trends Psychiatry ; 32: 100-112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032648

RESUMO

There is accumulating evidence from observational and intervention studies in nutritional psychiatry regarding the importance of diet for mental health outcomes across the lifespan. Here, we synthesise this evidence, including findings from large meta-analyses showing cross-sectional and prospective associations between diet quality and mental health, even following adjustment for relevant confounding factors. Potential mechanistic pathways underpinning these associations include those of the gut-brain axis, demonstrated mostly in animal models. Dietary fibre is an important component of healthy diet and may be relevant for common mental disorders, with some studies showing a dose-dependent relationship between fibre intake and risk of depression. The potential contribution of nutraceuticals is also discussed, such as omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and psychobiotics. We consider the relevance of special diets such as the ketogenic diet and food sensitivities in the management of severe mental illness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) and brain disease (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). Given the relatively early nature of research in nutritional psychiatry, there remain a number of challenges to its translation into clinical practice. These span individual, clinical, and societal domains. We conclude with a discussion of micro- and macroeconomic factors which may be considered in the successful application of nutritional psychiatry research to improve public health.

18.
Nutr Diet ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960587

RESUMO

AIM: Biophenol-rich nutraceuticals may be an adjuvant treatment for Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of biophenol-rich nutraceutical supplementation on CD, UC, SUDD, and IBS on gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), quality of life (QoL), inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and adverse events compared to usual care or placebo. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched for randomised controlled trials until 27 April 2020. Outcomes were GIS, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, QoL, and adverse events. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and GRADE were used to appraise studies. Data were pooled using Revman. RESULTS: Twenty-three trials in CD, UC, and IBS patients were included. Compared with placebo, biophenol-rich nutraceuticals improved GIS (SMD: 0.43 [95%CI: 0.22, 0.63]; GRADE: very low) in UC, CD, and IBS participants. In UC and CD participants, biophenol-rich nutraceuticals improved CRP by 1.6 mg/L [95%CI:0.08, 3.11; GRADE: low], malondialdehyde by 1 mmol/L [95%CI:0.55, 1.38; GRADE: low]; but only resveratrol improved QoL (SMD: -0.84 [95%CI: -1.24, -0.44; GRADE: high). Resveratrol (for UC and CD participants) and peppermint oil (for IBS participants) had greater certainty in the evidence for improving GIS and QoL (GRADE: moderate to high). There was no effect on adverse events (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Biophenol-rich nutraceuticals may be an effective and safe adjuvant treatment for the management of CD, UC, and IBS; with higher certainty of evidence for resveratrol for UC and CD and peppermint oil for IBS.

19.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(9): 769-781, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930934

RESUMO

The possible effect of probiotic interventions on immunological markers in athletes is inconclusive. Therefore, to synthesize and quantitatively analyze the existing evidence on this topic, systematic literature searches of online databases PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Sciences was carried out up to February 2021 to find all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the immunological effects of probiotics in athletes. In the random-effects model, weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) explained the net effect. The authors assessed the likelihood of publication bias via Egger's and Begg's statistics. A total of 13 RCTs (836 participants) were retrieved. Probiotic consumption reduced lymphocyte T cytotoxic count significantly (WMD=-0.08 cells×109/L; 95% CI: -0.15 to -0.01; p=0.022) with evidence of moderate heterogeneity (I 2=59.1%, p=0.044) and monocyte count when intervention duration was ≤ 4 weeks (WMD=-0.08 cells×109/L; 95% CI: -0.16 to -0.001; I 2=0.0%). Furthermore, leukocyte count was significantly elevated (WMD=0.48 cells×109/L; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.93; I 2=0.0%) when multi-strain probiotics were used. Probiotic supplements may improve immunological markers, including lymphocyte T cytotoxic, monocyte, and leukocyte in athletes. Further randomized controlled trials using diverse strains of probiotics and consistent outcome measures are necessary to allow for evidence-based recommendations.


Assuntos
Atletas , Imunidade , Probióticos , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Adv Nutr ; 12(5): 1681-1690, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873204

RESUMO

Numerous observational studies have investigated the role of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) in chronic disease risk. The aims of this umbrella review and integrated meta-analyses were to systematically synthesize the observational evidence reporting on the associations between the DII and health outcomes based on meta-analyses, and to assess the quality and strength of the evidence for each associated outcome. This umbrella review with integrated meta-analyses investigated the association between the DII and a range of health outcomes based on meta-analyses of observational data. A credibility assessment was conducted for each outcome using the following criteria: statistical heterogeneity, 95% prediction intervals, evidence for small-study effect and/or excess significance bias, as well as effect sizes and P values using calculated random effects meta-analyses. In total, 15 meta-analyses reporting on 38 chronic disease-related outcomes were included, incorporating a total population of 4,360,111 subjects. Outcomes (n = 38) were examined through various study designs including case-control (n = 8), cross-sectional (n = 5), prospective (n = 5), and combination (n = 20) study designs. Adherence to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern had a significant positive association with 27 (71%) of the included health outcomes (P value < 0.05). Using the credibility assessment, Class I (Convincing) evidence was identified for myocardial infarction only, Class II (Highly suggestive) evidence was identified for increased risk of all-cause mortality, overall risk of incident cancer, and risk of incident site-specific cancers (colorectal, pancreatic, respiratory, and oral cancers) with increasing (more pro-inflammatory) DII score. Most outcomes (n = 31) presented Class III (Suggestive) or lower evidence (Weak or No association). Pro-inflammatory dietary patterns were nominally associated with an increased risk of many chronic disease outcomes. However, the strength of evidence for most outcomes was limited. Further prospective studies are required to improve the precision of the effect size.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
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