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1.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 152(9): 350-352, mayo 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-1556

RESUMO

No disponible

2.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 152(9): 350-352, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678886
3.
Vaccine ; 37(1): 169-175, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454948

RESUMO

With a highly immunized population, rubella infection in Spain is so low that the WHO has declared the elimination of rubella. Rubella in pregnant women is also very rare. The objective of this study is to describe the last cases of congenital rubella syndrome reported and recommend actions to maintain the status of the disease as eliminated. The CRS cases reported to the Spanish National Epidemiological Surveillance Network between 1997 and 2016 were studied, and the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and maternal characteristics of newborns with CRS described. The incidence of CRS was calculated using Birth Statistics from the Spanish National Statistics Agency (INE). Twenty-three cases of CRS were reported, 70% of which were associated with rubella outbreaks. The most common clinical conditions were heart disease (52.2%), deafness (39.1%) and cataracts (30.4%); 91.3% of cases were confirmed by laboratory testing. 70.0% were born from a non-vaccinated foreign mother, resident in Spain (cumulative rate incidence (CR): 1.1/100,000 births), with mothers coming from Africa (36.0%), Latin America (29.0%), Eastern Europe (21.0%) and Asia (14.0%). Six were born to Spanish mothers (CR: 0.08/ 100,000 births), the last of which were in 2005. The majority of CRS cases were born to unvaccinated immigrant women infected in Spain during rubella outbreaks. Universal vaccination in childhood is the most efficient strategy to prevent rubella. The limited circulation of the virus will, however, quickly lead to a loss of awareness about rubella among clinicians and epidemiologists. It is necessary to maintain protocols capable of identifying signs consistent with rubella in pregnant women and signs suggestive of congenital rubella in newborns.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ásia , Surtos de Doenças , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Europa Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Euro Surveill ; 23(47)2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482263

RESUMO

Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is key for global polio eradication. It allows detecting poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study describes AFP surveillance in Spain from 1998 to 2015. During this time, 678 AFP cases were reported to the Spanish National Surveillance Network. The mean notification rate was 0.58 AFP cases/100,000 population under 15 years old (range: 0.45/100,000-0.78/100,000). Two periods (P) are described: P1 (1998-2006) with the AFP notification rate ranging from 0.66/100,000 to 0.78/100,000, peaking in 2001 (0.84/100,000); and P2 (2007-2015) when the AFP rate ranged from 0.43/100,000 to 0.57/100,000, with the lowest rate in 2009 (0.31/100,000). No poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, although two Sabin-like PVs and one imported vaccine-derived PV-2 were detected. Overall, 23 (3.4%) cases met the hot case definition. Most cases were clinically diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (76.9%; 504/655). The adequate stool collection rate ranged from 33.3% (7/21) to 72.5% (29/40). The annual proportion of AFP cases with non-polio enterovirus findings varied widely across the study period. AFP surveillance with laboratory testing for non-polio enteroviruses must be maintained and enhanced both to monitor polio eradication and to establish sensitive surveillance for prompt detection of other enteroviruses causing serious symptoms.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199975, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011283

RESUMO

In recent decades, vaccination has substantially reduced the number of measles cases to levels close to the elimination stage. However, major measles outbreaks occurred in Europe during 2010-2012, after the introduction of the D4-Enfield lineage. We have performed a molecular characterization of 75 measles virus genotype D4 strains from patients infected in Spain between 2004 and 2012 by sequencing the N-450 region and the M-F non-coding region (M-F NCR) in order to identify genetic features of these viruses. The analysis of the N-450 region confirmed that all samples obtained since 2008 belonged to variants or sets of identical sequences of the D4-Enfield lineage, including a new one named MVs/Madrid.ESP/46.10/. Analysis of the M-F NCR showed insertions and deletions associated with previously described, uncommon non-standard genome length measles viruses. This genetic feature was identified in the D4-Enfield lineage viruses, but not in the other D4 viruses that were circulating in Spain before 2008, suggesting that these non-standard length M-F NCR sequences are characteristic of the D4-Enfield lineage. The results of the phylogenetic analysis of Spanish M-F NCRs suggest higher resolution in discriminating strains than did the N-450 analysis. In addition, the results of the analysis of the M-F NCR on the MVs/Madrid.ESP/46.10/ sub-lineage seem to support the potential utility of this region as a tool for epidemiological surveillance complementary to the N-450 region, as previously suggested. Further investigation on this question, as well as the surveillance of new potentially emerging strains with non-standard length M-F NCR are strongly recommended as part of future strategies for measles elimination.

6.
Euro Surveill ; 23(15)2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667574

RESUMO

BackgroundSince mumps vaccination was introduced in 1981 in Spain, the incidence of the disease has dropped significantly. However, cyclic epidemic waves and outbreaks still occur, despite high vaccination coverage. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends genotyping to trace the pattern of mumps virus (MuV) circulation. Genotype H was predominant in Spain, but was replaced in 2005 by genotype G which has subsequently remained dominant. Of the small hydrophobic protein gene sequences, 78% are identical and belong to the MuVi/ Sheffield.GBR.1.05/[G]-variant. Aim: Our study aimed to investigate whether the circulation of MuV strains in Spain was continuous after the emergence of genotype G in 2005. Method: We obtained 46 samples from Spanish patients infected with MuVi/Sheffield.GBR.1.05/[G] during two epidemic waves and analysed them using new molecular markers based on genomic non-coding regions (NCRs) that discriminate subvariants of this virus strain. Results: Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleoprotein-phosphoprotein and matrix protein-fusion protein NCR indicated strain replacement after a drop in incidence in 2009, which had not been detectable by SH sequencing. Clustering of sequences from patients epidemiologically linked in the same outbreak suggests a potential use for these NCRs in outbreak characterisation. Conclusion: We suggest to consider their use in conjunction with the SH gene in the future WHO recommendations for MuV epidemiological surveillance.

7.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(9): 569-573, nov. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-168883

RESUMO

Introducción: En la fase de eliminación del sarampión, reviste especial importancia la investigación de cada caso sospechoso, especialmente en personas vacunadas, pues en ellas la clínica es más leve, y los resultados de laboratorio más difíciles de interpretar. Nuestro estudio se centró en la epidemiología del sarampión en personas vacunadas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal de los casos de sarampión en personas vacunadas notificados en España entre 2003 y 2014. Resultados: Se observaron 138 casos confirmados de sarampión en personas vacunadas con 2 dosis, 90 de ellos confirmados por laboratorio. La mediana de tiempo entre la última dosis de vacuna recibida y la aparición del exantema mostró una tendencia lineal creciente (p<0,001) en función de las dosis de vacuna (0, 1, 2 dosis). El riesgo de hospitalización disminuyó de forma inversamente proporcional al número de dosis de vacuna recibidas (p<0,001). Solo en el 23,9% de los casos confirmados y en el 50% de los descartados, se cumplió el protocolo de recogida de muestras clínicas. En el 50% de los casos estudiados en vacunados con 2 dosis, las muestras se tomaron precozmente. El 16,7% de los descartados mediante IgM negativa podrían ser falsos negativos, pues procedían de muestras precoces. Conclusión: Nuestros resultados evidencian la importancia de cumplir el protocolo diagnóstico para confirmar o descartar casos de sarampión, especialmente en los vacunados con 2 dosis. Ante una IgM negativa en muestras precoces, sería necesario obtener una nueva muestra y realizar un nuevo test de IgM, así como la prueba de PCR (AU)


Introduction: During the final phase of measles elimination rigorous investigation of each individual case becomes fundamental to confirm or discard cases, particularly among vaccinated people, since they experience a milder disease, and laboratory diagnosis is more complex. Our study focused in the epidemiology of measles in vaccinated people. Methods: Longitudinal study on measles cases in two dose vaccinated people in Spain from 2003 to 2014. Results: We confirmed 138 measles cases (90 of them, laboratory confirmed) in people with two doses of vaccine. The median of time from last vaccination to rash onset showed a lineal trend (P<.001), in parallel with the number of doses of vaccine received (0, 1, 2 doses). Among confirmed cases, the hospitalization risk decreased inversely proportional to the number of administered vaccine doses (linear trend, P<.001). Only in 23.9% of confirmed cases and 50% of discarded cases the guidelines about sample taking were fulfilled. 50% of samples in two dose vaccinated people were taken without fulfilling time delay criteria. 16.7% (36/215) of discarded cases with a negative IgM result did correspond to samples taken early (first 72h after rash) and could represent false negatives. Conclusion: Our results highlight the importance of fulfilling properly the guidelines for laboratory diagnosis in order to confirm or discard every measles case, especially in two dose vaccinated people. When a negative IgM result is obtained in early samples a new IgM test should be practiced, as well as a PCR test, in order to avoid infra-detection of cases (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Serviços de Vigilância Epidemiológica , Potência de Vacina , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Vaccine ; 35(34): 4339-4345, 2017 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687402

RESUMO

The mumps vaccine (Jeryl-Lynn-strain) was introduced in Spain in 1981, and a vaccination policy which included a second dose was added in 1995. From 1992-1999, a Rubini-strain based vaccine was administered in many regions but later withdrawn due to lack of effectiveness. Despite high levels of vaccination coverage, epidemics have continued to appear. We characterized the three epidemic waves of mumps between 1998 and 2014, identifying major changes in susceptible populations using Poisson regression. For the period 1998-2003 (P1), the most affected group was from 1 to 4years old (y) [Incidence Rate (IR)=71.7 cases/100,000 population]; in the periods 2004-2009 (P2) and 2010-2014 (P3) IR ratio (IRR) increased among 15-24y (P2=1.46; P3=2.68) and 25-34y (P2=2.17; P3=4.05). Hospitalization rate (HR), complication rate (CR) and neurological complication rate (NR) among hospitalized subjects decreased across the epidemics, except for 25-34y which increased: HR ratio (HRR) (P2=2.18; P3=2.16), CRR (P3=2.48), NRR (P3=2.41). In Spain mumps incidence increased, while an overall decrease of hospitalizations and severe complications occurred across the epidemics. Cohorts born during periods of low vaccination coverage and those vaccinated with Rubini-strain were the most affected populations, leading to a shift in mumps cases from children to adolescents and young adults; this also reveals the waning immunity provided by the mumps vaccine. Despite not preventing all mumps cases, the vaccine appears to prevent serious forms of the disease.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização , Vacina contra Caxumba , Caxumba/complicações , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/virologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 35(9): 569-573, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27262819

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the final phase of measles elimination rigorous investigation of each individual case becomes fundamental to confirm or discard cases, particularly among vaccinated people, since they experience a milder disease, and laboratory diagnosis is more complex. Our study focused in the epidemiology of measles in vaccinated people. METHODS: Longitudinal study on measles cases in two dose vaccinated people in Spain from 2003 to 2014. RESULTS: We confirmed 138 measles cases (90 of them, laboratory confirmed) in people with two doses of vaccine. The median of time from last vaccination to rash onset showed a lineal trend (P<.001), in parallel with the number of doses of vaccine received (0, 1, 2 doses). Among confirmed cases, the hospitalization risk decreased inversely proportional to the number of administered vaccine doses (linear trend, P<.001). Only in 23.9% of confirmed cases and 50% of discarded cases the guidelines about sample taking were fulfilled. 50% of samples in two dose vaccinated people were taken without fulfilling time delay criteria. 16.7% (36/215) of discarded cases with a negative IgM result did correspond to samples taken early (first 72h after rash) and could represent false negatives. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the importance of fulfilling properly the guidelines for laboratory diagnosis in order to confirm or discard every measles case, especially in two dose vaccinated people. When a negative IgM result is obtained in early samples a new IgM test should be practiced, as well as a PCR test, in order to avoid infra-detection of cases.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 1178, 2016 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pertussis is a re-emerging disease worldwide despite its high vaccination coverage. European and Latin-American countries have used different surveillance and vaccination policies against pertussis. We compared the epidemiology of this disease in two Ibero-American countries with different vaccination and surveillance policies. METHODS: We compared the epidemiology of pertussis in Spain and the Dominican Republic (DR). We present a 10-year observational study of reported pertussis based on suspected and/or probable cases of pertussis identified by the national mandatory reporting system in both countries between 2005 and 2014. Both countries have a similar case definition for pertussis surveillance, although Spain applies laboratory testing, and uses real time PCR and/or culture for case confirmation while in DR only probable and/or suspected cases are reported. We analyzed incidence, hospitalization, case-fatality rates, mortality and vaccination coverage. RESULTS: The average annual incidence in children aged <1 year was 3.40/100,000 population in Spain and 12.15/100,000 in DR (p = 0.01). While the incidence in DR was generally higher than in Spain, in 2011 it was six times higher in Spain than in DR. The highest infant mortality in Spain was 0.017/100,000 in 2011, and the highest in DR was 0.08/100,000 in 2014 (p = 0.01). The proportion of hospitalized cases per year among children <1 year varied between 22.0% and 93.7% in Spain, and between 1.1% and 29.4% in DR (p = 0.0002), while mortality varied from 0 to 0.017 and 0 to 0.08 per 100,000 population in Spain and DR, respectively (p = 0.001). Vaccination coverage was 96.5% in Spain and 82.2% in DR (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pertussis is a public health problem in both countries. Surveillance, prevention and control measures should be improved, especially in DR. Current vaccination programs are not sufficient for preventing continued pertussis transmission, even in Spain which has high vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Notificação de Abuso , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Vigilância da População/métodos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 89(4): 365-79, 2015 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26580792

RESUMO

To achieve the goal of eliminating measles and rubella two key strategies have been defined: sustain very low level of population susceptibility and strengthen surveillance system by rigorous case investigation and rapid control measures implementation. Surveillance of measles, rubella and CRS are included into the Spanish Surveillance System (RENAVE); surveillance is mandatory, passive, nationwide and case-based with laboratory information integrated. Information flows from sub national to national level (National Centre for Epidemiology) and then, to the WHO-Europe through ECDC. In the final phase of elimination, good surveillance and documented evidences are keys. Information on epidemiology of measles, rubella and CRS cases and outbreaks, pattern of importation, genotypes circulating and performance of measles and rubella surveillance are required at national and international level. Also all investigated and discarded measles or rubella cases should be reported. Currently the system faces some challenges gathering needed information for documenting the elimination. As long as the disease incidence declines, increases difficulties in identifying clinical measles and rubella because of non-specific prodromal signs and atypical cases. Differential diagnosis for fever and rash including measles and rubella should be performed in all clinical settings. Three clinical specimens must be collected to confirm or discard cases and to allow the virus characterization in order to know the pattern of importation of measles and rubella.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Coleta de Dados , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 89(4): 365-379, jul.-sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-141803

RESUMO

Para alcanzar la eliminación del sarampión y rubéola se precisa mantener un bajo nivel de susceptibilidad en la población y un sistema de vigilancia capaz de identificar a tiempo la circulación de los virus y de implantar medidas rápidas para controlar la transmisión. En España la vigilancia epidemiológica del sarampión, la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita está integrada en la Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica, en la que participan todos los niveles del Sistema Nacional de Salud, incluidos los laboratorios. En el plano internacional, el Centro Nacional de Epidemiología suministra la información para documentar los progresos hacia la eliminación a OMS-Europa a través del ECDC. En la última fase de la eliminación la vigilancia está dirigida a documentar la ausencia de casos endémicos aportando evidencias sobre el origen de casos y brotes, patrones de importación de los virus y genotipos circulantes e indicadores de calidad de la vigilancia. Para demostrar que se ha interrumpido la trasmisión endémica no es suficiente con que no se confirmen casos, hay que aportar evidencias de que se identifican sospechas clínicas, se investigan en el laboratorio y se descartan. Aunque nuestro sistema de vigilancia cumple en general con los objetivos de calidad, actualmente tiene dificultades para detectar sospechas clínicas de sarampión o rubéola. La única manera de mejorar la sensibilidad en la identificación y captación de casos clínicos sería fortalecer la concienciación en el nivel asistencial promoviendo que en el diagnóstico diferencial de todo caso de fiebre y exantema que se presente en cualquier edad, se incluya el incluya el diagnóstico de laboratorio de sarampión y rubéola (AU)


To achieve the goal of eliminating measles and rubella two key strategies have been defined: sustain very low level of population susceptibility and strengthen surveillance system by rigorous case investigation and rapid control measures implementation. Surveillance of measles, rubella and CRS are included into the Spanish Surveillance System (RENAVE); surveillance is mandatory, passive, nationwide and case-based with laboratory information integrated. Information flows from sub national to national level (National Centre for Epidemiology) and then, to the WHO-Europe through ECDC. In the final phase of elimination, good surveillance and documented evidences are keys. Information on epidemiology of measles, rubella and CRS cases and outbreaks, pattern of importation, genotypes circulating and performance of measles and rubella surveillance are required at national and international level. Also all investigated and discarded measles or rubella cases should be reported. Currently the system faces some challenges gathering needed information for documenting the elimination. As long as the disease incidence declines, increases difficulties in identifying clinical measles and rubella because of non-specific prodromal signs and atypical cases. Differential diagnosis for fever and rash including measles and rubella should be performed in all clinical settings. Three clinical specimens must be collected to confirm or discard cases and to allow the virus characterization in order to know the pattern of importation of measles and rubella (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/normas , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Espanha/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/métodos
14.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 84(2): 203-14, 2010 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20571720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On the 4th of February 2008, 2 cases of measles, epidemiologically linked (2 members of the crew of the Fast-Ferry Jaime I from the company Balearia, which performs the route Algeciras-Tangier), were notified to the Epidemiological Surveillance Network in Andalusia (SVEA). The aim of this paper is to epidemiologically characterize this population level outbreak detected in the area of Campo de Gibraltar, the vaccine effectiveness and the control measures implemented. METHODS: Descriptive observational study of reported cases. We have analysed the following variables: age, sex, municipality of residence, onset date, virus genotype, groups involved, previous immunization status, interventions, vaccine effectiveness. Information sources are SVEA records, vaccination program and individual digital story (Diraya). Rates 10(5) were calculated according to age group and frequency measurements. To compare vaccine effectiveness, the Chi(2) test was used. RESULTS: We confirmed 155 cases of measles, 88.4% by laboratory techniques. Most affected age groups under 2 years (19%) and from 21 to 40 (51%). The 54.2% male. The 72,14% were not vaccinated. Virus was isolated from imported measles genotype D4. The vaccine efficacy was greater than 99%. CONCLUSIONS: The outbreak of the imported measles virus was confirmed. More than half of the cases were not vaccinated. The decrease in the incidence in vaccinated individuals recommends the necessity of carrying out Catch-Up campaigns to increase the coverage therefore avoiding the appearance of these outbreaks.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 84(2): 203-214, mar.-abr. 2010. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-79462

RESUMO

Fundamento: El 4 de febrero de 2008 se notificó a la Red de VigilanciaEpidemiológica de Andalucía (SVEA), 2 casos de sarampiónvinculados epidemiológicamente, 2 tripulantes del Fast-Ferry Jaime Ide la Compañía Balearia, que realiza la línea de Algeciras - Tánger. Elobjetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar epidemiológicamente el brote deámbito poblacional detectado en la Comarca Campo de Gibraltar, lasmedidas de control implementadas y la efectividad vacunal.Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo de casos notificados.Se analizan las variables edad, sexo, municipio de residencia,sintomatología, fecha de inicio, colectivos implicados, estado vacunalprevio, intervenciones realizadas, genotipo del virus, y efectividadvacunal. Fuentes de información los registros del SVEA, programade vacunas e historia digital individual (Diraya). Se calcularontasas x 105 por grupo de edad y medidas de frecuencia. Para comparaciónde efectividad vacunal se utilizó test Chi2.Resultados: Se confirmaron 155 casos de sarampión, 88.4%por laboratorio. Grupos de edad mas afectados menores de 2 años(19%) y de 21 a 40 (51%). El 54.2% varones. El 72,14% no estabanvacunados. Se aisló virus sarampión Genotipo D4 importado. Laefectividad vacunal era superior al 99%.Conclusiones: Se confirma un brote por virus del sarampiónimportado. Mas de la mitad de los casos no estaban vacunados. Ladisminución de la incidencia en vacunados hace necesario recomendarcampañas de Cacht - Up que aumenten las coberturas para evitarla aparición de estos brotes vacunales(AU)


Background: On the 4th of February 2008, 2 cases of measles,epidemiologically linked (2 members of the crew of the Fast-FerryJaime I from the company Balearia, which performs the route Algeciras- Tangier), were notified to the Epidemiological SurveillanceNetwork in Andalusia (SVEA). The aim of this paper is to epidemiologicallycharacterize this population level outbreak detected inthe area of Campo de Gibraltar, the vaccine effectiveness and thecontrol measures implemented.Methods: Descriptive observational study of reported cases.We have analysed the following variables: age, sex, municipality ofresidence, onset date, virus genotype, groups involved, previousimmunization status, interventions, vaccine effectiveness. Informationsources are SVEA records, vaccination program and individualdigital story (Diraya). Rates 105 were calculated according to agegroup and frequency measurements. To compare vaccine effectiveness,the Chi2 test was used.Results: We confirmed 155 cases of measles, 88.4% by laboratorytechniques. Most affected age groups under 2 years (19%) andfrom 21 to 40 (51%). The 54.2% male. The 72,14% were not vaccinated.Virus was isolated from imported measles genotype D4. Thevaccine efficacy was greater than 99%.Conclusions: The outbreak of the imported measles virus wasconfirmed. More than half of the cases were not vaccinated. Thedecrease in the incidence in vaccinated individuals recommends thenecessity of carrying out Catch-Up campaigns to increase the coveragetherefore avoiding the appearance of these outbreaks(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Surtos de Doenças , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos
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