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1.
Oncology ; 99(8): 507-517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (LEN-TACE) sequential therapy for patients (n = 88) with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Eighty-eight patients who obtained tumor control by LEN treatment were analyzed; 30 received LEN followed by TACE (LEN-TACE sequential therapy), and 58 received LEN monotherapy. Propensity score matching was performed, and the outcomes of 19 patients in the LEN-TACE group and 19 patients in the LEN-alone group were compared. Objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), incidence of adverse events (AEs), and change in albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score were evaluated. RESULTS: After matching, baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. The ORR was 63.2% with LEN-TACE group and 63.2% with the LEN-alone group. Multivariate analysis showed that addition of TACE during LEN treatment (hazard ratio [HR] 0.264, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.087-0.802, p = 0.019) and Child-Pugh score 5 (HR 0.223, 95% CI 0.070-0.704, p = 0.011) were the significant factors for PFS. Median PFS was 11.6 months with LEN-TACE and 10.1 months with LEN-alone. The survival rate of the LEN-TACE group was significantly higher than that of the LEN-alone group (median survival time; not reached vs. 16.9 months, p = 0.007). The incidence of common LEN-associated AEs was similar between groups. Although elevated aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase and fever were more frequent with LEN-TACE group, these events were manageable. CONCLUSION: For patients with intermediate-stage HCC, LEN-TACE sequential therapy may provide a deep response and favorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pontuação de Propensão , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
Oncology ; 99(8): 491-498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study compared clinical outcomes of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 48 patients were treated with regorafenib for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirty-five and 13 patients were initiated on 2nd- and 3rd-line therapy, respectively. We assessed the responses to and safety of the therapy. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics at the start of 2nd- or 3rd-line regorafenib therapy. The overall response rate of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib was 20 and 8%, respectively. The disease control rate was 57 and 54%, respectively. Median overall survival (mOS) from the start of 2nd-line regorafenib was 17.5 months. mOS from the start of 3rd-line regorafenib was not obtained. Median progression-free survival of 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib was 4.9 and 2.3 months, respectively. mOS from 1st-line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor plus sorafenib-regorafenib-lenvatinib was 29.5 months; that with lenvatinib-sorafenib-regorafenib was not obtained. Patients on 3rd-line therapy tended to have better Child-Pugh scores and tumor factors at the start of 1st-line therapy than other patients. CONCLUSION: Patients on 2nd- and 3rd-line regorafenib showed favorable responses. Good Child-Pugh scores and tumor factors may be associated with a better response rate and OS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Oncology ; 99(5): 327-335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677453

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical outcome of ramucirumab in multi-molecular targeted agent (MTA) sequential therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) was assessed in comparison with that of prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. METHODS: Sixteen patients who received ramucirumab as part of multi-MTA sequential therapy for u-HCC were enrolled in a retrospective, cohort study. Ramucirumab was started as 2nd line in 7 patients, 3rd line in 5 patients, and 4th line in 4 patients. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 6.3%, the disease control rate (DCR) was 50.0%, median progression-free survival was 2.0 months (evaluated by mRECIST), median overall survival (OS) with ramucirumab was 7.9 months, and the median OS from 1st-line therapy was 28.1 months. One month after the start of ramucirumab, α-fetoprotein (AFP) decreased in 6 of 12 cases (50.0%), and the DCR in AFP-decreased cases was 83.3%. The DCR of ramucirumab was 66.7% in cases in which disease control was obtained by prior TKI therapy, whereas it was 0.0% in the cases in which disease control was not obtained by prior TKI therapy. Examining the adverse events, no new safety concerns were confirmed. CONCLUSION: The AFP response to ramucirumab and the treatment response to prior TKI therapy are associated with treatment response to ramucirumab.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Hepatol Res ; 50(11): 1234-1243, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914512

RESUMO

AIM: Combination therapy with sofosbuvir (SOF) plus velpatasvir (VEL) is approved for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related decompensated cirrhosis. We analyzed the real-world efficacy of SOF/VEL therapy. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis (25 and eight patients with Child B and C, respectively) were treated with SOF/VEL for 12 weeks. The HCV non-structural protein (NS)5A and NS5B drug resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) were determined by direct sequencing. RESULT: Thirty-two of 33 patients completed the treatment, but the remaining patient discontinued the therapy during third week of the treatment due to aggravation of hepatic encephalopathy. Serum HCV-RNA became negative during the treatment in all patients but relapsed after the end of therapy in five patients. In total, 28 out of 33 patients (85%) achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks following completion of treatment (SVR12). The SVR12 rate was 96% in patients with Child B, but significantly lower, at 50%, in patients with Child C (P < 0.05). In genotype 1b HCV-infected patients, all eight patients without baseline NS5A RASs, but only three of seven patients with RASs, achieved SVR12. Multivariate analysis identified Child B (odds ratio, 35.8 for Child C; P = 0.045) as an independent predictor of SVR12. Median serum albumin levels significantly increased only in patients who achieved SVR12. Child-Pugh scores improved in 16 of 28 patients (57%) following achievement of SVR12. CONCLUSION: The effect of SOF/VEL therapy is lower for patients with Child C. Improvement of hepatic function is expected after viral eradication with SOF/VEL therapy in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

5.
Oncology ; 98(11): 787-797, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a strong antitumor effect of lenvatinib (LEN) has been noted for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), there are still no reports on the prognosis for patients with disease progression after first-line LEN therapy. METHODS: Patients (n = 141) with unresectable HCC, Child-Pugh class A liver function, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) of 0 or 1 who were treated with LEN from March 2018 to December 2019 were enrolled. RESULTS: One hundred and five patients were treated with LEN as first-line therapy, 53 of whom had progressive disease (PD) at the radiological evaluation. Among the 53 patients with PD, there were 27 candidates for second-line therapy, who had Child-Pugh class A liver function and an ECOG-PS of 0 or 1 at progression. After progression on first-line LEN, 28 patients were treated with a molecular targeted agent (MTA) as second-line therapy (sorafenib: n = 26; ramucirumab: n = 2). Multivariate analysis identified modified albumin-bilirubin grade 1 or 2a at LEN initiation (odds ratio 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.465-18.31, p = 0.011) as a significant and independent factor for candidates. The median post-progression survival after PD on first-line LEN was 8.3 months. Cox hazard multivariate analysis showed that a low alpha-fetoprotein level (<400 ng/mL; hazard ratio [HR] 0.297, 95% CI 0.099-0.886, p = 0.003), a relative tumor volume <50% at the time of progression (HR 0.204, 95% CI 0.07-0.592, p = 0.03), and switching to MTAs as second-line treatment after LEN (HR 0.299, 95% CI 0.12-0.746, p = 0.01) were significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Among patients with PD on first-line LEN, good liver function at introduction of LEN was an important and favorable factor related to eligibility for second-line therapy. In addition, post-progression treatment with MTAs could improve the prognosis for patients who had been treated with first-line LEN.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 633, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), evidence is unclear as to whether hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) or sorafenib is superior. We performed a prospective, open-label, non-comparative phase II study to assess survival with HAIC or HAIC converted to sorafenib. METHODS: Fifty-five patients were prospectively enrolled. Patients received HAIC as a second course if they had complete response, partial response, or stable disease (SD) with an alpha fetoprotein (AFP) ratio < 1 or a des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) ratio < 1. Patients were switched to sorafenib if they had SD with an AFP ratio > 1 and a DCP ratio > 1 or disease progression. The primary endpoint was the 1-year survival rate. Secondary endpoints were the 2-year survival rate, HAIC response, survival rate among HAIC responders, progression-free survival, and adverse events. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients in the intent-to-treat population, the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 64.0 and 48.3%, respectively. After the first course of HAIC, one (1.8%) patient showed complete response, 13 (23.6%) showed partial response, 30 (54.5%) had SD, and 10 (18.1%) patients had progressive disease. Twenty-three patients (41.8%) had SD with AFP ratios < 1 or DCP ratios < 1, and 7 (12.7%) had SD with AFP ratios > 1 and DCP ratios > 1. Thirty-seven patients (68.5%) were responders and 17 (30.9%) were non-responders to HAIC. In responders, the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 78 and 62%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Given the results of this study, this protocol deserves consideration for patients with advanced HCC. This trial was registered prospectively from December 12. 2012 to September 1. 2016.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Infusões Intra-Arteriais/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(10): 1780-1786, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29645345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sorafenib is the standard treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with distant metastasis, unresectable HCC, and HCC refractory to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or with macroscopic vascular invasion (MVI). Also, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) has been used for advanced HCC in Southeast and East Asian countries. However, clearer information is needed for choosing appropriately between these therapies. METHODS: The subjects were 391 HAIC and 431 sorafenibs administered at our hospital and related hospitals. In this case, cases that satisfy the following three conditions were targeted: (i) no extrahepatic metastasis, (ii) Child-Pugh A, and (ii) not having received treatment of both HAIC and sorafenib during the course. As a result, 150 cases of HAIC and 134 cases of sorafenib were analyzed this time. RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for the HAIC and sorafenib groups. TACE refractory status and MVI were factors contributing to overall survival (OS). Therefore, this study divided all cases according to those variables. The median survival time of MVI-positive and non-TACE refractory cases was significantly better with HAIC (13 months) versus sorafenib (6 months). However, in MVI-negative and TACE refractory cases, the median survival time of HAIC (8 months) was significantly poorer than for sorafenib (20 months). CONCLUSION: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization refractory status with HAIC and MVI with sorafenib were factors for poor prognosis. In particular, HAIC was significantly better than sorafenib as primary treatment in MVI and non-TACE refractory cases. It is necessary to consider these factors in treatment selection.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Artéria Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Microvasos/patologia , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/irrigação sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Oncology ; 94(4): 215-222, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (HAIC + RT) versus sorafenib monotherapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and major portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). METHODS: This retrospective study included 108 HCC patients with PVTT of the main trunk or first branch and Child-Pugh ≤7. Sixty-eight received HAIC + RT and 40 received sorafenib. Patients were then assigned to the HAIC + RT group (n = 36) and the sorafenib group (n = 36) through case-control matching. The decision to treat with HAIC + RT or sorafenib was left to the attending physician. RESULTS: The median overall, progression-free, and postprogression survival were significantly longer in the HAIC + RT group than in the sorafenib group (9.9 vs. 5.3, p = 0.002; 3.9 vs. 2.1, p = 0.048; and 3.7 vs. 1.9 months, p = 0.02, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified HAIC + RT (hazard ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.57; p = 0.01) as a significant and independent determinant of overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced HCC and major PVTT, survival was significantly longer in those treated with HAIC + RT than with sorafenib.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Veia Porta/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Artéria Hepática , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Interferons/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Niacinamida/efeitos adversos , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
J Gastroenterol ; 53(1): 107-118, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers predicting the response to the anticancer treatment and prognosis in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are required. Recently, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was reported to promote HCC progression and be associated with poor prognosis for patients with HCC. The purpose of this study was to assess serum HMGB1 concentrations before and during sorafenib treatment or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) and to explore the ability of serum HMGB1 concentrations to predict prognosis. METHODS: Serum HMGB1 concentrations were measured in 71 and 72 patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib and HAIC, respectively, to assess their usefulness for prediction of the response to the treatment and prognosis. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis identified high HMGB1 at 4 weeks (P = 0.001), high α-fetoprotein (AFP) at baseline (P = 0.025), tumor liver occupying rate (P = 0.009) and modified RECIST (mRECIST, P < 0.0001) as independent predictors of poor overall survival in sorafenib treatment. High HMGB1 at 4 weeks (P = 0.025), vascular invasion to the hepatic vein (Vv) (P = 0.009), mRECIST (P < 0.0001) and Child-Pugh B (P = 0.004) were identified as independent predictors of poor overall survival in HAIC treatment. The concentrations of HMGB1 at baseline and 4 weeks were not correlated with conventional tumor markers and progressive disease assessed by mRECIST at 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum HMGB1 at 4 weeks after the start of treatment might be a useful biomarker with added value to the conventional tumor marker and radiologic responses to predict poor overall survival in patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib or HAIC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proteína HMGB1/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Artéria Hepática , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0182710, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797106

RESUMO

The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is reduced following viral elimination by interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients. However, the risk in patients treated with interferon-free direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is unknown. We evaluated chronic hepatitis C patients who achieved viral eradication by pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV, n = 244) or daclatasvir plus asunaprevir (DCV/ASV, n = 154) therapy. None of the patients had prior history of HCC or antiviral therapy. The median observation period after the end of treatment for the PEG-IFN/RBV and DCV/ASV groups were 96 (range 10-196) and 23 (range 4-78) months, respectively. During the observation period, HCC developed in 13 (5.3%) and 7 (4.5%) patients in the PEG-IFN/RBV and DCV/ASV groups, respectively. The cumulative HCC development rate after 1-, 3- and 5-years (0.4%, 3% and 5% for the PEG-IFN/RBV group and 0.6%, 9% and 9% for the DAA group, respectively) were similar between the two groups. Propensity score matching analysis also showed no significant difference in HCC development rates between the two groups. Serum AFP levels decreased to similar levels between PEG-IFN/RBV and DCV/ASV groups following the achievement of viral eradication. The risk for HCC development following viral eradication by IFN-free DAA therapy may be similar to that in IFN-based therapy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Hepatol ; 66(5): 1022-1030, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prevalence of fatty liver underscores the need for non-invasive characterization of steatosis, such as the ultrasound based controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Despite good diagnostic accuracy, clinical use of CAP is limited due to uncertainty regarding optimal cut-offs and the influence of covariates. We therefore conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. METHODS: A review of the literature identified studies containing histology verified CAP data (M probe, vibration controlled transient elastography with FibroScan®) for grading of steatosis (S0-S3). Receiver operating characteristic analysis after correcting for center effects was used as well as mixed models to test the impact of covariates on CAP. The primary outcome was establishing CAP cut-offs for distinguishing steatosis grades. RESULTS: Data from 19/21 eligible papers were provided, comprising 3830/3968 (97%) of patients. Considering data overlap and exclusion criteria, 2735 patients were included in the final analysis (37% hepatitis B, 36% hepatitis C, 20% NAFLD/NASH, 7% other). Steatosis distribution was 51%/27%/16%/6% for S0/S1/S2/S3. CAP values in dB/m (95% CI) were influenced by several covariates with an estimated shift of 10 (4.5-17) for NAFLD/NASH patients, 10 (3.5-16) for diabetics and 4.4 (3.8-5.0) per BMI unit. Areas under the curves were 0.823 (0.809-0.837) and 0.865 (0.850-0.880) respectively. Optimal cut-offs were 248 (237-261) and 268 (257-284) for those above S0 and S1 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CAP provides a standardized non-invasive measure of hepatic steatosis. Prevalence, etiology, diabetes, and BMI deserve consideration when interpreting CAP. Longitudinal data are needed to demonstrate how CAP relates to clinical outcomes. LAY SUMMARY: There is an increase in fatty liver for patients with chronic liver disease, linked to the epidemic of the obesity. Invasive liver biopsies are considered the best means of diagnosing fatty liver. The ultrasound based controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) can be used instead, but factors such as the underlying disease, BMI and diabetes must be taken into account. Registration: Prospero CRD42015027238.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
13.
J Gastroenterol ; 52(3): 366-375, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27422771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-transplant hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection is one of the major problems facing patients who undergo HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). We analyzed the clinical impact of serum hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) on HBV reinfection in post-LT patients with HBV-related liver diseases. METHODS: Serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV DNA, and HBcrAg were measured over time in 32 post-LT patients. Twenty-one out of 32 patients had HCC at LT. The effects of HBcrAg, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, and HBs gene mutation on HBV reinfection and withdrawal from hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixteen out of 32 patients (50 %) were positive for HBcrAg even though only six patients were thought to have experienced HBV reinfection based on reappearance of either HBV DNA or HBsAg during a median follow-up time of 75 months. Three of these six patients who became re-infected with HBV experienced HCC recurrence after LT. The HBV DNA reappearance rate was significantly higher in patients with HCC recurrence after LT (p < 0.001). Two HBV re-infected patients without HCC recurrence had HBs gene mutations G145R and G145A, respectively. Anti-HBs antibody development rate by HB vaccination was similar between HBcrAg-positive and negative patients (p = 0.325). CONCLUSIONS: HBV reinfection is more common than is usually considered based on conventional measurement of HBsAg and HBV DNA. HCC recurrence and mutations in the HBV S gene were associated with HBV reinfection after LT.


Assuntos
Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
14.
Genes Cells ; 21(11): 1253-1262, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27659023

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology contributes not only to basic genomic studies but also to clinical studies such as genetic correction and virus inactivation. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major target for potential application of CRISPR-Cas9 in eliminating viral DNA from human cells. However, the high stability of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) makes it difficult to completely clear HBV infection. Here, we report highly multiplexed CRISPR-Cas9-nuclease and Cas9-nickase vector systems that simultaneously target three critical domains of the HBV genome. Co-transfection of an HBV-expressing plasmid and all-in-one CRISPR-Cas9 vectors resulted in significant reduction in viral replicative intermediates and extracellular hepatitis B surface and envelope antigens. In addition, successful fragmentation of the HBV genome was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Despite its high efficacy in suppressing HBV, no apparent off-target mutations were detected by genomic cleavage detection assay and the small number of observed mutations was extremely rare and could only be detected by deep sequencing analysis. Thus, our all-in-one CRISPR-Cas9-nuclease and Cas9-nickase vectors present a model for simultaneous targeting of multiple HBV domains, potentially contributing to a well-designed therapeutic approach for curing HBV patients.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos , Vírus da Hepatite B , Inativação de Vírus , Proteínas de Bactérias , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA Viral , Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Endonucleases , Genoma Viral , Células Hep G2 , Humanos
15.
J Gastroenterol ; 51(11): 1073-1080, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26943168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interferon and nucleotide/nucleoside analogues are the main treatments for chronic hepatitis B. These drugs effectively reduce serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA titers but fail to sufficiently reduce hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels. Following the recent identification of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide as a receptor for HBV entry, inhibition of HBV entry has become an attractive therapeutic target for chronic hepatitis B treatment. We therefore evaluated the antiviral effects of antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) immunoglobulin (HBIG), which can inhibit HBV entry, by in an vivo study and a clinical trial. METHODS: In the in vivo study, HBV-infected mice were generated from human hepatocyte chimeric mice and treated with HBIG. A clinical trial evaluating HBIG therapy in patients was also performed. RESULTS: In the mouse study, HBV DNA titers were reduced and serum HBsAg titers decreased to undetectable levels following high-dose HBIG injection. On the basis of this result, eight chronic hepatitis B patients, who had received long-term nucleotide analogue treatment, were treated with monthly HBIG injections as an additional treatment. After 1 year of treatment, an HBsAg level reduction of more than 1 log IU/mL was observed in four patients, and three patients became anti-HBs positive. No adverse events occurred during HBIG therapy. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that monthly HBIG injection might benefit patients with chronic hepatitis B whose HBsAg titer becomes lower following long-term nucleotide/nucleoside analogue treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Quimera , Terapia Combinada , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 40(4): 524-30, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26966955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the value of preoperative fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET-CT) for predicting microvascular invasion (MVI) in small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We retrospectively examined 60 patients who received F-FDG PET-CT prior to hepatic resection for small HCC (≤30 mm) with subsequent MVI confirmation by histopathology. The associations between PET-positive status and tumor factors were assessed. Furthermore, independent predictors for MVI and diagnostic utility of each MVI predictor were assessed. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed the presence of MVI as an independent predictor of PET-positive status (P = 0.023). Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 3.2 or greater (P = 0.017) and lens culinaris agglutinin a-reactive α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) 19% or greater (P = 0.010) were independent predictors of MVI. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for SUVmax of 3.2 or greater, AFP-L3 19% or greater, and both factors combined for predicting MVI were 0.712 (0.493-0.932), 0.755 (0.563-0.947), and 0.856 (0.721-0.991), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting MVI were 77.8% and 74.5% for SUVmax of 3.2 or greater, 66.7% and 84.3% for AFP-L3 19% or greater, and 88.9% and 82.4% for the combination. CONCLUSIONS: F-FDG PET-CT and AFP-L3 may be useful for predicting MVI in small HCC, and the combination of the 2 factors provided reliable assessment for selection of suitable hepatic resection and liver transplantation candidates.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Microvasos/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Hepatol Res ; 46(12): 1256-1263, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26916827

RESUMO

AIM: Polymorphisms in the ITPA gene influence anemia during peg-interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy, but their effects during triple therapy with simeprevir, PEG-IFN, and RBV are not sufficiently known. METHODS: We analyzed 212 patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C, who were treated with simeprevir plus PEG-IFN/RBV triple therapy, and assessed the effect of the ITPA polymorphism on hemoglobin levels and RBV dose reduction. ITPA (rs1127354) and IFNL4 (ss469415590) polymorphisms were genotyped using the Invader assay. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with outcome of the therapy. RESULTS: Reduction of hemoglobin levels was similar between patients treated with simeprevir plus PEG-IFN/RBV and those treated with PEG-IFN/RBV therapy. In simeprevir plus PEG-IFN/RBV-treated patients, decreases in hemoglobin levels were faster and greater, and the cumulative proportion of patients with ribavirin dose reduction was significantly greater in ITPA genotype CC patients than in CA/AA patients. The total dose of simeprevir and PEG-IFN was similar between ITPA genotype CC and CA/AA patients. In contrast, the total dose of RBV was lower in patients with the CC genotype. Multivariate analysis showed that the IFNL4 TT/TT genotype, but not the ITPA SNP genotype, treatment history (treatment-naive or relapse during prior treatment), and treatment completion were significantly associated with outcome of therapy. CONCLUSION: ITPA polymorphism influences hemoglobin levels and incidence of RVB dose reduction during simeprevir triple therapy, indicating the importance of monitoring anemia during treatment, particularly for ITPA genotype CC patients.

18.
J Infect ; 72(1): 91-102, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26515673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been approved for chronic hepatitis B treatment, and favorable susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been indicated. However, differences in TDF susceptibility among HBV genotypes and drug-resistant strains are unclear. In this study, TDF susceptibilities between genotypes A and C were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using several drug-resistant HBV clones. METHODS: HBV expression plasmids were constructed from sera of HBV carriers, and drug-resistant substitutions were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. TDF susceptibility was evaluated by changes of core-associated HBV replication intermediates in vitro or by change of serum HBV DNA in human hepatocyte chimeric mice carrying each HBV clone in vivo. RESULTS: TDF susceptibilities of lamivudine-resistant clones (rtL180M/M204V) and lamivudine plus entecavir-resistant clones (rtL180M/S202G/M204V) were similar to wild type clones in vitro. However, lamivudine plus adefovir-resistant clones (rtA181T/N236T) acquired tolerance to TDF, and the rtN236T mutation was considered to be a causal substitution for TDF resistance. Furthermore, genotypic differences in TDF susceptibility were also observed between genotypes A and C in vitro, and the differences could be confirmed in vivo (p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that TDF susceptibility varies among HBV genotypes and drug-resistant HBV clones.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Tenofovir/farmacologia , Animais , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Células Hep G2 , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID
19.
Hepatol Res ; 46(9): 944-8, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26613201

RESUMO

Recently, treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been drastically improved by the development of direct-acting antiviral agents. In September 2014, dual oral therapy using daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) was approved for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in Japan. We treated a patient with HCV-related liver cirrhosis with severe leg edema due to chronic renal dysfunction using this dual oral therapy. Although serum alanine aminotransferase increased rapidly during the first week of treatment, the antiviral therapy was able to continue, and liver function recovered spontaneously. After 1 month of treatment, serum HCV RNA became continuously undetectable, and serum albumin level gradually increased. Throughout the therapy, serum creatinine level nearly normalized, and leg edema gradually improved. These improvements continued after the combination therapy was completed. HCV RNA remained undetectable following the end of therapy, and sustained virological response at 12 weeks was achieved. It has been reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with renal dysfunction and that HCV eradication can improve it. DCV and ASV combination therapy is safe for patients who have renal dysfunction and may be a suitable therapy for chronic hepatitis C patients with renal dysfunction.

20.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 31(5): 1009-15, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26584407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following successful eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with interferon (IFN) therapy in a long-term, large-scale cohort study. METHODS: We reviewed 1094 consecutive patients with HCV who achieved sustained virological response (SVR) following IFN therapy between January 1995 and September 2013. RESULTS: During the observation period (median 50 months: range 13-224), 36 (3%) of 1094 patients developed HCC after SVR. The median period from SVR to diagnosis of HCC was 37 months (range 17-141), and the cumulative rates of HCC at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4%, 6%, and 12%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified old age (≥60 years, HR, 3.1: 95%CI, 1.3-6.6: P = 0.009), male sex (HR, 12.0: 95%CI, 2.8-50.0: P < 0.0001), advanced fibrosis stage (F3/4, HR, 3.2: 95%CI, 1.6-7.2: P < 0.0001), and alpha-fetoprotein ≥10 ng/mL at 1 year after SVR (HR, 7.8: 95%CI, 2.9-16.8: P < 0.0001) as significant and independent risk factors for post-SVR HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and male sex (host factors), advanced fibrosis stage (pre-IFN treatment factor), and higher alpha-fetoprotein values (post-treatment factor) were significantly associated with HCC development after HCV eradication.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Feminino , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise
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