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1.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 118(10): 959-966, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629346

RESUMO

A man in his thirties was admitted to the hospital because of upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed intussusception in the ascending and transverse colon. After spontaneous discontinuation, endoscopy revealed a 25-mm 0-I tumor in the ileum. An emergency operation was performed the next day due to intussusception recurrence. The tumor was hyperplastic intestinal epithelium with dendritic smooth muscle fascicles and partly cancerous. The patient had no clinical features of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with Peutz-Jeghers type polyps based on pathological findings. This case is considered to be a rare case of intussusception in the transverse colon due to Peutz-Jeghers type polyp with canceration.


Assuntos
Colo Transverso , Intussuscepção , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers , Adulto , Humanos , Íleo , Intussuscepção/diagnóstico por imagem , Intussuscepção/etiologia , Intussuscepção/cirurgia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/complicações , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638971

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common liver malignancy with high morbidity and poor prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in crucial biological processes of tumorigenesis and progression, and play four major regulatory roles, namely signal, decoy, guide, and scaffold, to regulate gene expression. Through these processes, lncRNAs can target microRNAs (miRNAs) to form lncRNA and miRNA networks, which regulate cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, drug resistance, and the tumor microenvironment. Here, we summarize the multifaceted functions of lncRNA and miRNA networks in the pathogenesis of HCC, the potential use of diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and novel therapeutic targets in HCC. This review also highlights the regulatory effects of lncRNA and miRNA networks in the tumor microenvironment of HCC.

3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e24040, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A specific antinuclear antibody for primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is anti-Sp100, which was recognized as a serological marker of concurrent urinary tract infection. We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of PBC patients who had anti-Sp100. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with PBC and 10 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Anti-Sp100 were determined with an ELISA method. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) was measured as a serological hallmark for bacterial infection. The correlations of anti-Sp100 with demographic, laboratory, and pathological parameters were investigated. RESULTS: Six of the 51 (11.8%) PBC patients had anti-Sp100, whereas none of the HCs did. There was no significant difference in the frequency of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) between PBC patients with and without anti-Sp100 (67% vs. 82%, p = 0.5839). Biochemical and immunological parameters were not associated with the emergence of anti-Sp100 in these patients. The clinical stage by Scheuer classification was not correlated with the existence of anti-Sp100. No significant difference in the serum LBP levels was found between PBC patients with and without anti-Sp-100, although serum LBP levels were significantly higher in PBC patients with anti-Sp100 than in HCs (8.30 ± 2.24 ng/ml, vs. 5.12 ± 2.48 ng/ml, p = 0.0022). The frequency of granuloma formation was higher in the liver specimens of PBC patients with anti-Sp100 than in those without anti-Sp100 (67% vs 29%, p = 0.0710). CONCLUSION: anti-Sp100 does not become a complementary serological marker for PBC in AMA-negative patients. A bacterial infection may trigger the production of anti-Sp100. Another factor is required to initiate the autoantibody production.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360904

RESUMO

Remarkable progress has been made in the treatment and control of hepatitis B and C viral infections. However, fundamental treatments for diseases in which liver fibrosis is a key factor, such as cirrhosis, alcoholic/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, are still under development and remain an unmet medical need. To solve this problem, it is essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in detail from a molecular and cellular perspective and to develop targeted therapeutic agents based on this information. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), functional RNAs of 22 nucleotides, have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. In addition, extracellular vesicles called "exosomes" have been attracting attention, and research is being conducted to establish noninvasive and extremely sensitive biomarkers using miRNAs in exosomes. In this review, we summarize miRNAs directly involved in liver fibrosis, miRNAs associated with diseases leading to liver fibrosis, and miRNAs related to complications of cirrhosis. We will also discuss the efficacy of each miRNA as a biomarker of liver fibrosis and pathology, and its potential application as a therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colangite Esclerosante/sangue , Colangite Esclerosante/complicações , Epigênese Genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/complicações , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite Autoimune/sangue , Hepatite Autoimune/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/sangue , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações
7.
Brain Res ; 1768: 147595, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332964

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess spinal tract formation in neurons originating from cervical (C7), brachial (C14), and thoracic (T4) regions, with the lumbar (LS2) region as a reference, in a chick embryo. For the assessment of the spinal tracts, we introduced a vector expressing human placental alkaline phosphatase into progenitor cells generated after neural tube closure and belonging to the above segments, using in ovo electroporation. The ascending axons took primarily similar paths: dorsal commissural, ventral commissural, and dorsal non-commissural paths, with some variance depending on their originating segments. Some populations of non-commissural neurons later extended their axons following a ventral path. The elongation rates of these axons are primarily constant and tended to increase over time; however, some variations depending on the originating segments were also observed. Some of the dorsally ascending axons entered into the developing cerebellum, and spinocerebellar neurons originating from T4 projected their axons into the cortex of the cerebellum differently from those from LS2. These results unveil an overall picture of early ascending spinal tract formation.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362121

RESUMO

Non-invasive indexes of liver fibrosis based on blood examinations have been developed for decades, partially replacing liver biopsy examinations. Recently, the concept of liver cirrhosis was revised and converted to "compensated advanced chronic liver diseases" since the Baveno VI consensus statement in 2015. The term "compensated advanced chronic liver diseases" was established based on the premise that serum biomarkers were not able to differentiate cirrhosis from severe fibrosis. The difficulty to histologically distinguish cirrhosis from severe fibrosis had been pointed out in 1977, when the definition and nomenclatures of cirrhosis had been determined by the World Health Organization. That was decades before serum biomarkers available at present were investigated. Though we are accustomed to differentiating the fibrosis stage as stage 1, 2, 3 (severe fibrosis), and 4 (cirrhosis), differentiation of cirrhosis from severe fibrosis is difficult even by histopathological examination. The current review will provide readers a framework to revise how to apply serum biomarkers on liver fibrosis staging in an era of the concept of "compensated advanced chronic liver disease".

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299246

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), an aggressive malignancy, is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage. It is associated with dismal 5-year postoperative survival rates, generating an urgent need for prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that are associated with cancer regulation, including modulation of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, metastasis, angiogenesis, autophagy, therapy resistance, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Several miRNAs have been found to be dysregulated in CCA and are associated with CCA-related risk factors. Accumulating studies have indicated that the expression of altered miRNAs could act as oncogenic or suppressor miRNAs in the development and progression of CCA and contribute to clinical diagnosis and prognosis prediction as potential biomarkers. Furthermore, miRNAs and their target genes also contribute to targeted therapy development and aid in the determination of drug resistance mechanisms. This review aims to summarize the roles of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of CCA, their potential use as biomarkers of diagnosis and prognosis, and their utilization as novel therapeutic targets in CCA.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071550

RESUMO

Liver cancer has the fourth highest mortality rate of all cancers worldwide, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) being the most prevalent subtype. Despite great advances in systemic therapy, such as molecular-targeted agents, HCC has one of the worst prognoses due to drug resistance and frequent recurrence and metastasis. Recently, new therapeutic strategies such as cancer immunosuppressive therapy have prolonged patients' lives, and the combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) and VEGF inhibitor is now positioned as the first-line therapy for advanced HCC. Since the efficacy of ICIs depends on the tumor immune microenvironment, it is necessary to elucidate the immune environment of HCC to select appropriate ICIs. In this review, we summarize the findings on the immune microenvironment and immunosuppressive approaches focused on monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 for HCC. We also describe ongoing treatment modalities, including adoptive cell transfer-based therapies and future areas of exploration based on recent literature. The results of pre-clinical studies using immunological classification and animal models will contribute to the development of biomarkers that predict the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy and aid in the selection of appropriate strategies for HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946439

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a poor prognosis when diagnosed at an advanced stage, and early detection and treatment are essential to improve survival. However, intraobserver and interobserver variation make the diagnosis of superficial ESCC difficult, and suitable biomarkers are urgently needed. Here, we compared the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of superficial ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues obtained immediately before esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection. We found that ESCC and normal tissues differed in their miRNA expression profiles. In particular, miR-21-5p and miR-146b-5p were significantly upregulated and miR-210-3p was significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. We also detected significant associations between miRNA expression and ESCC invasion depth and lymphovascular invasion. The same differential expression of miR-21-5p, miR-146b-5p, and miR-210-3p was detected in ESCC cell lines compared with normal esophageal epithelial cells in vitro. However, transfection of ESCC cells with miR-210-3p and miR-21-5p mimics or inhibitors had partial effects on cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. These results indicate that miRNA expression is significantly deregulated in superficial ESCC, and suggest that the potential contribution of differentially expressed miRNAs to the malignant phenotype should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Transcriptoma
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808062

RESUMO

The liver is well recognized as a non-immunological visceral organ that is involved in various metabolic activities, nutrient storage, and detoxification. Recently, many studies have demonstrated that resident immune cells in the liver drive various immunological reactions by means of several molecular modulators. Understanding the mechanistic details of interactions between hepatic host immune cells, including Kupffer cells and lymphocytes, and various hepatic pathogens, especially viruses, bacteria, and parasites, is necessary. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), over 2600 of which have been discovered, are small, endogenous, interfering, noncoding RNAs that are predicted to regulate more than 15,000 genes by degrading specific messenger RNAs. Several recent studies have demonstrated that some miRNAs are associated with the immune response to pathogens in the liver. However, the details of the underlying mechanisms of miRNA interference in hepatic host-pathogen interactions still remain elusive. In this review, we summarize the relationship between the immunological interactions of various pathogens and hepatic resident immune cells, as well as the role of miRNAs in the maintenance of liver immunity against pathogens.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/virologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite/genética , Vírus de Hepatite/patogenicidade , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Abscesso Hepático/genética , Abscesso Hepático/microbiologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/genética , Peritonite/genética , Peritonite/microbiologia
17.
Oncol Rep ; 45(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907832

RESUMO

Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer­related mortality worldwide, and the prognosis of advanced colon cancer has remained poor in recent years. Galectin­9 (Gal­9) is a tandem­repeat type galectin that has recently been shown to exert antiproliferative effects on various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to assess the effects of Gal­9 on human colon and colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as to evaluate the microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) associated with the antitumor effects of Gal­9. We examined the ability of Gal­9 to inhibit cell proliferation via apoptosis, and the effects of Gal­9 on cell cycle­related molecules in various human colon and colorectal cancer cell lines. In addition, Gal­9­mediated changes in activated tyrosine kinase receptors and angiogenic molecules were assessed using protein array chips in colon and colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, miRNA array analysis was performed to examine Gal­9­induced miRNA expression profiles. We also elucidated if Gal­9 inhibited tumor growth in a murine in vivo model. We found that Gal­9 suppressed the cell proliferation of colon cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Our data further revealed that Gal­9 increased caspase­cleaved keratin 18 levels in Gal­9­treated colon cancer cells. In addition, Gal­9 enhanced the phosphorylation of ALK, DDR1, and EphA10 proteins. Furthermore, the miRNA expression levels, such as miR­1246, miR­15b­5p, and miR­1237, were markedly altered by Gal­9 treatment in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, Gal­9 suppresses the cell proliferation of human colon cancer by inducing apoptosis, and these findings suggest that Gal­9 can be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of colon cancer.

18.
Surg Today ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797636

RESUMO

Ampullary carcinomas of the duodenum are uncommon. Moreover, the diversity in the clinical outcomes of these patients makes it difficult to interpret previous studies and clinical trial results. The difficulty in proper staging of ampullary carcinomas, especially with regard to the T category of the tumor in the TNM system, reflects the anatomic complexity and non-uniform histopathologic subtypes. One major reason for this difficulty in interpretation is that the tumors may arise from any of the three epithelia (duodenal, biliary, or pancreatic) that converge at this location. Generally, ampullary carcinomas are classified into intestinal and pancreaticobiliary types based on morphology and immunohistochemical features. While many studies have described their specific characteristics and clinical impact, the prognostic value of these subtypes is controversial. In recent years, whole-exome sequencing analyses have advanced our understanding of the genomic overview of ampullary carcinoma. Gene mutations serve as prognostic and predictive biomarkers for this disease. Therefore, basic knowledge of the genomic profile of ampullary carcinomas is required for surgeons to understand how best to apply precision medicine as well as surgery and adjuvant therapies. This review provides an overview of the current basic and clinical issues of ampullary carcinoma.

19.
In Vivo ; 35(3): 1655-1660, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a difficult technique. Counter-traction may facilitate the procedure but its efficacy in non-experts remains unclear. We determined the safety and efficacy of pocket creation and ring-thread traction (PRM) for non-expert colorectal ESD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively compared patients who underwent conventional colorectal ESD (C-group, n=50) or PRM (pocket creation, whole-circumferential cutting, ring-thread traction, submucosal dissection; PRM-group, n=48). All procedures were performed by four non-experts, each with ≤40 experiences of colorectal ESD. RESULTS: Procedural time was significantly shorter in the PRM-group compared with the C-group (p=0.007), with less additional device usage (p<0.001). There also tended to be fewer perforation incidents and muscle injuries in the PRM-group. There were no significant differences in en bloc or R0 resection rates between the groups. CONCLUSION: PRM may be a safe, useful, and cost-effective technique for non-experts learning to perform colorectal ESD.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tração , Resultado do Tratamento
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