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1.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 76-84, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107546

RESUMO

Four epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between nut intake and pancreatic cancer risk with contradictory results. The present study aims to investigate the relation between nut intake (including seeds) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for nut intake and PDAC risk. Information on intake of nuts was obtained from the EPIC country-specific dietary questionnaires. After a mean follow-up of 14 years, 476,160 participants were eligible for the present study and included 1,283 PDAC cases. No association was observed between consumption of nuts and PDAC risk (highest intake vs nonconsumers: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; p-trend = 0.70). Furthermore, no evidence for effect-measure modification was observed when different subgroups were analyzed. Overall, in EPIC, the highest intake of nuts was not statistically significantly associated with PDAC risk.

2.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 221, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though in situ breast cancer (BCIS) accounts for a large proportion of the breast cancers diagnosed, few studies have investigated potential risk factors for BCIS. Their results suggest that some established risk factors for invasive breast cancer have a similar impact on BCIS risk, but large population-based studies on lifestyle factors and BCIS risk are lacking. Thus, we investigated the association between lifestyle and BCIS risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Lifestyle was operationalized by a score reflecting the adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations. The recommendations utilized in these analyses were the ones pertinent to healthy body weight, physical activity, consumption of plant-based foods, energy-dense foods, red and processed meat, and sugary drinks and alcohol, as well as the recommendation on breastfeeding. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the association between lifestyle score and BCIS risk. The results were presented as hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: After an overall median follow-up time of 14.9 years, 1277 BCIS cases were diagnosed. Greater adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was not associated with BCIS risk (HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.93-1.03; per one unit of increase; multivariable model). An inverse association between the lifestyle score and BCIS risk was observed in study centers, where participants were recruited mainly via mammographic screening and attended additional screening throughout follow-up (HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.99), but not in the remaining ones (HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: While we did not observe an overall association between lifestyle and BCIS risk, our results indicate that lifestyle is associated with BCIS risk among women recruited via screening programs and with regular screening participation. This suggests that a true inverse association between lifestyle habits and BCIS risk in the overall cohort may have been masked by a lack of information on screening attendance. The potential inverse association between lifestyle and BCIS risk in our analyses is consistent with the inverse associations between lifestyle scores and breast cancer risk reported from previous studies.

3.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 79(2): 245-254, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650337

RESUMO

Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of human and animal pathogens as well as non-pathogenic microorganisms acting as endosymbionts and whose role in ticks is still little known. Symbionts such as Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) are members of Francisellaceae family with unknown pathogenicity, detected in both hard and soft ticks. A total of 236 ticks collected from several sites in Sardinia were screened for Francisella species by PCR using primers targeting a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. DNA of Francisella was detected in 5.1% (12/236) of the ticks tested. Sequencing results revealed that seven Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., three Hyalomma marginatum, one Hy. lusitanicum, and one Rh. bursa ticks exhibited DNA with 99-100% similarity to Francisella-like endosymbionts isolated from different tick species all over the world. Further research is needed in order to better characterize FLE strains obtained in Sardinia and to better understand if their presence could be related to the infection with other zoonotic pathogens.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606841

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and the risk factors associated with C. burnetii infection in cattle in the state of Setif in northeastern Algeria from March 2016 to April 2018. A total of 678 cows animals aged at least 24 months and belonging to 90 herds were randomly selected. A serum sample from each cow was tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A structured questionnaire focusing on risk factors for C. burnetii infection was administered to farm owners involved in the study. The individual animal prevalence was 11.36% (77/678) (95%CI 8.97-13.75%), the herd prevalence was 45.56% (41/90) (95%CI 35.27-55.84%), and the within-herd prevalence ranged from 9.09 to 57.14% (mean 23.71%; Q1 11.11%, Q2 or median 20%, Q3 30%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that contact with other herds (odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95 CI 1.12-3.42) and purchased animals (OR 2.05, 95 CI 1.14-3.68) was identified as risk factors for seropositivity to C. burnetii, while the use of disinfectants (OR 0.32, 95 CI 0.14-0.72) was identified as protective factor. The results from the present study indicate that C. burnetii is circulating into cattle herds in the region of Setif in Northeastern of Algeria. It is recommended to implement good hygienic practices and measures of biosecurity to reduce the spread of infection between cattle herds and possible exposure of humans.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652358

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that a metabolic profile associated with obesity may be a more relevant risk factor for some cancers than adiposity per se. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an indicator of overall body metabolism and may be a proxy for the impact of a specific metabolic profile on cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of predicted BMR with incidence of 13 obesity-related cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). BMR at baseline was calculated using the WHO/FAO/UNU equations and the relationships between BMR and cancer risk were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 141,295 men and 317,613 women, with a mean follow-up of 14 years were included in the analysis. Overall, higher BMR was associated with a greater risk for most cancers that have been linked with obesity. However, among normal weight participants, higher BMR was associated with elevated risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio per 1-standard deviation change in BMR [HR1-SD ]: 2.46; 95% CI 1.20; 5.03) and distal colon cancer (HR1-SD : 1.33; 95% CI 1.001; 1.77) among men and with proximal colon (HR1-SD : 1.16; 95% CI 1.01; 1.35), pancreatic (HR1-SD : 1.37; 95% CI 1.13; 1.66), thyroid (HR1-SD : 1.65; 95% CI 1.33; 2.05), postmenopausal breast (HR1-SD : 1.17; 95% CI 1.11; 1.22) and endometrial (HR1-SD : 1.20; 95% CI 1.03; 1.40) cancers in women. These results indicate that higher BMR may be an indicator of a metabolic phenotype associated with risk of certain cancer types, and may be a useful predictor of cancer risk independent of body fatness.

6.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 178, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool to identify novel etiologic pathways leading to cancer. Using a targeted approach, we prospectively investigated the associations between metabolite concentrations in plasma and breast cancer risk. METHODS: A nested case-control study was established within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort, which included 1624 first primary incident invasive breast cancer cases (with known estrogen and progesterone receptor and HER2 status) and 1624 matched controls. Metabolites (n = 127, acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, sphingolipids) were measured by mass spectrometry in pre-diagnostic plasma samples and tested for associations with breast cancer incidence using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among women not using hormones at baseline (n = 2248), and after control for multiple tests, concentrations of arginine (odds ratio [OR] per SD = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-0.90), asparagine (OR = 0.83 (0.74-0.92)), and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) ae C36:3 (OR = 0.83 (0.76-0.90)), aa C36:3 (OR = 0.84 (0.77-0.93)), ae C34:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.94)), ae C36:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.88)), and ae C38:2 (OR = 0.84 (0.76-0.93)) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while the acylcarnitine C2 (OR = 1.23 (1.11-1.35)) was positively associated with disease risk. In the overall population, C2 (OR = 1.15 (1.06-1.24)) and PC ae C36:3 (OR = 0.88 (0.82-0.95)) were associated with risk of breast cancer, and these relationships did not differ by breast cancer subtype, age at diagnosis, fasting status, menopausal status, or adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to potentially novel pathways and biomarkers of breast cancer development. Results warrant replication in other epidemiological studies.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220945, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381585

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217367.].

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1220-1230, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation of dairy product consumption to health and mortality is controversial. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations of consumption of various dairy products with mortality in the Italian cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Italy study. METHODS: Dairy product consumption was assessed by validated semiquantitative FFQs. Multivariable Cox models stratified by center, age, and sex and adjusted for confounders estimated associations of milk (total, full fat, and reduced fat), yogurt, cheese, butter, and dairy calcium consumption with mortality for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all causes. Nonlinearity was tested by restricted cubic spline regression. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 14.9 y, 2468 deaths were identified in 45,009 participants: 59% from cancer and 19% from cardiovascular disease. No significant association of consumption of any dairy product with mortality was found in the fully adjusted models. A 25% reduction in risk of all-cause mortality was found for milk intake from 160 to 120 g/d (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.91) but not for the highest (>200 g/d) category of intake (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.08) compared with nonconsumption. Associations of full-fat and reduced-fat milk consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality were similar to those for milk as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: In this Italian cohort characterized by low to average milk consumption, we found no evidence of a dose-response association between milk consumption and mortality and also no association of consumption of other dairy products investigated with mortality.

9.
J Nutr ; 149(11): 1985-1993, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D. RESULTS: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.

10.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 21(9): 92, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352643

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the hypothesised mechanisms of skin cancerogenesis for thiazide diuretics; conducted an updated meta-analysis of studies focusing on their association with skin cancer risk; critically appraised the quality of available studies and identified knowledge gaps; and discussed implications for health professionals and patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Thiazide diuretics possess well-described photosensitizing properties and a causal association with skin cancer is biologically plausible. The epidemiological evidence is stronger for squamous cell cancer; however, diversity in design among studies, methodological concerns potentially affecting the validity of results, and scarcity of data on dose-relation relationship suggest caution in drawing conclusions. Only few, unbalanced, and/or heterogeneous data exist to date for melanoma and basal cell cancer. Patients effectively treated with thiazide diuretics are currently not advised to stop treatment, but encouraged to limit exposure to sunlight and regularly check their skin. While endorsing these recommendations, we believe that well-designed studies are urgently needed to overcome persistent knowledge gaps.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319002

RESUMO

Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(10): 1746-1754, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Except for a documented increase in osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations with older age, data on determinants of soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB (sRANKL) and OPG concentrations in women are limited. We evaluated reproductive and lifestyle factors as potential sources of variation in circulating sRANKL and OPG concentrations in pre- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study includes 2,016 controls [n = 1,552 (76%) postmenopausal, n = 757 (38%) using postmenopausal hormone therapy (PMH)] from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Serum sRANKL was measured using an ELISA and serum OPG using an electrochemiluminescent assay. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate associations between these analytes and reproductive and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Older age at blood collection was associated with lower sRANKL concentrations in postmenopausal women (P trend ≤ 0.03) and higher OPG concentrations in all women (P trend ≤ 0.01). Longer duration of oral contraceptive use among premenopausal women and postmenopausal PMH users was associated with higher OPG (P trend ≤ 0.04). In postmenopausal non-PMH users, sRANKL concentrations were lower with longer duration of oral contraceptive use and current (vs. never) smoking (P ≤ 0.01). sRANKL concentrations were higher among women with higher BMI (P trend ≤ 0.01). The evaluated factors accounted for 12% of the variation in sRANKL concentrations and 21% of the variation in OPG concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating sRANKL and OPG concentrations are minimally impacted by hormone-related factors in pre- and postmenopausal women. IMPACT: This study suggests circulating concentrations of sRANKL and OPG are unlikely to be strongly modified by hormone-related reproductive and lifestyle factors.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158242

RESUMO

The need to consider the role of social factors in the efficacy of farm management and, consequently, in the onset and persistence of diseases typical to animal farms is increasingly being realized increasingly worldwide. Many risk analysis studies have been conducted to assess the role of various factors in the development of animal diseases; however, very few have accounted for the role of social factors. The aim of this work was to bridge this gap, with the main hypothesis that different socio-economic factors could be valid indicators for the occurrence of different animal diseases. A socio-economic analysis was performed using demographic characteristics of the farmers and data from 44 social indicators released by the Italian Statistician National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) database. African swine fever (ASF) in wild boars (WB) and domestic pigs and other endemic animal diseases and zoonoses in Sardinia were considered, such as cistic echinococcosis (CE), contagious agalactia (CA), trichinellosis, West Nile disease (WND), and bluetongue (BT). Seven different negative binomial regression models were fitted using the number of cases between 2011-2017. Three indicators-cultural demand, employment rate, and legality-showed a statistically significant association with risk for all the diseases considered, but with varying effects. Some indicators, such as the age and sex of the farmer, material deprivation index, number of farms and animals, micro-criminality index, and rate of reported thefts were common to ASF, CA, trichinellosis, and CE cases. Others such as the forest surface and the energy produced from renewable sources were common to BT, WND, and ASF in WB. Tourism in seasons other than summer was a valid predictor of ASF and trichinellosis, while out-of-region hospital use had a statistically significant role in CE risk identification. These results may help understand the social context in which these diseases may occur and thus guide the design and implementation of additional risk management measures that go beyond well-known veterinary measures.

14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 66, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well established that estrogens and other hormonal factors influence breast cancer susceptibility. We hypothesized that a woman's total lifetime estrogen exposure accumulates changes in DNA methylation, detectable in the blood, which could be used in risk assessment for breast cancer. METHODS: An estimated lifetime estrogen exposure (ELEE) model was defined using epidemiological data from EPIC-Italy (n = 31,864). An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of ELEE was performed using existing Illumina HumanMethylation450K Beadchip (HM450K) methylation data obtained from EPIC-Italy blood DNA samples (n = 216). A methylation index (MI) of ELEE based on 31 CpG sites was developed using HM450K data from EPIC-Italy and the Generations Study and evaluated for association with breast cancer risk in an independent dataset from the Generations Study (n = 440 incident breast cancer cases matched to 440 healthy controls) using targeted bisulfite sequencing. Lastly, a meta-analysis was conducted including three additional cohorts, consisting of 1187 case-control pairs. RESULTS: We observed an estimated 5% increase in breast cancer risk per 1-year longer ELEE (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.07, P = 3 × 10-12) in EPIC-Italy. The EWAS identified 694 CpG sites associated with ELEE (FDR Q < 0.05). We report a DNA methylation index (MI) associated with breast cancer risk that is validated in the Generations Study targeted bisulfite sequencing data (ORQ4_vs_Q1 = 1.77, 95% CI 1.07-2.93, P = 0.027) and in the meta-analysis (ORQ4_vs_Q1 = 1.43, 95% CI 1.05-2.00, P = 0.024); however, the correlation between the MI and ELEE was not validated across study cohorts. CONCLUSION: We have identified a blood DNA methylation signature associated with breast cancer risk in this study. Further investigation is required to confirm the interaction between estrogen exposure and DNA methylation in the blood.

15.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between acute and habitual intakes of flavonols, their main food sources and their 24-h urinary concentrations in an European population. METHODS: A 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) and 24-h urine samples were collected on the same day from a convenience subsample of 475 men and women from four countries (France, Italy, Greece and Germany) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A standardized 24-HDR software and a country/centre-specific validated dietary questionnaire (DQ) were used to collect acute and habitual dietary data, respectively. The intake of dietary flavonols was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Urinary flavonols (quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol) were analysed using tandem mass spectrometry with a previous enzymatic hydrolysis. RESULTS: Weak partial Spearman correlations between both dietary acute and habitual intake and urinary concentrations of quercetin (both Rpartial ~ 0.3) and total flavonols (both Rpartial ~ 0.2) were observed. No significant correlations were found for kaempferol and isorhamentin. Regarding flavonol-rich foods, weak correlations were found between urinary concentrations of quercetin and total flavonols and the acute intake of onions and garlics, fruits, tea, and herbal tea (all Rpartial ~ 0.2). For habitual intake, statistically significant correlations were only found between urinary quercetin concentration and herbal tea (Rpartial = 0.345) and between urinary total flavonol concentration and tea, and herbal tea consumption (Rpartial ~ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that urinary quercetin level can be used as potential concentration biomarkers of both acute and habitual quercetin intake, while urinary concentrations of flavonols are unlikely to be useful biomarkers of individual flavonol-rich foods.

16.
Acta Trop ; 196: 60-65, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100271

RESUMO

Piroplasmoses are tick-borne protozoan diseases caused by hemoprotozoan parasites with considerable economic, veterinary and medical impact worldwide. Here, the presence and diversity of piroplasmids was investigated in ticks collected from domestic and wild hosts in a typical subtropical environment of Sardinia island by standard PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. We demonstrate the presence of strains closely related to the Theileria buffeli/sergentii/orientalis complex in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., Rh. bursa, Rh. annulatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis punctata ticks. A strain detected in two Rh. sanguineus s.l. ticks collected from dogs grouped with T. equi, the agent of equine piroplasmosis. T. ovis, the main etiological agent of ovine theileriosis, was detected in one Rh. bursa tick from a mouflon. Babesia bigemina, the causative agent of bovine babesiosis, was detected in two Rh. sanguineus s.l. ticks from dogs. Our findings expand the knowledge on the repertoire of tick-borne pathogens present in Mediterranean ticks. Further analyses are needed to determine the role of ticks in the biological or mechanical transmission of piroplasmoses in this area.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Cães , Ilhas , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934010

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a complex zoonosis with domestic and sylvatic life-cycles, involving different intermediate and definitive host species. Many previous studies have highlighted the lack of a surveillance system for CE, its persistence in Italy, and endemicity in several Italian regions. Because of the absence of a uniform surveillance program for both humans and animals, disease occurrence is widely underestimated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ovine CE in Italy. Survey data on the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus complex infections in Italian sheep farms from 2010 to 2015 were obtained in collaboration with Regional Veterinary Epidemiology Observatories (OEVRs). Bayesian analysis was performed to estimate the true CE farm prevalence. The prior true CE prevalence was estimated using data from Sardinia. Second, Bayesian modelling of the observed prevalence in different regions and the true prevalence estimation from the first step were used to ultimately estimate the prevalence of ovine CE in Italy. We obtained survey data from 10 OEVRs, covering 14 Italian regions. We observed that the risk of CE infection decreased over the years, and it was strictly correlated with the density of susceptible species. Using Sardinia as prior distribution, where the disease farm prevalence was approximately 19% (95% CI, 18.82-20.02), we estimated that the highest endemic CE farm prevalence was in Basilicata with a value of 12% (95% BCI: 7.49-18.9%) and in Piemonte 7.64%(95% BCI: 4.12-13.04%). Our results provide spatially relevant data crucial for guiding CE control in Italy. Precise information on disease occurrence location would aid in the identification of priority areas for disease control implementation by the authorities. The current underestimation of CE occurrence should urge the Italian and European governments to become aware of the public health importance of CE and implement targeted interventions for high-risk areas.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027226

RESUMO

Selenoprotein genetic variations and suboptimal selenium (Se) levels may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We examined the association between CRC risk and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein and Se metabolic pathway genes. Illumina Goldengate assays were designed and resulted in the genotyping of 1040 variants in 154 genes from 1420 cases and 1421 controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Multivariable logistic regression revealed an association of 144 individual SNPs from 63 Se pathway genes with CRC risk. However, regarding the selenoprotein genes, only TXNRD1 rs11111979 retained borderline statistical significance after adjustment for correlated tests (PACT = 0.10; PACT significance threshold was P < 0.1). SNPs in Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-signaling genes (FRZB, SMAD3, SMAD7) from pathways affected by Se intake were also associated with CRC risk after multiple testing adjustments. Interactions with Se status (using existing serum Se and Selenoprotein P data) were tested at the SNP, gene, and pathway levels. Pathway analyses using the modified Adaptive Rank Truncated Product method suggested that genes and gene x Se status interactions in antioxidant, apoptosis, and TGF-beta signaling pathways may be associated with CRC risk. This study suggests that SNPs in the Se pathway alone or in combination with suboptimal Se status may contribute to CRC development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Genótipo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Selenoproteínas/genética
19.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in lymphomagenesis and several dietary factors seem to be involved its regulation. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: The analysis included 476,160 subjects with an average follow-up of 13.9 years, during which 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 2606 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 395 NOS) were identified. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated using 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory weights. The association between the ISD and lymphoma risk was estimated by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated by multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The ISD was not associated with overall lymphoma risk. Among lymphoma subtypes, a positive association between the ISD and mature B-cell NHL (HR for a 1-SD increase: 1.07 (95% CI 1.01; 1.14), p trend = 0.03) was observed. No statistically significant association was found among other subtypes. However, albeit with smaller number of cases, a suggestive association was observed for HL (HR for a 1-SD increase = 1.22 (95% CI 0.94; 1.57), p trend 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that a high ISD score, reflecting a pro-inflammatory diet, was modestly positively associated with the risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Further large prospective studies on low-grade inflammation induced by diet are warranted to confirm these findings.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717230

RESUMO

Background: Lead exposure, even at low levels, is associated with adverse health effects in humans. We investigated the determinants of individual lead levels in a general population-based sample of adults from Florence, Italy. Methods: Erythrocyte lead levels were measured (using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) in 454 subjects enrolled in the Florence cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study in 1992⁻1998. Multiple linear regression models were used to study the association between demographics, education and working history, lifestyle, dietary habits, anthropometry, residential history, and (among women) menstrual and reproductive history and use of exogenous sex hormones, and erythrocyte lead levels. Results: Median lead levels were 86.1 µg/L (inter-quartile range 65.5⁻111.9 µg/L). Male gender, older age, cigarette smoking and number of pack-years, alcohol intake, and residing in urban areas were positively associated with higher erythrocyte lead levels, while performing professional/managerial or administrative work or being retired was inversely associated with lead levels. Among women, lead levels were higher for those already in menopause, and lower among those who ever used hormone replacement therapy. Conclusions: Avoidable risk factors contribute to the lead body burden among adults, which could therefore be lowered through targeted public health measures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Eritrócitos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco
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