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Heliyon ; 6(10): e05401, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163668


Spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in natural environments pose a risk to human and animal health. Wild birds are considered to be reservoirs of human pathogens and vectors of antimicrobial resistance distribution in the environment. The aim of this study is to assess the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in isolates from bird specimens living in three agro-pastoral areas of the southeastern Sicily. We analyzed the microbiomes of the Eurasian Stone curlew Burhinus oedicnemus (Charadriiformes, Aves) and identified 91 Gram positive and 212 Gram negative strains, whose antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 and 9 antibiotic classes (respectively) was evaluated using agar disk diffusion test. Isolates showed significant levels of antimicrobial resistance, and a high percentage of MDR strains was found both between the Gram positive (49.4%) and the Gram negative (34.9%). Multi-drug resistance levels are higher among strains isolated in the beak and the eye than among enteric (faeces and cloaca) strains. Our results indicate high levels of MDR strains among wild bird populations, with a potential threat to wildlife and human populations.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 63: 69-73, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172957


Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria are a threat to global health. Epidemiological studies are necessary to gain a more detailed understanding of the transmission modality of resistant bacteria to wild animals and their diffusion into the environment to ensure a broader evaluation of the epidemiological role of wildlife. The study aimed to identify little-known epidemiological aspects by focusing on the isolation of Enterobacteriaceae in order to bring knowledge on the bacterial flora of wild mammals living in the National Park of Aspromonte (Calabria, Italy). Two hundred twenty-five faecal samples of wild mammals were collected and submitted to standard bacteriological examination for Enterobacteriaceae detection. Isolates were identified by mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation - time of fligt mass spectrometry). The 30 isolates showing the highest number of resistances were screened for Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) production. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolates was performed by the disk diffusion method. Two hundred sixty-three strains were isolated. The most frequently recovered bacterial species were Hafnia alvei, Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp.. Potentially pathogenic species including Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Serratia marcescens have also been identified. Isolates displayed significant frequencies of antibiotic resistance. The resistance to amoxicillin (71.4%) was the most frequent, followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (55.5%), ampicillin (49.8%), streptomycin (35.7%), doxycycline (16.3%), tobramycin (15.2%), tetracycline (13.3%) and gentamicin (10.6%). Nine strains showed resistance to imipenem and 1 to meropenem. All isolates were negative for the presence of ESBL-encoding genes. Wild animals can be regarded as sentinel species and used as environmental health indicators.

Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Mamíferos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Itália , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Parques Recreativos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
Vet Ital ; 52(2): 139-44, 2016 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27393875


Wild birds have been considered to be reservoirs of enteric human pathogens and vectors of resistance dissemination to the environment. During annual migration, they potentially play a role in the epidemiology of human associated zoonoses. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Enterobacteriaceae members isolated from cloacal swabs of common European wild birds. Fifty-five cloacal swabs were taken during birds' entrance evaluation in a rescue centre for injured wild birds in the Province of Messina (Sicily, Italy). All samples were examined for the presence of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae using standard methods and on the isolated strains antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. Eighty three Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated from raptors, waterbirds and passerines. The bacterial species isolated were: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia vulneris, Enterobacter amnigenus biogroup 2, Salmonella Duesseldorf and Hafnia alvei. The isolates showed significant frequencies of antibiotic resistance. Multiresistance to three or more groups of antibiotics also occurred. None of them have shown a phenotypic Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) profile.

Aves/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Europa (Continente) , Microbioma Gastrointestinal