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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134415, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629265

RESUMO

Bioclimatic indices combine atmospheric parameters to provide analytical indication of climatic features and their evolution in space and time that can directly relate with natural resource availability, distribution, and related bio-physical processes. The availability of bioclimatic information can provide natural resource managers with analytical means to assess the magnitude and temporal evolution of drought and climate change parameters that could affect the availability, demand and use of natural resources for various sectors. This paper presents a methodology to process bioclimatic data in the space and time domains for assessing the moisture/dryness level and water requirements of a region, and inform water resource planning and management decisions related to drought, climate variability and change. The methodology relies on a modular assembly of statistical tests and methods, and utilizes point scale measurements of meteorological data to perform the analysis of the spatial behavior of derived bioclimatic indicators at the continuous regional scale, and evaluate the significance of the temporal trends. Also, the article presents an application of the proposed methodology to a coastal area of southern Italy (the Apulia Region) that is characterized by recurring water supply limitations, involving the use of the popular De Martonne bioclimatic aridity index. The methodology allowed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about the aridity level of the Apulia region, the identification of main bioclimatic zones, and the evaluation of spatial pattern and time evolution of aridity. The determination of bioclimatic zones showed that nearly 40% of the regional territory is characterized by dry sub-humid (Mediterranean) climate, about 30% by sub-humid climate, while nearly 10% and 20% are characterized by semi-arid and humid climates, respectively. The temporal analysis revealed that the Salento and the Ionian coastal zone are areas at risk of increasing aridity, with resulting impacts on the water supply and demand for irrigated agriculture.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mudança Climática , Secas , Ecossistema , Itália , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Estações do Ano , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 177(1-4): 245-61, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20711863

RESUMO

Anticipating the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the Italian Government issued Legislative Decree n.152/99 which sets out rules for classifying the environmental status of national water bodies in order to achieve specific qualitative objectives by 2016. The most recent European Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC), which was only recognized by Italy in early 2009 (Legislative Decree 30/09), requires such resources to be characterized from a qualitative standpoint and the risk of their being polluted by individual pollutants or groups of pollutants to be evaluated. This paper reports a simple methodology, based on easy-to-apply rules, for the rapid classification of groundwater, and the results of its application to the shallow aquifer of the plain of Tavoliere delle Puglie located in south Italy. Data collected during well-water monitoring campaigns carried out from 2002 to 2003 made it possible to assess the environmental status of the Tavoliere which, unfortunately, was found to be characterized by "significant anthropic pressures on quality and/or quantity of groundwater and necessitating specific improvement actions".


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália , Medição de Risco/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
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