Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 440
Filtrar
1.
J Clin Invest ; 131(17)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623326

RESUMO

Primary HIV-1 infection can be classified into six Fiebig stages based on virological and serological laboratory testing, whereas simian-HIV (SHIV) infection in nonhuman primates (NHPs) is defined in time post-infection, making it difficult to extrapolate NHP experiments to the clinics. We identified and extensively characterized the Fiebig-equivalent stages in NHPs challenged intrarectally or intravenously with SHIVAD8-EO. During the first month post-challenge, intrarectally challenged monkeys were up to 1 week delayed in progression through stages. However, regardless of the challenge route, stages I-II predominated before, and stages V-VI predominated after, peak viremia. Decrease in lymph node (LN) CD4+ T cell frequency and rise in CD8+ T cells occurred at stage V. LN virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses, dominated by degranulation and TNF, were first detected at stage V and increased at stage VI. A similar late elevation in follicular CXCR5+ CD8+ T cells occurred, consistent with higher plasma CXCL13 levels at these stages. LN SHIVAD8-EO RNA+ cells were present at stage II, but appeared to decline at stage VI when virions accumulated in follicles. Fiebig-equivalent staging of SHIVAD8-EO infection revealed concordance of immunological events between intrarectal and intravenous infection despite different infection progressions, and can inform comparisons of NHP studies with clinical data.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At interim analysis in a phase 3, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). After emergency use of the vaccine was authorized, the protocol was amended to include an open-label phase. Final analyses of efficacy and safety data from the blinded phase of the trial are reported. METHODS: We enrolled volunteers who were at high risk for Covid-19 or its complications; participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 µg) or placebo, 28 days apart, at 99 centers across the United States. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The data cutoff date was March 26, 2021. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 30,415 participants; 15,209 were assigned to receive the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and 15,206 to receive placebo. More than 96% of participants received both injections, 2.3% had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline, and the median follow-up was 5.3 months in the blinded phase. Vaccine efficacy in preventing Covid-19 illness was 93.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.0 to 94.8), with 55 confirmed cases in the mRNA-1273 group (9.6 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 7.2 to 12.5) and 744 in the placebo group (136.6 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 127.0 to 146.8). The efficacy in preventing severe disease was 98.2% (95% CI, 92.8 to 99.6), with 2 cases in the mRNA-1273 group and 106 in the placebo group, and the efficacy in preventing asymptomatic infection starting 14 days after the second injection was 63.0% (95% CI, 56.6 to 68.5), with 214 cases in the mRNA-1273 group and 498 in the placebo group. Vaccine efficacy was consistent across ethnic and racial groups, age groups, and participants with coexisting conditions. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine continued to be efficacious in preventing Covid-19 illness and severe disease at more than 5 months, with an acceptable safety profile, and protection against asymptomatic infection was observed. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.).

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551978

RESUMO

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major cause of respiratory disease worldwide, particularly among children and the elderly. Although there is no licensed HMPV vaccine, promising candidates have been identified for related pneumoviruses based on the structure-based stabilization of the fusion (F) glycoprotein trimer, with prefusion-stabilized F glycoprotein trimers eliciting significantly higher neutralizing responses than their postfusion F counterparts. However, immunization with HMPV F trimers in either prefusion or postfusion conformations has been reported to elicit equivalent neutralization responses. Here we investigate the impact of stabilizing disulfides, especially interprotomer disulfides (IP-DSs) linking protomers of the F trimer, on the elicitation of HMPV-neutralizing responses. We designed F trimer disulfides, screened for their expression, and used electron microscopy (EM) to confirm their formation, including that of an unexpected postfusion variant. In mice, IP-DS-stabilized prefusion and postfusion HMPV F elicited significantly higher neutralizing responses than non-IP-DS-stabilized HMPV Fs. In macaques, the impact of IP-DS stabilization was more measured, although IP-DS-stabilized variants of either prefusion or postfusion HMPV F induced neutralizing responses many times the average titers observed in a healthy human cohort. Serological and absorption-based analyses of macaque responses revealed elicited HMPV-neutralizing responses to be absorbed differently by IP-DS-containing and by non-IP-DS-containing postfusion Fs, suggesting IP-DS stabilization to alter not only the immunogenicity of select epitopes but their antigenicity as well. We speculate the observed increase in immunogenicity by IP-DS trimers to be related to reduced interprotomer flexibility within the HMPV F trimer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Dissulfetos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Metapneumovirus/imunologia , Mutação , Animais , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Imunização , Macaca , Metapneumovirus/genética , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009543, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559844

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which antibodies target and neutralize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is critical in guiding immunogen design and vaccine development aimed at eliciting cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Here, we analyzed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from non-human primates (NHPs) immunized with variants of a native flexibly linked (NFL) HIV-1 Env stabilized trimer derived from the tier 2 clade C 16055 strain. The antibodies displayed neutralizing activity against the autologous virus with potencies ranging from 0.005 to 3.68 µg/ml (IC50). Structural characterization using negative-stain EM and X-ray crystallography identified the variable region 2 (V2) of the 16055 NFL trimer to be the common epitope for these antibodies. The crystal structures revealed that the V2 segment adopts a ß-hairpin motif identical to that observed in the 16055 NFL crystal structure. These results depict how vaccine-induced antibodies derived from different clonal lineages penetrate through the glycan shield to recognize a hypervariable region within V2 (residues 184-186) that is unique to the 16055 strain. They also provide potential explanations for the potent autologous neutralization of these antibodies, confirming the immunodominance of this site and revealing that multiple angles of approach are permissible for affinity/avidity that results in potent neutralizing capacity. The structural analysis reveals that the most negatively charged paratope correlated with the potency of the mAbs. The atomic level information is of interest to both define the means of autologous neutralization elicited by different tier 2-based immunogens and facilitate trimer redesign to better target more conserved regions of V2 to potentially elicit cross-neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(607)2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408080

RESUMO

Anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may favor development of antiviral immunity by engaging the immune system during immunotherapy. Targeting integrin α4ß7 with an anti-α4ß7 monoclonal antibody (Rh-α4ß7) affects immune responses in SIV/SHIV-infected macaques. To explore the therapeutic potential of combining bNAbs with α4ß7 integrin blockade, SHIVSF162P3-infected, viremic rhesus macaques were treated with bNAbs only (VRC07-523LS and PGT128 anti-HIV antibodies) or a combination of bNAbs and Rh-α4ß7 or were left untreated as a control. Treatment with bNAbs alone decreased viremia below 200 copies/ml in all macaques, but seven of eight macaques (87.5%) in the bNAbs-only group rebounded within a median of 3 weeks (95% CI: 2 to 9). In contrast, three of six macaques treated with a combination of Rh-α4ß7 and bNAbs (50%) maintained a viremia below 200 copies/ml until the end of the follow-up period; viremia in the other three macaques rebounded within a median of 6 weeks (95% CI: 5 to 11). Thus, there was a modest delay in viral rebound in the macaques treated with the combination antibody therapy compared to bNAbs alone. Our study suggests that α4ß7 integrin blockade may prolong virologic control by bNAbs in SHIVSF162P3-infected macaques.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Integrinas , Macaca mulatta , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Science ; 373(6561): 1372-1377, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385356
8.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101127, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461095

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 spike is the primary target of virus-neutralizing antibodies and critical to the development of effective vaccines against COVID-19. Here, we demonstrate that the prefusion-stabilized two-proline "S2P" spike-widely employed for laboratory work and clinical studies-unfolds when stored at 4 °C, physiological pH, as observed by electron microscopy (EM) and differential scanning calorimetry, but that its trimeric, native-like conformation can be reacquired by low pH treatment. When stored for approximately 1 week, this unfolding does not significantly alter antigenic characteristics; however, longer storage diminishes antibody binding, and month-old spike elicits virtually no neutralization in mice despite inducing high ELISA-binding titers. Cryo-EM structures reveal the folded fraction of spike to decrease with aging; however, its structure remains largely similar, although with varying mobility of the receptor-binding domain. Thus, the SARS-CoV-2 spike is susceptible to unfolding, which affects immunogenicity, highlighting the need to monitor its integrity.

9.
Immunity ; 54(8): 1636-1651, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348117

RESUMO

The development of effective vaccines to combat infectious diseases is a complex multi-year and multi-stakeholder process. To accelerate the development of vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a novel pathogen emerging in late 2019 and spreading globally by early 2020, the United States government (USG) mounted an operation bridging public and private sector expertise and infrastructure. The success of the endeavor can be seen in the rapid advanced development of multiple vaccine candidates, with several demonstrating efficacy and now being administered around the globe. Here, we review the milestones enabling the USG-led effort, the methods utilized, and ensuing outcomes. We discuss the current status of COVID-19 vaccine development and provide a perspective for how partnership and preparedness can be better utilized in response to future public-health pandemic emergencies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Bioengenharia , Biotecnologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinologia
10.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 803-814, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Additional interventions are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by malaria. METHODS: We conducted a two-part, phase 1 clinical trial to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS, an antimalarial monoclonal antibody with an extended half-life, and its efficacy against infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Part A of the trial assessed the safety, initial side-effect profile, and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS in healthy adults who had never had malaria. Participants received CIS43LS subcutaneously or intravenously at one of three escalating dose levels. A subgroup of participants from Part A continued to Part B, and some received a second CIS43LS infusion. Additional participants were enrolled in Part B and received CIS43LS intravenously. To assess the protective efficacy of CIS43LS, some participants underwent controlled human malaria infection in which they were exposed to mosquitoes carrying P. falciparum sporozoites 4 to 36 weeks after administration of CIS43LS. RESULTS: A total of 25 participants received CIS43LS at a dose of 5 mg per kilogram of body weight, 20 mg per kilogram, or 40 mg per kilogram, and 4 of the 25 participants received a second dose (20 mg per kilogram regardless of initial dose). No safety concerns were identified. We observed dose-dependent increases in CIS43LS serum concentrations, with a half-life of 56 days. None of the 9 participants who received CIS43LS, as compared with 5 of 6 control participants who did not receive CIS43LS, had parasitemia according to polymerase-chain-reaction testing through 21 days after controlled human malaria infection. Two participants who received 40 mg per kilogram of CIS43LS and underwent controlled human malaria infection approximately 36 weeks later had no parasitemia, with serum concentrations of CIS43LS of 46 and 57 µg per milliliter at the time of controlled human malaria infection. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults who had never had malaria infection or vaccination, administration of the long-acting monoclonal antibody CIS43LS prevented malaria after controlled infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; VRC 612 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04206332.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação
11.
Immunity ; 54(8): 1869-1882.e6, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270939

RESUMO

Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) was previously observed in some preclinical models of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and MERS coronavirus vaccines. We used the SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mouse-adapted, passage 10, lethal challenge virus (MA10) mouse model of acute lung injury to evaluate the immune response and potential for immunopathology in animals vaccinated with research-grade mRNA-1273. Whole-inactivated virus or heat-denatured spike protein subunit vaccines with alum designed to elicit low-potency antibodies and Th2-skewed CD4+ T cells resulted in reduced viral titers and weight loss post challenge but more severe pathological changes in the lung compared to saline-immunized animals. In contrast, a protective dose of mRNA-1273 induced favorable humoral and cellular immune responses that protected from viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract upon challenge. A subprotective dose of mRNA-1273 reduced viral replication and limited histopathological manifestations compared to animals given saline. Overall, our findings demonstrate an immunological signature associated with antiviral protection without disease enhancement following vaccination with mRNA-1273.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Biópsia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , RNA Mensageiro , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem
12.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109353, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237283

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is one of three coronaviruses that have crossed the animal-to-human barrier and caused widespread disease in the past two decades. The development of a universal human coronavirus vaccine could prevent future pandemics. We characterize 198 antibodies isolated from four COVID-19+ subjects and identify 14 SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. One targets the N-terminal domain (NTD), one recognizes an epitope in S2, and 11 bind the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Three anti-RBD neutralizing antibodies cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-1 by effectively blocking binding of both the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 RBDs to the ACE2 receptor. Using the K18-hACE transgenic mouse model, we demonstrate that the neutralization potency and antibody epitope specificity regulates the in vivo protective potential of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. All four cross-neutralizing antibodies neutralize the B.1.351 mutant strain. Thus, our study reveals that epitopes in S2 can serve as blueprints for the design of immunogens capable of eliciting cross-neutralizing coronavirus antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
13.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1946918, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328065

RESUMO

Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing antibodies is showing promise in the treatment and prevention of HIV-1. One class of antibodies, the VRC01 class, appears especially promising. To improve VRC01-class antibodies, we combined structure-based design with a matrix-based approach to generate VRC01-class variants that filled an interfacial cavity, used diverse third-complementarity-determining regions, reduced potential steric clashes, or exploited extended contacts to a neighboring protomer within the envelope trimer. On a 208-strain panel, variant VRC01.23LS neutralized 90% of the panel at a geometric mean IC80 less than 1 µg/ml, and in transgenic mice with human neonatal-Fc receptor, the serum half-life of VRC01.23LS was indistinguishable from that of the parent VRC01LS, which has a half-life of 71 d in humans. A cryo-electron microscopy structure of VRC01.23 Fab in complex with BG505 DS-SOSIP.664 Env trimer determined at 3.4-Å resolution confirmed the structural basis for its ~10-fold improved potency relative to VRC01. Another variant, VRC07-523-F54-LS.v3, neutralized 95% of the 208-isolated panel at a geometric mean IC80 of less than 1 µg/ml, with a half-life comparable to that of the parental VRC07-523LS. Our matrix-based structural approach thus enables the engineering of VRC01 variants for HIV-1 therapy and prevention with improved potency, breadth, and pharmacokinetics.

14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135892

RESUMO

Sequence signatures of multidonor broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies can be used to quantify the prevalence of B cells with virus-neutralizing potential to accelerate development of broadly protective vaccine strategies. Antibodies of the same class share similar recognition modes and developmental pathways, and several antibody classes have been identified that neutralize diverse group 1- and group 2-influenza A viruses and have been observed in multiple human donors. One such multidonor antibody class, the HV6-1-derived class, targets the stem region of hemagglutinin with extraordinary neutralization breadth. Here, we use an iterative process to combine informatics, biochemical, and structural analyses to delineate an improved sequence signature for HV6-1-class antibodies. Based on sequence and structure analyses of known HV6-1 class antibodies, we derived a more inclusive signature (version 1), which we used to search for matching B-cell transcripts from published next-generation sequencing datasets of influenza vaccination studies. We expressed selected antibodies, evaluated their function, and identified amino acid-level requirements from which to refine the sequence signature (version 2). The cryo-electron microscopy structure for one of the signature-identified antibodies in complex with hemagglutinin confirmed motif recognition to be similar to known HV6-1-class members, MEDI8852 and 56.a.09, despite differences in recognition-loop length. Threading indicated the refined signature to have increased accuracy, and signature-identified heavy chains, when paired with the light chain of MEDI8852, showed neutralization comparable to the most potent members of the class. Incorporating sequences of additional class members thus enables an improved sequence signature for HV6-1-class antibodies, which can identify class members with increased accuracy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Reações Cruzadas , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Immunol ; 207(2): 505-511, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162723

RESUMO

i.v. injected Abs have demonstrated protection against simian HIV infection in rhesus macaques, paving the way for the Antibody Mediated Prevention trial in which at-risk individuals for HIV received an i.v. infusion of the HIV broadly neutralizing Ab VRC01. However, the time needed for these Abs to fully distribute and elicit protection at mucosal sites is still unknown. In this study, we interrogate how long it takes for Abs to achieve peak anatomical levels at the vaginal surface following i.v. injection. Fluorescently labeled VRC01 and/or Gamunex-C were i.v. injected into 24 female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with vaginal tissues and plasma acquired up to 2 wk postinjection. We found that Ab delivery to the vaginal mucosa occurs in two phases. The first phase involves delivery to the submucosa, occurring within 24 h and persisting beyond 1 wk. The second phase is the delivery through the stratified squamous epithelium, needing ∼1 wk to saturate the stratum corneum. This study has important implications for the efficacy of immunoprophylaxis targeting pathogens at the mucosa.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas , Macaca mulatta , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia
16.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961055

RESUMO

ZIKV DNA vaccine VRC5283 encoding viral structural genes, has been shown to be immunogenic in humans. Recognizing that antigenically-related flaviviruses co-circulate in regions with ZIKV activity, we explored the degree of antibody cross-reactivity elicited by this vaccine candidate using genetically-diverse flaviviruses. The antibody response of vaccinated individuals with no evidence of prior flavivirus infection or vaccine experience had a limited capacity to bind heterologous viruses. In contrast, vaccine-elicited antibodies from individuals with prior flavivirus experience had a greater capacity to bind, but not neutralize, distantly-related flaviviruses. These findings suggest that prior flavivirus exposure shapes the humoral immune response to vaccination.

17.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948590

RESUMO

SARS-CoV in 2003, SARS-CoV-2 in 2019, and SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) can cause deadly infections, underlining the importance of developing broadly effective countermeasures against Group 2B Sarbecoviruses, which could be key in the rapid prevention and mitigation of future zoonotic events. Here, we demonstrate the neutralization of SARS-CoV, bat CoVs WIV-1 and RsSHC014, and SARS-CoV-2 variants D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.429, B1.351 by a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody DH1047. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with DH1047 demonstrated protection against SARS-CoV, WIV-1, RsSHC014, and SARS-CoV-2 B1.351infection in mice. Binding and structural analysis showed high affinity binding of DH1047 to an epitope that is highly conserved among Sarbecoviruses. We conclude that DH1047 is a broadly neutralizing and protective antibody that can prevent infection and mitigate outbreaks caused by SARS-like strains and SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our results argue that the RBD conserved epitope bound by DH1047 is a rational target for pan Group 2B coronavirus vaccines.

18.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal HIV-1 continues to occur due to barriers to effective antiretroviral prevention that might be mitigated by long-acting broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs). METHODS: Extended half-life bNAb, VRC01LS, was administered subcutaneously (SC) at 80 mg/dose after birth to HIV-1-exposed, non-breastfed (Cohort 1, n=10) and breastfed (Cohort 2, n=11) infants. Cohort 2 received a second dose (100mg) at 12 weeks. All received antiretroviral prophylaxis. VRC01LS levels were compared to VRC01 levels determined in a prior cohort. RESULTS: Local reactions (all Grade <2) occurred in 67% and 20% after Dose 1 and Dose 2, respectively. The weight-banded dose (mean 28.8 mg/kg) of VRC01LS administrated SC achieved a mean +SD plasma level of 222.3 + 71.6 mcg/mL by 24 hours and 44.0 + 11.6 mcg/mL at week 12, prior to Dose 2. The pre-established target of > 50 mcg/mL was attained in 95% and 32% at week 8 and 12, respectively. The terminal half-life was 37-41 days. VRC01LS level after one dose was significantly greater (p=<0.002) than after a VRC01 dose (20mg/kg). No infants acquired HIV-1. CONCLUSIONS: VRC01LS was well tolerated with pharmacokinetics that support further studies of more potent long-acting bNAbs as adjunct treatment with ARVs to prevent infant HIV-1 transmission.

19.
bioRxiv ; 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031659

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 mutations may diminish vaccine-induced protective immune responses, and the durability of such responses has not been previously reported. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the impact of variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429, and B.1.526 on binding, neutralizing, and ACE2-blocking antibodies elicited by the vaccine mRNA-1273 over seven months. Cross-reactive neutralizing responses were rare after a single dose of mRNA-1273. At the peak of response to the second dose, all subjects had robust responses to all variants. Binding and functional antibodies against variants persisted in most subjects, albeit at low levels, for 6 months after the primary series of mRNA-1273. Across all assays, B.1.351 had the greatest impact on antibody recognition, and B.1.1.7 the least. These data complement ongoing studies of clinical protection to inform the potential need for additional boost vaccinations. One-Sentence Summary: Most mRNA-1273 vaccinated individuals maintained binding and functional antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants for 6 months.

20.
Cell Rep ; 35(1): 108937, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826898

RESUMO

Soluble "SOSIP"-stabilized envelope (Env) trimers are promising HIV-vaccine immunogens. However, they induce high-titer responses against the glycan-free trimer base, which is occluded on native virions. To delineate the effect on base responses of priming with immunogens targeting the fusion peptide (FP) site of vulnerability, here, we quantify the prevalence of trimer-base antibody responses in 49 non-human primates immunized with various SOSIP-stabilized Env trimers and FP-carrier conjugates. Trimer-base responses account for ∼90% of the overall trimer response in animals immunized with trimer only, ∼70% in animals immunized with a cocktail of SOSIP trimer and FP conjugate, and ∼30% in animals primed with FP conjugates before trimer immunization. Notably, neutralization breadth in FP-conjugate-primed animals correlates inversely with trimer-base responses. Our data provide methods to quantify the prevalence of trimer-base responses and reveal that FP-conjugate priming, either alone or as part of a cocktail, can reduce the trimer-base response and improve the neutralization outcome.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...