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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460553

RESUMO

The older adult population, estimated to double by 2050, is at increased risk of respiratory infections and other pulmonary diseases. Biochemical changes in the lung alveolar lining fluid (ALF) and in alveolar compartment cells can alter local immune responses as we age, generating opportunities for invading pathogens to establish successful infections. Indeed, the lung alveolar space of older adults is a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative, dysregulated environment that remains understudied. We performed an exploratory, quantitative proteomic profiling of the soluble proteins present in ALF, developing insight into molecular fingerprints, pathways, and regulatory networks that characterize the alveolar space in old age, comparing it to that of younger individuals. We identified 457 proteins that were significantly differentially expressed in older adult ALF, including increased production of matrix metalloproteinases, markers of cellular senescence, antimicrobials, and proteins of neutrophilic granule origin, among others, suggesting that neutrophils in the lungs of older adults could be potential contributors to the dysregulated alveolar environment with increasing age. Finally, we describe a hypothetical regulatory network mediated by the Serum Response Factor that could explain the neutrophilic profile observed in the older adult population.

2.
Respir Med ; 193: 106746, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124355

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little information is available about Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in patients with bronchiectasis. We analyzed data from the US Bronchiectasis and NTM Research Registry to determine its prevalence and association with patient characteristics and severity of disease. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up data were entered into a central web-based database. Patients were grouped into four cohorts based on their baseline cultures: 1) S. maltophilia, no Pseudomonas aeruginsosa, 2) P. aeruginosa, no S. maltophilia, 3) No pathogens, 4) Pathogens other than P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia. The association between S. maltophilia, demographic characteristics, pulmonary function, exacerbations and hospitalizations was assessed at baseline and one year follow-up. RESULTS: Among 2659 patients, 134 (5.0%) had grown S. maltophilia at baseline. The prior exacerbation rate at baseline was similar in patients with S. maltophilia and P. aeruginosa, but significantly higher than the other two groups. Hospitalizations were more frequent in patients with S. maltophilia or P. aeruginosa. Pre-bronchodilator FEV1 among S. maltophilia patients was between that of Pseudomonas patients and patients without either organism, but was not significantly different from any of the other groups. For all risk-adjusted one-year outcomes, patients with S. maltophilia had a non-significant trend towards worse outcomes compared to patients without P. aeruginosa, but were more similar to patients with P aeruginosa. DISCUSSION: Bronchiectasis patients with S. maltophilia may have worse outcomes than patients without this organism or without P. aeruginosa; further study is needed to determine if the non-significant trends we note are clinically significant.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Bronquiectasia/complicações , Humanos , Pulmão , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Sistema de Registros
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055170

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) infection, caused by the airborne pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), resulted in almost 1.4 million deaths in 2019, and the number of deaths is predicted to increase by 20% over the next 5 years due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Upon reaching the alveolar space, M.tb comes into close contact with the lung mucosa before and after its encounter with host alveolar compartment cells. Our previous studies show that homeostatic, innate soluble components of the alveolar lining fluid (ALF) can quickly alter the cell envelope surface of M.tb upon contact, defining subsequent M.tb-host cell interactions and infection outcomes in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrated that ALF from 60+ year old elders (E-ALF) vs. healthy 18- to 45-year-old adults (A-ALF) is dysfunctional, with loss of homeostatic capacity and impaired innate soluble responses linked to high local oxidative stress. In this study, a targeted transcriptional assay shows that M.tb exposure to human ALF alters the expression of its cell envelope genes. Specifically, our results indicate that A-ALF-exposed M.tb upregulates cell envelope genes associated with lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism, as well as genes associated with redox homeostasis and transcriptional regulators. Conversely, M.tb exposure to E-ALF shows a lesser transcriptional response, with most of the M.tb genes unchanged or downregulated. Overall, this study indicates that M.tb responds and adapts to the lung alveolar environment upon contact, and that the host ALF status, determined by factors such as age, might play an important role in determining infection outcome.


Assuntos
Cápsulas Bacterianas/genética , Cápsulas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Estruturas Celulares , Feminino , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/biossíntese , Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Masculino , Manosídeos/biossíntese , Manosídeos/genética , Manosiltransferases/biossíntese , Manosiltransferases/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(162)2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789465

RESUMO

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have a class effect of increasing pneumonia risk in patients with COPD. However, pneumonia incidence varies widely across clinical trials of ICS use in COPD. This review clarifies methodological differences in defining and recording pneumonia events in these trials and discusses factors that could contribute to the varying pneumonia incidence. Literature searches and screening yielded 40 relevant references for inclusion. Methods used to capture pneumonia events in these studies included investigator-reported pneumonia adverse events, standardised list of signs or symptoms, radiographic confirmation of suspected cases and/or confirmation by an independent clinical end-point committee. In general, more stringent pneumonia diagnosis criteria led to lower reported pneumonia incidence rates. In addition, studies varied in design and population characteristics, including exacerbation history and lung function, factors that probably contribute to the varying pneumonia incidence. As such, cross-trial comparisons are problematic. A minimal set of standardised criteria for diagnosis and reporting of pneumonia should be used in COPD studies, as well as reporting of patients' pneumonia history at baseline, to allow comparison of pneumonia rates between trials. Currently, within-trial comparison of ICS-containing versus non-ICS-containing treatments is the appropriate method to assess the influence of ICS on pneumonia incidence.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
5.
Allergy ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma (AA) and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) are common comorbid environmentally triggered diseases. We hypothesized that severe AA/ARC reflects a maladaptive or unrestrained response to ubiquitous aeroallergens. METHODS: We performed provocation studies wherein six separate cohorts of persons (total n = 217) with ARC, with or without AA, were challenged once or more with fixed concentrations of seasonal or perennial aeroallergens in an aeroallergen challenge chamber (ACC). RESULTS: Aeroallergen challenges elicited fully or partially restrained vs. unrestrained evoked symptom responsiveness, corresponding to the resilient and adaptive vs. maladaptive AA/ARC phenotypes, respectively. The maladaptive phenotype was evoked more commonly during challenge with a non-endemic versus endemic seasonal aeroallergen. In an AA cohort, symptom responses evoked after house dust mite (HDM) challenges vs. recorded in the natural environment were more accurate and precise predictors of asthma severity and control, lung function (FEV1), and mechanistic correlates of maladaptation. Correlates included elevated levels of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, eosinophils, and T-cell activation, as well as gene expression proxies for ineffectual epithelial injury/repair responses. Evoked symptom severity after HDM challenge appeared to be more closely related to levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells than eosinophils, neutrophils, or HDM-specific IgE. CONCLUSIONS: Provocation studies support the concept that resilience, adaptation, and maladaptation to environmental disease triggers calibrate AA/ARC severity. Despite the ubiquity of aeroallergens, in response to these disease triggers in controlled settings (ie, ACC), most atopic persons manifest the resilient or adaptive phenotype. Thus, ARC/AA disease progression may reflect the failure to preserve the resilient or adaptive phenotype. The triangulation of CD8+ T-cell activation, airway epithelial injury/repair processes and maladaptation in mediating AA disease severity needs more investigation.

6.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580670

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) infection, caused by the airborne pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M . tb ), resulted in almost 1.4 million deaths in 2019 and the number of deaths is predicted to increase by 20% over the next 5 years due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Upon reaching the alveolar space, M . tb comes in close contact with the lung mucosa before and after its encounter with host alveolar compartment cells. Our previous studies show that homeostatic innate soluble components of the alveolar lining fluid (ALF) can quickly alter the cell envelope surface of M . tb upon contact, defining subsequent M . tb -host cell interactions and infection outcomes in vitro and in vivo . We also demonstrated that ALF from 60+ year old elders (E-ALF) vs . healthy 18- to 45-year-old adults (A-ALF) is dysfunctional with loss of homeostatic capacity and impaired innate soluble responses linked to high local oxidative stress. In this study, a targeted transcriptional assay demonstrates that M . tb exposure to human ALF alters the expression of its cell envelope genes. Specifically, our results indicate that A-ALF-exposed M . tb upregulates cell envelope genes associated with lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism, as well as genes associated with redox homeostasis and transcriptional regulators. Conversely, M . tb exposure to E-ALF shows lesser transcriptional response, with most of the M . tb genes unchanged or downregulated. Overall, this study indicates that M . tb responds and adapts to the lung alveolar environment upon contact, and that the host ALF status determined by factors such as age might play an important role in determining infection outcome.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(2): 533-549, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Signifying the 2-compartments/1-disease paradigm, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) and asthma (AA) are prevalent, comorbid conditions triggered by environmental factors (eg, house dust mites [HDMs]). However, despite the ubiquity of triggers, progression to severe ARC/AA is infrequent, suggesting either resilience or adaptation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether ARC/AA severity relates to maladaptive responses to disease triggers. METHODS: Adults with HDM-associated ARC were challenged repetitively with HDMs in an aeroallergen challenge chamber. Mechanistic traits associated with disease severity were identified. RESULTS: HDM challenges evoked maladaptive (persistently higher ARC symptoms), adaptive (progressive symptom reduction), and resilient (resistance to symptom induction) phenotypes. Symptom severity in the natural environment was an imprecise correlate of the phenotypes. Nasal airway traits, defined by low inflammation-effectual epithelial integrity, moderate inflammation-effectual epithelial integrity, and higher inflammation-ineffectual epithelial integrity, were hallmarks of the resilient, adaptive, and maladaptive evoked phenotypes, respectively. Highlighting a crosstalk mechanism, peripheral blood inflammatory tone calibrated these traits: ineffectual epithelial integrity associated with CD8+ T cells, whereas airway inflammation associated with both CD8+ T cells and eosinophils. Hallmark peripheral blood maladaptive traits were increased natural killer and CD8+ T cells, lower CD4+ mucosal-associated invariant T cells, and deficiencies along the TLR-IRF-IFN antiviral pathway. Maladaptive traits tracking HDM-associated ARC also contributed to AA risk and severity models. CONCLUSIONS: Repetitive challenges with HDMs revealed that maladaptation to disease triggers may underpin ARC/AA disease severity. A combinatorial therapeutic approach may involve reversal of loss-of-beneficial-function traits (ineffectual epithelial integrity, TLR-IRF-IFN deficiencies), mitigation of gain-of-adverse-function traits (inflammation), and blocking of a detrimental crosstalk between the peripheral blood and airway compartments.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/toxicidade , Asma/imunologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Pyroglyphidae , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Asma/patologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino
8.
Acad Radiol ; 28(3): 370-378, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217055

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Bronchiectasis (BE) is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but emphysema and small airways disease, main pathologic features of COPD, have been sparsely studied in BE. We aimed to objectively assess those features in smokers with and without radiographic BE and examine its relationships to airflow obstruction and exercise capacity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We measured emphysema and small airways disease on paired inspiratory-expiratory computed tomography (CT) scans with the parametric response map (PRMEMPH and PRMSAD) method in 1184 smokers with and without radiographic BE. PRMSAD and PRMEMPH are expressed as the percentage of lung area. Clinical, spirometry, and exercise capacity data were measured with standardized methods. The differences in PRMSAD and PRMEMPH between subjects with and without radiographic BE were assessed using multivariable linear regression analysis, and their associations with FEV1 and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were assessed with generalized linear models. RESULTS: Out of 1184 subjects, 383 (32%) had radiographic BE. PRMEMPH but not PRMSAD was higher in subjects with radiographic BE than those without radiographic BE in adjusted models. Subjects with radiographic BE and PRMEMPH (defined as ≥5% on paired CTs) had lower FEV1 (least square mean, 1479 mL vs. 2350 mL p < 0.0001) and 6MWT (372 m vs. 426 m p = 0.0007) than those with radiographic BE alone in adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Smokers with radiographic BE have an increased burden of emphysema on paired CTs, and those with radiographic BE and emphysema have lower airflow and exercise capacity.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Enfisema , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tolerância ao Exercício , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fumantes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
J Asthma ; 57(9): 959-967, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264894

RESUMO

Objective: To compare healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), healthcare expenditures, and work productivity and activity impairment within a general asthma population with persistent asthma and evidence of allergy (PA-EA) and persistent asthma with no evidence of allergy (PA-NEA).Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of survey responses and claims from the Observational Study of Asthma Control and Outcomes (OSACO) study. Eligible patients with persistent asthma aged ≥12 years were sent four surveys over 15 months. Regression models were used to assess the association between: (1) PA-EA (defined as a positive response to a survey question about hay fever/seasonal allergies AND ≥1 diagnostic code for atopic conditions) and HCRU and expenditures; and (2) PA-EA and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI)-Asthma questionnaire scores (vs. PA-NEA).Results: Adjusted data showed that, vs. PA-NEA (n = 312), patients with PA-EA (n = 971) incurred 1.34-times more all-cause prescriptions (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.48), $132.79 higher prescription costs (95% CI, $22.03-243.56), and $926.11 higher all-cause total healthcare costs (95% CI, $279.67-1572.54), per 4-month period. Patients with PA-EA were 4.1% less productive while working (95% CI, 3.75-4.48%) and experienced a 6.5% reduction in all activities (95% CI, 6.11-6.88%) vs. those with PA-NEA.Conclusions: Patients with PA-EA had greater HCRU, healthcare expenditures, and lower productivity compared with those patients with PA-NEA. These results highlight the burden of atopy in patients with persistent asthma and underscore the importance of allergic endotype identification for more vigilant disease management.


Assuntos
Asma/economia , Eficiência , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipersensibilidade/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/complicações , Asma/imunologia , Asma/terapia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
10.
J Asthma ; 57(11): 1263-1272, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311356

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health utilities among asthma patients with and without comorbid allergies in a managed care population.Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patient survey responses and pharmacy claims from the Observational Study of Asthma Control and Outcomes (OSACO). Patients ≥12 years-old with persistent asthma received four identical surveys between April-2011 and December-2012. The presence of allergy was identified by a positive response to a survey question about hay fever/seasonal allergies and ≥1 diagnosis-related ICD-9-CM code(s) for allergic conditions. HRQoL instruments included generic utility (EQ-5D-3L [including VAS]), asthma-specific utility (AQL-5D) and asthma-specific health status (Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire [MiniAQLQ]). Median regression was used for utility scores and Least Squares regression for MiniAQLQ, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and smoking.Results: Of the 2681 asthmatics who completed the first survey in the OSACO study, 971 had comorbid allergies. After adjusting for covariates, asthma patients with comorbid allergies had significantly lower MiniAQLQ scores than patients without allergies (-0.489 [95% CI -0.570, -0.409]; p < 0.01), with the greatest decrement/impairment observed for the environmental stimuli domain (-0.729 [95% CI -0.844, -0.613]; p < 0.01). Utility scores were also statistically significantly lower for asthma patients with comorbid allergies compared to those without allergies (EQ-5D, -0.031 [95% CI -0.047, -0.015]; AQL-5D, -0.036 [95% CI -0.042, -0.029]; p < 0.01 each).Conclusions: The presence of allergies with persistent asthma is associated with a significant deleterious impact on several different measures of HRQoL.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/imunologia , Asma/psicologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 123(5): 476-482.e1, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence on long-term real-life response measures to omalizumab therapy in moderate to severe asthma is limited. A universal assessment tool is needed to adequately evaluate response to omalizumab in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To design a multimodular response assessment tool and use it to measure and define response to omalizumab therapy in real-world settings. METHODS: The Real-life Effectiveness of Omalizumab Therapy (REALITY) study is a retrospective, long-term, real-life clinical study that evaluates response in individuals with allergic asthma who received omalizumab between 2004 and 2011. The Standardized Measure to Assess Response to Therapy (SMART) tool was designed to define response (1 year before to after treatment) by 3 modules: (1) physician's subjective assessment of asthma symptoms and control; (2) objective assessment of 6 parameters: improvement by 50% or more for asthma exacerbation, steroid bursts, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations; increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 200 mL or greater; and improved Asthma Control Test score of 3 or higher; -and (3) true responders (patient meeting both module 1 and 2 criteria). Response was assessed and compared for 3 modules at desired time points. RESULTS: A total of 198 patients (mean age, 31.7 years [range, 3-77 years]; 98 [49%] female; mean omalizumab therapy duration, 2.49 years [range, 3 months to 8 years]; mean omalizumab dosage, 473 mg every 4 weeks; median baseline IgE level, 433 IU/mL) were included in this analysis. Overall visit adherence was 78%, although the adherence rate decreased annually by 20%. Response rates assessed by SMART modules were 61.3%, 60.8%, and 41.8% at 16 weeks, 84.8%, 72.2%, and 64.6% at 1 year, 82.4%, 71.2%, and 63.2% at 2 years, and 95.1%, 87.8%, and 85.4% at 5 years for modules 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There were no significant adverse reactions. CONCLUSION: The REALITY study has demonstrated long-term effectiveness of omalizumab therapy in individuals with allergic asthma in real-life settings. The SMART tool is promising as a potential standard assessment tool to measure and define response to asthma therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01776177.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Chest ; 156(2): 228-238, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154041

RESUMO

The Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) study is a noninterventional, multicenter, longitudinal analysis of > 10,000 subjects, including smokers with a ≥ 10 pack-year history with and without COPD and healthy never smokers. The goal was to characterize disease-related phenotypes and explore associations with susceptibility genes. The subjects were extensively phenotyped with the use of comprehensive symptom and comorbidity questionnaires, spirometry, CT scans of the chest, and genetic and biomarker profiling. The objective of this review was to summarize the major advances in the clinical epidemiology of COPD from the first 10 years of the COPDGene study. We highlight the influence of age, sex, and race on the natural history of COPD, and the impact of comorbid conditions, chronic bronchitis, exacerbations, and asthma/COPD overlap.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações
13.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 40(4): 221-229, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053178

RESUMO

Background: Approximately two-thirds of people with asthma have some evidence of allergy; their condition differs from nonallergic asthma in terms of predominant symptoms and clinical outcomes. Objective: To compare asthma control and medication use among patients with persistent asthma with evidence of allergy (PA-EA) and patients with persistent asthma with no evidence of allergy (PA-NEA). Methods: A retrospective analysis of survey responses and medication claims data from the Observational Study of Asthma Control and Outcomes study, a prospective survey linked to retrospective claims-based analysis of patients ages ≥ 12 years with persistent asthma in a U.S. health maintenance organization. Evidence of allergy was defined as both a positive response to a survey question about hay fever and/or seasonal allergies and one or more medical diagnostic codes for atopic conditions. Regression models were used to compare asthma control (Asthma Control Questionnaire [ACQ] scores) and asthma medication use between PA-EA and PA-NEA. Results: Adjusted data showed that, versus the patients with PA-NEA (n = 312), patients with PA-EA (n = 971) had higher (worse) 5-item and 6-item ACQ (ACQ-5 and ACQ-6) scores (by 0.34 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.24-0.44]; and 0.31 [95% CI, 0.21-0.40], respectively), were more likely to have poorly controlled asthma (ACQ-5 score ≥ 1.5: odds ratio 3.37 [95% CI, 2.07-5.50]; ACQ-6 score ≥ 1.5: odds ratio 3.46 [95% CI, 2.13-5.62]) and less likely to have well-controlled asthma (ACQ-5 score ≤ 0.75: odds ratio 0.21 [95% CI, 0.13-0.34]; ACQ-6 score ≤ 0.75: odds ratio 0.21 [95% CI, 0.13-0.35]). Patients with PA-EA also had greater asthma medication use, most notably 2.5 times more prescriptions of high-dose inhaled corticosteroid in a 4-month period (95% CI, 1.21-5.16) and 16.15 times higher odds of chronic oral corticosteroid use (95% CI, 1.50-174.09) versus PA-NEA. Conclusion: The patients with PA-EA versus PA-NEA had worse asthma control and greater medication use. These patients may need more vigilant clinical oversight and treatment management to ensure adequate asthma control.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Chest ; 155(1): 168-177, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077690

RESUMO

Over the last few years, there has been a renewed interest in patients with characteristics of both asthma and COPD. Although the precise definition of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) is still controversial, patients with overlapping features are frequently encountered in clinical practice, and may indeed have worse clinical outcomes and increased health-care utilization than those with asthma or COPD. Therefore, there is a critical need to set a framework for the therapeutic approach of such patients. There are key distinctions in the therapy between asthma and COPD, particularly regarding the initial choice of therapy. However, there is considerable overlap in the use of existing medications for both diseases. Furthermore, novel therapies approved for asthma, such as monoclonal antibodies, may have a role in patients with COPD and ACO. The use of biomarkers, such as peripheral blood eosinophils, exhaled nitric oxide, and serum IgE, may help in selecting appropriate therapies for ACO. In this review, we provide an overview of available treatments for both asthma and COPD and explore their potential role in the treatment of patients with ACO.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/complicações , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações
15.
ERJ Open Res ; 4(4)2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480001

RESUMO

There are few studies looking at the pulmonary circulation in subjects with bronchiectasis. We aimed to evaluate the intraparenchymal pulmonary vascular structure, using noncontrast chest computed tomography (CT), and its clinical implications in smokers with radiographic bronchiectasis. Visual bronchiectasis scoring and quantitative assessment of the intraparenchymal pulmonary vasculature were performed on CT scans from 486 smokers. Clinical, lung function and 6-min walk test (6MWT) data were also collected. The ratio of blood vessel volume in vessels <5 mm2 in cross-section (BV5) to total blood vessel volume (TBV) was used as measure of vascular pruning, with lower values indicating more pruning. Whole-lung and lobar BV5/TBV values were determined, and regression analyses were used to assess the differences in BV5/TBV between subjects with and without bronchiectasis. 155 (31.9%) smokers had bronchiectasis, which was, on average, mild in severity. Compared to subjects without bronchiectasis, those with lower-lobe bronchiectasis had greater vascular pruning in adjusted models. Among subjects with bronchiectasis, those with vascular pruning had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s and 6MWT distance compared to those without vascular pruning. Smokers with mild radiographic bronchiectasis appear to have pruning of the distal pulmonary vasculature and this pruning is associated with measures of disease severity.

18.
Respir Care ; 63(6): 783-796, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794211

RESUMO

Asthma exacerbation is defined as a progressive increase in symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, or wheezing sufficient to require a change in therapy. After ruling out diagnoses that mimic an asthma exacerbation, therapy should be initiated. Short-acting ß2 agonists and short-acting muscarinic antagonists are effective as bronchodilators for asthma in the acute setting. Systemic corticosteroids to reduce airway inflammation continue to be the mainstay therapy for asthma exacerbations, and, unless there is a contraindication, the oral route is favored. Based on the current evidence, nebulized magnesium should not be routinely used in acute asthma. The evidence favors the use of intravenous magnesium sulfate in selected cases, particularly in severe exacerbations. Methylxanthines have a minimum role as therapy for asthma exacerbations but may be considered in refractory cases of status asthmaticus with careful monitoring of toxicity. Current guidelines recommend the use of helium-oxygen mixtures in patients who do not respond to standard therapies or those with severe disease.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos
19.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 58(2): 253-260, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915064

RESUMO

Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection has been linked to poor asthma outcomes. M. pneumoniae produces an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin that has a major role in inflammation and airway dysfunction. The objective was to evaluate the immunopathological effects in primates exposed to M. pneumoniae or CARDS toxin. A total of 13 baboons were exposed to M. pneumoniae or CARDS toxin. At Days 7 and 14, BAL fluid was collected and analyzed for cell count, percent of each type of cell, CARDS toxin by PCR, CARDS toxin by antigen capture, eosinophilic cationic protein, and cytokine profiles. Serum IgM, IgG, and IgE responses to CARDS toxin were measured. All animals had a necropsy for analysis of the histopathological changes on lungs. No animal developed signs of infection. The serological responses to CARDS toxin were variable. At Day 14, four of seven animals exposed to M. pneumoniae and all four animals exposed to CARDS toxin developed histological "asthma-like" changes. T cell intracellular cytokine analysis revealed an increasing ratio of IL-4/IFN-γ over time. Both M. pneumoniae and CARDS toxin exposure resulted in similar histopathological pulmonary changes, suggesting that CARDS toxin plays a major role in the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/imunologia , Papio
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