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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the etiology of underlying liver disease represents a prognostic factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with lenvatinib is still a matter of debate. This study investigates whether the viral etiology of HCC plays a prognostic role in overall survival (OS). METHODS: Data derived from a multicenter series of 313 HCC patients treated with lenvatinib between 2019 and 2022 were analyzed. Actuarial survival estimates were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. We performed an event-based counterfactual mediation analysis to estimate direct (chronic inflammation and immunosuppression), indirect (tobacco smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug abuse with injections), and the total effect of viral etiology on OS. Results were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. RESULTS: Median OS was 21 months (95% CI: 20-23) in the group with other etiologies and 15 months (14-16) in the group with viral etiology (p < 0.0001). The total effect of viral etiology was associated with OS (HR 2.76, 1.32-5.21), and it was mainly explained by the pure direct effect of viral etiology (HR 2.74, 1.15-4.45). By contrast, its total indirect effect was not associated with poorer survival (HR 1.05, 0.82-2.13). These results were confirmed when considering tobacco, alcohol consumption, or injection drug abuse as potential mediators. Median progression-free survival was 9 months (8-10) in patients with other etiologies and 6 months (5-7) in patients with viral etiology (p < 0.0001). No difference in terms of adverse event rate was observed between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients affected by HCC with nonviral etiology treated with lenvatinib exhibit longer survival than those with viral etiology. This finding may have relevance in the treatment decision-making process.

2.
Tumori ; : 3008916221147944, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trifluridine/tipiracil and regorafenib are indicated for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients' refractory to standard chemotherapy. No prognostic or predictive biomarkers are available for these agents. METHODS: We assessed messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of four biomarkers implicated in the mechanism of action of trifluridine/tipiracil (TK-1 and TP) and regorafenib (Ang-2 and Tie-2) in baseline plasma-derived microvesicles of chemo-refractory mCRC patients treated with these agents (trifluridine/tipiracil cohort and regorafenib cohort), to explore their prognostic and predictive role. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the two cohorts were not different. Ang-2 mRNA was not detectable. Only TK-1 expression measured as a continuous variable was associated with progression-free survival (HR=1.09, 95%CI: 0.99-1.21; p=0.07) and overall survival (HR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.00-1.22; p=0.04), confirmed at multivariate analysis for progression-free survival (p=0.02) with a positive trend for overall survival (p=0.08). Baseline mRNA levels of TK-1, TP and Tie-2 were not predictive of trifluridine/tipiracil and regorafenib benefit. CONCLUSION: Baseline mRNA levels of TK-1, TP and Tie-2 on plasma-derived microvesicles were not predictive of trifluridine/tipiracil and regorafenib benefit. Future studies should analyze the early modulation of these biomarkers to assess their potential predictive role.

3.
Oncology ; 2023 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657420

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is a multiparametric score introduced by Onodera based on the blood levels of lymphocytes and albumin in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms. Regarding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its prognostic role has been demonstrated in patients treated with sorafenib and lenvatinib. The aim of this real-world study is to investigate the association between clinical outcomes and PNI in patients being treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. METHODS: The overall cohort of this multicentric study included 871 consecutive HCC patients from 4 countries treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab in first-line therapy. The PNI was calculated as follows: 10 × serum albumin concentration (g/dL) + 0.005 × peripheral lymphocyte count (number/mm3). RESULTS: For only 773 patients, data regarding lymphocyte counts and albumin levels were available, so only these patients were included in the final analysis. The cut-off point of the PNI was determined to be 41 by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. 268 patients (34.7%) were categorized as the PNI-low group, while the remaining 505 (65.3%) patients as the PNI-high group. At the univariate analysis, high PNI was associated with longer overall survival (OS) (22.5 vs. 10.1 months, HR 0.34, p < 0.01) and progression-free survival (PFS) (8.7 vs. 5.8 months, HR 0.63, p < 0.01) compared to patients with low PNI. At the multivariate analysis, high versus low PNI resulted as an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 0.49 , p < 0.01) and PFS (HR 0.82, p = 0.01). There was no difference in objective response rate (ORR) between the two groups (high 26.1% vs. low 19.8%, p = 0.09), while disease control rate (DCR) was significantly higher in the PNI-high group (76.8% vs. 66.4%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: PNI is an independent prognostic factor for OS and PFS in HCC patients on first-line treatment with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 180: 9-20, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab and lenvatinib have not been compared in a randomised controlled trial. We conducted a retrospective multi-centre study to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of lenvatinib and atezolizumab with bevacizumab as a first-line treatment for patients with unresectable HCC in the real-world scenario. METHODS: Clinical features of lenvatinib and atezolizumab plus bevacizumab patients were balanced through inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) methodology, which weights patients' characteristics and measured outcomes of each patient in both treatment arms. Overall survival (OS) was the primary end-point. RESULTS: The analysis included 1341 patients who received lenvatinib, and 864 patients who received atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. After IPTW adjustment, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab did not show a survival advantage over lenvatinib HR 0.97 (p = 0.739). OS was prolonged by atezolizumab plus bevacizumab over lenvatinib in viral patients (HR: 0.76; p = 0.024). Conversely, OS was prolonged by lenvatinib in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (HR: 1.88; p = 0.014). In the IPTW-adjusted population, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab provided better safety profile for most of the recorded adverse events. CONCLUSION: Our study did not identify any meaningful difference in OS between atezolizumab plus bevacizumab and lenvatinib. Although some hints are provided suggesting that patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease might benefit more from lenvatinib therapy and patients with viral aetiology more from atezolizumab plus bevacizumab.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(23)2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497316

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation is a key risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and poor outcomes. Inflammatory markers such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may have prognostic value in HCC treated with standard of care atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (Atezo-Bev). We conducted a multicenter, international retrospective cohort study of patients with unresectable HCC treated with Atezo-Bev to assess the association of NLR and PLR with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and objective response rates. Patients with NLR ≥ 5 had a significantly shorter OS (9.38 vs. 16.79 months, p < 0.001) and PFS (4.90 vs. 7.58 months, p = 0.03) compared to patients with NLR < 5. NLR ≥ 5 was an independent prognosticator of worse OS (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.22-3.56, p = 0.007) but not PFS. PLR ≥ 300 was also significantly associated with decreased OS (9.38 vs. 15.72 months, p = 0.007) and PFS (3.45 vs. 7.11 months, p = 0.04) compared to PLR < 300, but it was not an independent prognosticator of OS or PFS. NLR and PLR were not associated with objective response or disease control rates. NLR ≥ 5 independently prognosticated worse survival outcomes and is worthy of further study and validation.

6.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1023301, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36505851

RESUMO

Background: Hepatic resection is the only chance of cure for a subgroup of patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis. As the oncologic outcomes of intra-operative microwaves ablation combined with hepatic resection still remain uncertain in this setting, we aimed to compare this approach with surgery alone in patient's candidate to metastases resection with radical intent. Methods: Using a case-matched methodology based on age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiology score, Body Mass Index, and burden that take in consideration the number and maximum size of lesions, 20 patients undergoing hepatic resection plus intra-operative microwaves (SURG + IMW group) and 20 patients undergoing hepatic resection alone (SURG group), were included. Relapse-free Survival and post-resection Overall Survival were compared between patients of two groups. Results: At the median follow up of 22.4 ± 17.8, 12/20 patients (60%) in SURG +IMW group and 13/20 patients (65%) in the SURG group experienced liver metastasis recurrence (p=0.774). None of them had recurrence at the same surgical or ablation site of the first hepatic treatment. 7/12 patients in the SURG+IMW group and 7/13 patients in the SURG group underwent at least one further surgical treatment after relapse (p = 1.000). No difference was reported between the two groups in terms of Relapse-free Survival (p = 0.685) and post-resection Overall Survival (p = 0.151). The use of intra-operative microwaves was not an independent factor affecting Relapse-free Survival and post-resection Overall Survival at univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis undergoing surgery plus intra-operative microwaves have similar post-operative results compared with surgery alone group. The choice between the two approaches could be only technical, depending on the site, number, and volume of the metastases. This approach could also be used in patients with liver metastasis relapse who have already undergone hepatic surgery.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare response rates of lenvatinib and atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, in first-line real-world setting. METHODS: Overall cohort included Western and Eastern hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient populations from 46 centres in 4 countries (Italy, Germany, Japan, and Republic of Korea). RESULTS: 1312 patients were treated with lenvatinib, and 823 patients were treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. Objective response rate (ORR) was 38.6% for patients receiving lenvatinib, and 27.3% for patients receiving atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (p < 0.01; odds ratio 0.60). For patients who achieved complete response (CR), overall survival (OS) was not reached in both arms, but the result from univariate Cox regression model showed 62% reduction of death risk for patients treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (p = 0.05). In all multivariate analyses, treatment arm was not found to be an independent factor conditioning OS. Comparing ORR achieved in the two arms, there was a statistically significant difference in favor of lenvatinib compared to atezolizumab plus bevacizumab in all subgroups except for Eastern patients, Child-Pugh B patients, presence of portal vein thrombosis, α-feto-protein ≥ 400 ng/mL, presence of extrahepatic disease, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade 2, and no previous locoregional procedures. CONCLUSION: Lenvatinib achieves higher ORR in all patient subgroups. Patients who achieve CR with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab can achieve OS so far never recorded in HCC patients. This study did not highlight any factors that could identify patient subgroups capable of obtaining CR.

8.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 6: e2200244, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356286

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prognostic tools to estimate the risk of relapse for patients with liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer (LL-mCRC) undergoing resection with curative intent are needed. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a surrogate of postsurgical minimal residual disease is a promising marker in localized CRC. We explored the role of postoperative ctDNA as a marker of minimal residual disease in patients with radically resected LL-mCRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six patients with LL-mCRC were retrospectively included. DNA from tumor tissue was sequenced, and one somatic mutation was then assessed by digital droplet polymerase chain reaction in plasma samples collected after surgery to identify the persistence of ctDNA. Relapse-free survival and postresection overall survival were compared between patients with positive vs negative postoperative ctDNA. RESULTS: ctDNA was found in 39 (51%) of 76 patients with LL-mCRC. At a median follow-up of 77 months, 33 of 39 ctDNA-positive patients and 20 of 37 ctDNA-negative patients experienced disease relapse (P = .008). ctDNA-positive patients reported significantly shorter RFS than ctDNA-negative ones (median RFS 12.7 v 27.4 months hazard ratio, 2.09, P = .008). In the multivariable model including other prognostic covariates, this association was still significant (P = .046) and a trend toward shorter overall survival among ctDNA-positive patients was reported (hazard ratio, 1.65, P = .183). CONCLUSION: The detection of postsurgical ctDNA is an independent negative prognostic marker and identifies patients at high risk of relapse after liver metastases resection.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Neoplasia Residual , Estudos Retrospectivos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia
9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 979519, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36212444

RESUMO

Introduction: The combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab demonstrated a relevant clinical benefit in patients with endometrial carcinoma. The safety profile was consistent with the established profiles of each drug in monotherapy, with the most frequent adverse events being hypertension, an on-target effect, hypothyroidism, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, and weight loss. Areas covered: We first review the rationale based on the combination of a VEGFR inhibitor and an immune checkpoint inhibitor, highlighting the main pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of lenvatinib. Next, we focus on the common adverse events associated with lenvatinib and guide how to optimally prevent, detect, and manage them, while minimizing interruptions during lenvatinib treatment. Discussion: The side effects profile of lenvatinib is very well known, being similar across different tumor types. Most toxicities can be preventable. An appropriate, proactive, and thorough management of lenvatinib toxicities during treatment is required to maximize potential lenvatinib efficacy. Adverse events should be detected as early as possible, by both carefully monitoring the patient from lenvatinib initiation and preventing their occurrence. Patients should be followed also during treatment as some adverse events, e.g., cardiac dysfunction might appear later. Increased awareness on risk to benefit ratio among clinicians would be helpful to avoid dose interruptions or discontinuation of lenvatinib, with preferring other medical interventions and supportive care.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(20)2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36291761

RESUMO

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) showed impressive results in terms of activity and efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients bearing tumors with deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) or high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Despite that microsatellite status is the major predictive biomarker for the efficacy of ICIs, a proportion of dMMR/MSI-H mCRC tumors do not achieve benefit from immunotherapy due to the primary resistance. Deeper knowledge of biological mechanisms regulating dMMR/MSI-H CRC tumors and immune response may be useful to find new predictive biomarkers of ICIs benefit and tailor the use of immunotherapy even in dMMR/MSI-H mCRC patients. Moreover, several issues are still open, such as the secondary resection of metastases and the optimal duration of ICIs therapy in dMMR/MSI-H mCRC patients. Looking beyond microsatellite status, in a future perspective, several tools (i.e., Tumor Mutational Burden and PD-L1 expression) have been investigated to clarify their possible role as predictive biomarkers. Furthermore, a small subgroup of pMMR/MSS CRC tumors with a POLE mutation of the proofreading domain is characterized by hypermutated phenotype and might derive benefit from immune checkpoint inhibition. In the present work, we aim to review the most recent literature regarding treatment with ICIs in mCRC, focusing on dMMR/MSI-H and special subgroups of CRC patients. Hence, we summarize possible future targets and the most promising predictive biomarkers.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230819

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a key component of different stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment, particularly in the first line of treatment. A lesson on the primary resistance which hampers their efficacy and activity was learned from the failure of the trials which tested them as first-line mono-therapies. Despite the combination of anti-PD(L)1 agents with anti-VEGF, anti CTLA4, or TKIs demonstrating relevant improvements in efficacy, the "doublets strategy" still shows room for improvement, due to a limited overall survival benefit and a high rate of progressive disease as best response. In this review, we discuss the results from the currently tested doublet strategies (i.e., atezolizumab+bevacizumab, durvalumab+tremelimumab with a mention to the newly presented ICIs/TKIs combinations), which highlight the need for therapeutic improvement. Furthermore, we examine the rationale and provide an overview of the ongoing trials testing the treatment intensification strategy with triplet drugs: anti-PD1+anti-CTLA4+anti-VEGF/TKIs and anti-PD1+anti-VEGF+alternative immunity targets. Lastly, we report on the alternative strategy to integrate ICIs into the new paradigm of immune therapeutics constituted by CAR-T and anti-cancer vaccines. This review provides up-to-date knowledge of ongoing clinical trials of the aforementioned strategies and critical insight into their mechanistic premises.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(18)2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36139613

RESUMO

Standard treatments of localized rectal cancer are surgery or the multimodal approach with neoadjuvant treatments (chemo-radiotherapy, short-course radiotherapy, induction, or consolidation chemotherapy) followed by surgery. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now the first choice in patients with a deficient mismatch repair system/microsatellite instability (dMMR/MSI-H) and are being explored in combination with chemotherapy to rewire the immune system against malignant cells in subjects with proficient mismatch repair system/microsatellite low (pMMR/MSI-L) cancers, with promising signals of efficacy. Recently, some efforts have been made to translate ICIs in earlier stages of CRC, including localized rectal cancer, with breakthrough efficacy and an organ preservation rate of mono-immunotherapy in dMMR/MSI-H patients and promising anti-tumor activity of immunotherapy plus neoadjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy in pMMR/MSI-L subjects. Here, we present the rationale, results, and limitations of the most remarkable trials assessing ICIs in dMMR/MSI-H and pMMR/MSI-L localized rectal cancer patients, at the same time highlighting the most promising research perspectives that have followed these studies.

13.
Eur J Cancer ; 175: 204-213, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IMbrave150 has established the superiority of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab over sorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We generated a prospectively maintained database including patients treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab for unresectable HCC across Europe, Asia and USA. Clinico-pathologic characteristics were assessed for their prognostic influence on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in univariable and multivariate analyses. Overall response rate by RECIST v1.1 and treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) per CTCAE v.5.0 were reported. RESULTS: Out of 433 patients, 296 Child-Pugh A and ECOG performance status01 patients received atezolizumab plus bevacizumab in first line and were included. Patients were mostly male (82.7%), cirrhotic (75%) with history of viral hepatitis (65.9%). Overall, 68.9% had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer C-stage HCC with portal vein tumour thrombosis (PVTT, 35%) and extrahepatic spread (EHS, 51.7%). After a median follow-up of 10.0 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.4-10.4), median OS and PFS were 15.7 (95% CI: 14.5-NE) and 6.9 months (95% CI: 6.1-8.3), respectively. In the response-evaluable patients (n = 273), overall response rate was 30.8%. Overall, 221 patients (74.6%) developed TRAEs, with 70 (23.6%) reporting grade 3 or higher TRAEs; 25 (8.4%) patients had bleeding events. OS was independently associated with baseline Albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade and PVTT. Shorter PFS was associated with AFP≥ 400 ng/ml, worse ALBI and presence of EHS. CONCLUSION: This global observational study confirms the reproducible safety and efficacy of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab in routine clinical practice. Within Child-Pugh-A criteria, the presence of PVTT and higher ALBI grade identify patients with poorer survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Trombose Venosa , Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Bilirrubina , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , alfa-Fetoproteínas
14.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 45(11): 1579-1589, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104632

RESUMO

The liver represents the most frequent location of metastatic disease in colorectal cancer (CRC). In oligometastatic disease, while surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, loco-regional therapies allow to locally control tumor progression and prolong survival. There is consensus in the use of transhepatic arterial radioembolization (TARE) in metastatic CRC chemorefractory patients, with liver-only or liver-dominant disease. Beyond this indication, TARE may be considered in other clinical scenarios, such as in the second-line combined with chemotherapy, as a bridge in between different lines of systemic therapies, and as ablative technique under specific circumstances. This paper outlines the current evidence for TARE in mCRC and presents possible future indications and directions.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Embolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Braquiterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Radioisótopos de Ítrio/uso terapêutico , Metástase Neoplásica
15.
Front Oncol ; 12: 920073, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106105

RESUMO

Aims: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) comparing personalised dosimetry with standard dosimetry in the context of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with TheraSphere for the management of adult patients with locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from the Italian Healthcare Service perspective. Materials and methods: A partition survival model was developed to project costs and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) over a lifetime horizon. Clinical inputs were retrieved from a published randomised controlled trial. Health resource utilisation inputs were extracted from the questionnaires administered to clinicians in three oncology centres in Italy, respectively. Cost parameters were based on Italian official tariffs. Results: Over a lifetime horizon, the model estimated the average QALYs of 1.292 and 0.578, respectively, for patients undergoing personalised and standard dosimetry approaches. The estimated mean costs per patient were €23,487 and €19,877, respectively. The incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of personalised versus standard dosimetry approaches was €5,056/QALY. Conclusions: Personalised dosimetry may be considered a cost-effective option compared to standard dosimetry for patients undergoing SIRT for HCC in Italy. These findings provide evidence for clinicians and payers on the value of personalised dosimetry as a treatment option for patients with HCC.

16.
Surg Oncol ; 44: 101836, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing hepatocyte-specific contrast agent and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is currently used to properly stage colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) in patients candidate to liver surgery. However, the added value of liver MRI in choosing the treatment strategy in resectable CRLM over computed tomography (CT)-scan is not clear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective monocentric collection of consecutive cases of patients with CRLM conceived with the aim to assess the added value of liver MRI in changing the initial treatment strategy planned according to CT-scan. Potential changes in the initially planned strategy were defined as: - from upfront surgery to perioperative chemotherapy (fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin) - from upfront surgery to first-line systemic therapy (doublet or triplet plus a biological agent) - from perioperative chemotherapy to first-line systemic therapy. Hypothesising that MRI may induce a change in the choice of the treatment strategy in the 20% of cases (alternative hypothesis), against a null hypothesis of 5%, with one-tailed alpha and beta errors of 0.05 and 0.20 respectively, 27 patients were needed. The added value of liver MRI would have been considered clinically meaningful if at least 4 changes in the treatment strategy were observed. RESULTS: Among 27 enrolled patients, upfront surgery and perioperative chemotherapy strategies were chosen in 17 (63%) and 10 (37%) cases, respectively, based on CT-scan. After liver MRI, additional liver lesions were found in 8 patients (30%) and the initial strategy was changed in 7 patients (26%) (4 initially deemed candidate to upfront surgery and 3 initially sent to perioperative chemotherapy) that were treated with first-line systemic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the indication of the current guidelines on the routine use of liver MRI in the initial workup of patients with resectable CRLM with an MRI-driven changes of initial treatment plan in a relevant percentage of cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Gadolínio DTPA , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Am J Cancer Res ; 12(7): 3347-3356, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968330

RESUMO

Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel is considered the standard of care in the second-line treatment of gastric carcinoma (GC). The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), VEGF-D, and circulating soluble VEGF receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2) as possible markers of resistance or response to ramucirumab administered with paclitaxel in pretreated metastatic GC patients. Plasma samples were collected at different time points (on days 1 and 15 of the first 3 cycles, at best radiologic response and at disease progression). VEGF-A, VEGF-D and sVEGFR-2 were analysed by ELISA. Correlations of biomarker baseline levels or dynamic changes with outcome measures were assessed. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint of the study. Forty-one patients were enrolled. VEGF-A and VEGF-D, but not sVEGFR-2, values significantly increased during treatment compared to baseline (P < 0.001). A positive correlation between VEGF-A and sVEGFR-2 at cycle 2 was found (P=0.045). At univariate analysis, higher baseline levels of VEGF-A were associated with worse OS (P=0.015). Early increase of sVEGFR-2 levels after the first treatment cycle was the only factor associated with longer PFS (6.6 vs. 3.6 months, P=0.049) and OS (18.6 vs. 5.2 months, P=0.008). Significance of sVEGFR-2 early increase was retained at multivariate analysis for OS (HR 0.32; 95% CI 0.12-0.91; P=0.032). The reported results confirmed the prognostic role of baseline VEGF-A and, with the limitations of the limited sample size and the lack of a control arm, suggested that the early increase of sVEGFR-2 after 1 cycle of treatment could be a potential predictive biomarker of benefit from second-line ramucirumab plus paclitaxel in GC.

18.
Future Oncol ; 18(27): 3021-3030, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903991

RESUMO

Background: This multicenter study investigated the predictive value of baseline AFP and on-treatment AFP response for survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with regorafenib. Materials & methods: A total of 578 patients with HCC treated with regorafenib from 12 institutions in South Korea and Italy were included. Baseline AFP (cutoff, 400 ng/ml) and AFP response (20% reduction from baseline) were analyzed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Baseline AFP below 400 ng/ml was a significant factor that was independently associated with longer OS and PFS. AFP response was also a significant factor independently associated with longer OS and PFS. Conclusion: Baseline AFP and AFP response may be used as prognostic factors for survival in HCC treated with regorafenib.


Regorafenib is standard second-line therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who show failure to sorafenib treatment, but there is no reliable factor to predict survival. In this multicenter, retrospective study with patients from South Korea and Italy, we have found that both baseline AFP level and on-treatment AFP response have independent predictive value for survival in patients with HCC under regorafenib treatment. We observed similar results when the patients were divided according to their nationality (South Korea vs Italy), despite the fact that the baseline characteristics of the patients from the two cohorts were significantly different.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Humanos , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Piridinas , alfa-Fetoproteínas
19.
Updates Surg ; 74(4): 1327-1335, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional Right Colectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy (RC-D2) currently represent the most common surgical treatment of right-sided colon cancer (RCC). However, whether it should be still considered a standard of care, or replaced by a routine more extended D3 lymphadenectomy remains unclear. In the present study, we aim to critically review the patterns of relapse and the survival outcomes obtained from our 11-year experience of RC-D2. METHODS: Clinical data of 489 patients who underwent RC-D2 for RCC at two centres, from January 2009 to January 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with synchronous distant metastases and/or widespread nodal involvement at diagnosis were excluded. Post-operative clinical-pathological characteristics and survival outcomes were evaluated including the pattern of disease relapse. RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 400 patients with information follow-up. Postoperative morbidity was 14%. The median follow-up was 62 months. Cancer recurrence was observed in 55 patients (13.8%). Among them, 40 patients (72.7%) developed systemic metastases, and lymph-node involvement was found in 7 cases (12.8%). None developed isolated central lymph-node metastasis (CLM), in the D3 site. The estimated 3- and 5-year relapse-free survival were 86.1% and 84.4%, respectively. The estimated 3- and 5-year cancer-specific OS were 94.5% and 92.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of isolated CLM, as well as the cancer-specific OS reported in our series, support the routine use of RC-D2 for RCC. However, D3 lymphadenectomy may be recommended in selected patients, such as those with pre-operatively known CLM, or with lymph-node metastases close to the origin of the ileocolic vessels.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Renais , Laparoscopia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Colectomia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Metástase Linfática , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) has caused a worldwide challenging and threatening pandemic. Multinational, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded trials were conducted since the beginning of pandemic because safe and effective vaccines were needed urgently. In most trials of COVID-19 vaccines patients affected by malignancies or on treatment with immunosuppressive drugs were excluded. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective monocentric study was conducted at Medical Oncological Unit of Santa Chiara Hospital (Pisa, Italy) in this subset of population to investigate safety and tolerability of COVID-19 vaccines; 377 patients with solid tumor on treatment were enrolled. Vaccine-related adverse events were recorded using a face-to-face questionnaire including a toxicity grading scale. Most of the patients (94%) received mRNA vaccine as indicated by Italian health ministry guidelines. Mean age was 66 years (range 27-87), 62% of the patients were older than 65 years and 68% had at least one additional comorbidity. The majority (86%) of patients were in a metastatic setting and 29% received immunotherapy-based treatment. For statistical analysis, multivariate binary logistic regression models were performed and linear regression models were applied. RESULTS: Adverse events were mild and transient and ended in a few days without any sequelae. No severe or uncommon adverse events were recorded. In multivariate analysis, we found that the female sex was associated with a greater risk of more severe and longer lasting adverse events, and a higher risk of adverse events was found for patients treated with immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well-tolerated in this population of patients being treated for solid tumors.

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