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1.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab showed an overall survival (OS) benefit in pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The role of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in mRCC remains to be defined. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SBRT in combination with nivolumab in second- and third-line mRCC patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The NIVES study was a phase II, single-arm, multicenter trial in patients with mRCC with measurable metastatic sites who progressed after antiangiogenic therapy, of whom at least one was suitable for SBRT. INTERVENTION: The patients received SBRT to a lesion at a dose of 10 Gy in three fractions for 7 d from the first infusion of nivolumab. Nivolumab was given at an initial dose of 240 mg every 14 d for 6 mo and then 480 mg q4-weekly in responding patients. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We hypothesized that nivolumab plus SBRT improves the objective response rate (ORR) compared with nivolumab alone from 25% (derived from historical controls) to 40%. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), OS, disease control rate (DCR) of irradiated and nonirradiated metastases, and safety. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled from July 2017 to March 2019. The ORR was 17% and the DCR was 55%. The median PFS was 5.6 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1) and median OS 20 mo (95% CI, 17-not reached). After 1.5 yr of follow-up, 23 patients died. The median time to treatment response was 2.8 mo and median duration of response was 14 mo. No new safety concerns arose. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find sufficient evidence to suggest that nivolumab in combination with SBRT provides an added benefit in pretreated mRCC patients; it should however be evaluated in patients with oligometastatic or oligoprogressive disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Nivolumab in combination with stereotactic body radiotherapy does not provide evidence of increased outcomes in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. However this approach was safe and showed a good response of the irradiated lesions.

2.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211054302, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707691

RESUMO

Background: Considering the growing genitourinary (GU) cancer population undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we planned a clinical audit in 24 Italian institutions treating GU malignancies. Objective: The primary objective was investigating the clinical impact of COVID-19 in GU cancer patients undergoing ICI-based therapy during the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Italy. Design setting and participants: The included centers were 24 Oncology Departments. Two online forms were completed by the responsible Oncology Consultants, respectively, for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients receiving at least one administration of ICIs between 31 January 2020 and 30 June 2020. Results and limitation: In total, 287 mRCC patients and 130 mUC patients were included. The COVID-19 incidence was, respectively, 3.5%, with mortality 1%, in mRCC patients and 7.7%, with mortality 3.1%, in mUC patients. In both groups, 40% of patients developing COVID-19 permanently discontinued anticancer treatment. The pre-test SARS-CoV-2 probability in the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal/pharyngeal swab ranged from 14% in mRCC to 26% in mUC. The main limitation of the work was its nature of audit: data were not recorded at the single-patient level. Conclusion: GU cancer patients undergoing active treatment with ICIs have meaningful risk factors for developing severe events from COVID-19 and permanent discontinuation of therapy after the infection. Treatment delays due to organizational issues during the pandemic were unlikely to affect the treatment outcome in this population.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 127-135, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to demonstrate the non-inferiority (NI) in overall survival (OS) of suspension of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus maintenance and intermittent versus continuous docetaxel administration in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: mCRPC patients were randomised to first-line docetaxel with maintenance or suspension of ADT. Patients attaining a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response after four chemotherapy cycles underwent second randomisation to receive continuous or intermittent docetaxel therapy. Six hundred patients were to be randomised to achieve 80% statistical power to demonstrate an NI hazard ratio (HR) of 1.25 of interruption versus maintenance of ADT. RESULTS: The trial was prematurely closed when 198 participants were randomised. OS was similar in patients who continued (N = 96) versus those who interrupted (n = 102) ADT during docetaxel therapy (HR 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-1.33] and those on a continuous (N = 35) versus an intermittent (N = 42) docetaxel schedule (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.55-1.43). No difference in radiological progression-free survival, PSA response, or toxicity was observed between the study arms. The actual NI hazard margins of OS in Arms A and B patients were 1.33 and 1.43, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This trial enrolled one-third of the planned patients; this main weakness dramatically limits the interpretation of the results. ADT discontinuation and switching to an intermittent schedule did not seem to affect docetaxel efficacy. The absence of testosterone recovery in the majority of patients could have been a contributory factor. In men with mCRPC, ADT discontinuation should only be done with regular biochemical and clinical monitoring, with the option of quickly restarting ADT at disease progression.

4.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

Background: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. Results: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. Conclusion: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

5.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm ; 36(5): 391-396, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769088

RESUMO

Background: The retrospective studies that have so far described the outcomes of the sequential use of life-prolonging agents (LPAs) did not include metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients who received radium-223 (223Ra) as part of their treatment. Consequently, it is not known whether including 223Ra in the therapeutic sequence has an impact on cumulative survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate this impact by comparing the cumulative overall survival (OS) in two series of mCRPC patients sequentially treated with two or three LPAs after first-line docetaxel (DOC), including 223Ra and not. Materials and Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of mCRPC patients with bone involvement alone who received two or three LPAs (including 223Ra) after first-line DOC. The control group was a contemporary series of mCRPC patients with bone involvement alone treated with sequences of two or three LPAs other than 223Ra after first-line DOC. Results: Median cumulative OS was 40.6 months in the 223Ra group of 78 patients and 36.2 months in the non-223Ra group of 186 patients (p = 0.08). OS outcomes were significantly influenced by the number of treatment lines, and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) and prostate-specific antigen levels. Conclusions: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study designed to evaluate the impact of introducing 223Ra in the treatment sequences for mCRPC patients, and the results show that its use does not negatively affect cumulative OS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Rádio (Elemento)/uso terapêutico , Acetato de Abiraterona/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Terapia Combinada , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
6.
Urol Case Rep ; 34: 101444, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088719

RESUMO

Most common sites of metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC) are lungs, liver, lymph nodes and bone. Pembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), represents an effective second-line therapy for advanced UC. Radiotherapy has been shown to induce a mechanism of immunogenic cell death (ICD) resulting in immune memory and advantageous systemic effects. We present the first case of breast metastasis (BM) from a UC described in literature who had an exceptional response to second-line therapy with pembrolizumab in association with radiotherapy, showing the efficacy of combining immunotherapy and radiotherapy even in patients with atypical metastatic sites.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 140: 140-146, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of complicated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but it is still unclear if the risk of mortality is influenced by cancer type or ongoing anti-cancer treatments. An interesting debate concerning the potential relationship between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been opened in the case of prostate cancer (PC), and the aim of this multi-centre cohort study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostrate cancer (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients with mCRPC who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and recorded their baseline clinical characteristics, their history of PC and SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their oncological status and treatment at the time of infection. The primary study end point was the death rate and the possible impact of the patients' PC-related history and treatments on mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-four of the 1433 patients with mCRPC attending the participating centres (2.3%) developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 22 (64.7%) of whom were hospitalised. Most of the patients were symptomatic, the most frequent symptoms being fever (70.6%), dyspnoea (61.8%), cough (52.9%) and fatigue (38.2%). After a median follow-up of 21 days (interquartile range: 13-41), 13 patients had died (38.2%), 17 recovered (50.0%) and four (11.7%) were still infected. The number of treatments previously administered for mCRPC had a significant impact on mortality (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute additional data to the current debate concerning the postulated protective role of ADT, which seems to be less in patients with metastatic PC.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Ósseas/virologia , COVID-19 , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(6): 477-488, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has brought clinical benefits to patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). Most patients tolerate immunotherapy but serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been reported. Some studies indicate a correlation between irAEs and clinical response in other cancer types (eg, lung cancer and melanoma). For patients with mRCC, the impact of irAE on clinical outcome is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 167 patients with mRCC treated with nivolumab as standard of care between March 2017 and January 2018 in 16 Italian centers was performed. irAEs were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.4.0. RESULTS: Any grade and grade 3/4 irAEs occurred in 46% and 8.9% of patients, respectively. The median time to appearance of irAEs was 10 weeks; 38.8% of patients required steroid treatment. The most common irAEs were cutaneous (33.7%) and gastrointestinal (23.3%). The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 20.13 and 7.86 months, respectively. Patients with irAEs showed a greater overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.63) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.29-0.66) benefit as well as better overall response rate (27.3% vs. 13.7%; odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.03-5.44) and disease control rate (68.8% vs. 48%; odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.23-4.67) if compared with those without irAEs. No correlation was found between steroid use and clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed that the appearance of irAEs was associated with better outcomes in patients treated with nivolumab. This data may be limited by sample size and the retrospective nature of the study.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Target Oncol ; 15(4): 495-501, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has been recognized as the most important factor for tumor invasion, proliferation, and progression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, few clinical data are available regarding the efficacy of cabozantinib following immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of cabozantinib in patients previously treated with immunotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with mRCC who received cabozantinib immediately after nivolumab were included. The primary endpoint was to assess the outcome in terms of efficacy and activity. RESULTS: Eighty-four mRCC patients met the criteria to be included in the final analysis. After a median follow-up of 9.4 months, median overall survival was 17.3 months. According to the IMDC criteria, the rates of patients alive at 12 months in the good, intermediate, and poor prognostic groups were 100%, 74%, and 33%, respectively (p < 0.001). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.5 months (95% CI 8.3-14.7); no difference was found based on duration of previous first-line therapy or nivolumab PFS. The overall response rate was 52%, stable disease was found as the best response in 25.3% and progressive disease in 22.7% of patients. Among the 35 patients with progressive disease on nivolumab, 26 (74.3%) patients showed complete/partial response or stable disease with cabozantinib as best response after nivolumab. The major limitations of this study are the retrospective nature and the short follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Cabozantinib was shown to be effective and active in patients previously receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, cabozantinib can be considered a valid therapeutic option for previously treated mRCC patients, irrespective of the type and duration of prior therapies.


Assuntos
Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anilidas/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/farmacologia
11.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(11): 2633-2638, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249345

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the fracture risk and survival outcomes in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who received sequentially abiraterone acetate (AA) and radium 223 [223Ra]RaCl2 in the daily clinical practice. MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of mCRPC patients who received [223Ra]RaCl2 immediately after progressing during an AA treatment line in everyday clinical practice. RESULTS: We reviewed data of a consecutive series of 94 mCRPC patients. Most of the patients (85.1%) received [223Ra]RaCl2 as second- or third-line treatment. [223Ra]RaCl2 treatment was well-tolerated; there were only four cases of grade 3 anaemia, two cases of grade 3 leukopenia and one case of grade 3 neutropenia. The overall fracture rate is 2.1%; one fracture was recorded during the course of [223Ra]RaCl2 treatment, and one was recorded 1 month after its end. The fractures both occurred at metastatic sites. Median OS from [223Ra]RaCl2 start was more than 14 months regardless of the treatment line when [223Ra]RaCl2 was administered. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that the treatment with [223Ra]RaCl2 immediately after AA was active and safe with a very low risk of a fracture. Thus, the present observational report makes a valuable contribution to the current debate concerning the risks and benefits of including [223Ra]RaCl2 in the therapeutic algorithm.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Rádio (Elemento) , Acetato de Abiraterona/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Rádio (Elemento)/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 22: 100161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) use has increased overtime for the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients, with a likely good control of irradiated lesions. We planned a retrospective multicenter Italian study, with the aim of investigating the outcome of treatment with SBRT for non-brain secondary lesions in mRCC patients. METHODS: all consecutive metastatic non-brain lesions from mRCC that underwent SBRT at nine Italian institutions from January 2015 to June 2017 were considered. The primary endpoint of the study was the lesion-PFS, calculated from SBRT initiation to the local progression of the irradiated lesion. RESULTS: 57 extracranial metastatic lesions from 48 patients with primary mRCC were treated with SBRT. At the median follow-up of 26.4 months, the median lesion-PFS was not reached (43 censored); 72.4% of lesions were progression-free at 40 months, with significantly better lesion-PFS for small metastatic lesions (<14 mm). SBRT was safe and the 1-year local disease control was 87.7%. After SBRT, 18 patients (37.5%) permanently interrupted systemic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: consistently with the previous literature, our findings support the use of SBRT in selected mRCC patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Radiocirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Quimiorradioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
13.
Tumori ; 105(4_suppl): 3-12, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264522

RESUMO

In the past two decades, the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma has significantly changed thanks to the approval of several targeted molecular therapies (VEGF and mTOR inhibitors) and recently immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) Renal Cell Cancer (RCC) Guidelines Panel has developed clinical guidelines to provide evidence-based information and recommendations to oncologists, urologists and all professionals involved in the management of patients with renal cell cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Oncologia/normas , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália
14.
Urol Oncol ; 37(8): 529.e1-529.e7, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate if a first-line treatment delay (TD) can negatively affect the outcomes of patients affected by metastatic renal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of metastatic renal cancer who were ineligible for active surveillance were included in the sample. A TD was defined as the time from the diagnosis of metastatic disease to the start of first-line therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. RESULTS: A total of 835 patients were assessed and 635 were included in the final analysis. The median TD was 6.3 weeks. No significant differences were found in baseline characteristics between patients experiencing a TD below/equal to or above the median value, with the exceptions being the rate of bone metastases (25.3% vs. 35.9%) and advanced disease at diagnosis (34.7% vs. 54.9%). In patients who had received a previous nephrectomy for localized disease, the TD was 5.3 compared to 8.0 weeks for those with metastatic disease at diagnosis (P = 0.001). Among this latter group, 68.7% had received a cytoreductive nephrectomy. In patients with a TD below/equal to and above the median value, the median progression-free survival was 10.3 and 11.2 months, respectively (hazard ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence intervals, 0.86-1.22; P = 0.78); the median overall survival was 27.3 and 28.2 months, respectively (hazard ratio = 1.04; 95% confidence intervals, 0.86-1.27; P = 0.68). The lack of differences was confirmed when adjusted for prognostic factors and baseline characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports that patients with bone metastases and advanced disease at diagnosis have a significant probability of experiencing delayed first-line therapy of more than 6 weeks from the time of diagnosis. However, a TD does not significantly affect outcomes and survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Análise de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento
15.
Eur Urol ; 76(1): 73-81, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atezolizumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody targeting PD-L1, is approved for locally advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma. SAUL evaluated atezolizumab in a broader, pretreated population, including patients ineligible for the pivotal IMvigor211 phase 3 trial of atezolizumab. OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of atezolizumab in an international real-world setting. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between November 2016 and March 2018 (median follow-up 12.7mo), 1004 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial or nonurothelial urinary tract carcinoma who experienced progression during or after one to three prior therapies for inoperable, locally advanced, or metastatic disease were enrolled. Patients with renal impairment, treated central nervous system metastases, or stable controlled autoimmune disease were eligible; 10% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) 2 and 98% were platinum pretreated (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02928406). INTERVENTION: Atezolizumab 1200mg every 3wk until progression or unacceptable toxicity. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary endpoint was safety. Secondary efficacy endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate (ORR). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median treatment duration was 2.8mo (range 0-19); 22% remained on treatment and 8% discontinued because of toxicity. Grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in 45% of patients. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events were fatigue, asthenia, colitis, and hypertension (each in 1%). Median OS was 8.7mo (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.8-9.9). The 6-mo OS rate was 60% (95% CI 57-63%), median PFS was 2.2mo (95% CI 2.1-2.4), and the ORR was 13% (95% CI 11-16%; 3% complete responses). Among IMvigor211-like patients (excluding ECOG PS 2 and other IMvigor211 exclusion criteria), median OS was 10.0mo (95% CI 8.8-11.9) and 6-mo OS was 65% (95% CI 61-69%). CONCLUSIONS: SAUL confirms the tolerability of atezolizumab in a real-world pretreated population with urinary tract carcinoma. Efficacy overall and in the IMvigor211-like subgroup is consistent with previous pivotal anti-PD-L1/PD-1 urothelial carcinoma trials. These results support the use of atezolizumab in urinary tract carcinoma, including patients with limited treatment options. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this international study we investigated the efficacy and safety of atezolizumab treatment for advanced urinary tract cancer in a large population of pretreated patients, including those who would not normally be candidates for clinical trials. Patients tolerated the treatment well, even if they had autoimmune disease, were being treated with corticosteroids, or had disease that had spread to their brain. Life expectancy in this study for patients typical of everyday clinical practice was similar to that seen in trials that enrolled only selected fitter patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia , Idoso , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Anorexia/induzido quimicamente , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Astenia/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/secundário , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Progressão da Doença , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Retratamento , Taxa de Sobrevida , Infecções Urinárias/induzido quimicamente
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(1)2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905816

RESUMO

Cabozantinib is approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, prognostic factors are still lacking in this context. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors in RCC patients treated with second- or third-line cabozantinib. A multicenter retrospective real-world study was conducted, involving 32 worldwide centers. A total of 237 patients with histologically confirmed clear-cell and non-clear-cell RCC who received cabozantinib as second- or third-line therapy for metastatic disease were included. We analyzed overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and time-to-strategy failure (TTSF) using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used at univariate and multivariate analyses.The median PFS and OS of cabozantinib were 7.76 months (95% CI 6.51-10.88) and 11.57 months (95% CI 10.90-not reached (NR)) as second-line and 11.38 months (95% CI 5.79-NR) and NR (95% CI 11.51-NR) as third-line therapy. The median TTSF and OS were 11.57 and 15.52 months with the sequence of cabozantinib-nivolumab and 25.64 months and NR with nivolumab-cabozantinib, respectively. The difference between these two sequences was statistically significant only in good-risk patients. In the second-line setting, hemoglobin (Hb) levels (HR= 2.39; 95% CI 1.24-4.60, p = 0.009) and IMDC (International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium) group (HR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.87, p = 0.037) were associated with PFS while ECOG-PS (HR = 2.33; 95%CI, 1.16-4.69, p = 0.018) and Hb levels (HR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.18-8.26, p = 0.023) correlated with OS at multivariate analysis, while in the third-line setting, only Hb levels (HR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.04-7.09, p = 0.042) were associated with OS. Results are limited by the retrospective nature of the study.This real-world study provides evidence on the presence of prognostic factors in RCC patients receiving cabozantinib.

17.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(1): e150-e155, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pazopanib has been approved for first-line treatment of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma on the basis of clinical trials that enrolled only patients with adequate renal function. Few data are available on the safety and efficacy of pazopanib in patients with renal insufficiency. This study investigated the effect of kidney function on treatment outcomes in such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma patients treated with pazopanib from January 2010 to June 2016 with respect to renal function. Patients with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (group A) were compared to patients with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (group B) in terms of progression-free survival, toxicities, response rates, and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 229 patients were included: 128 in group A and 101 in group B. Median progression-free survival was 14 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.4-18.5) and 17 months (95% CI, 11.4-22.8), and overall survival was 30.5 months (95% CI, 8-53) and 41.4 months (95% CI, 21-62) for group A and group B, respectively, with no significant difference (P = .6). No significant difference between the 2 groups was reported in the incidence of adverse events. Dose reductions were more frequent in group A patients (66% vs. 36%; P = .04). CONCLUSION: Although the dose of pazopanib was reduced more frequently in patients with renal impairment, kidney function at therapy initiation does not adversely affect the safety and efficacy of pazopanib.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Indazóis , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Anticancer Res ; 38(8): 4913-4918, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The specific characteristics of patients who are most likely to benefit from pazopanib therapy are still uncertain. We report on the results of an Italian multicenter, retrospective analysis investigating the factors associated with longer response to first-line pazopanib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients were considered if they had received treatment with pazopanib (800 mg/day) for >12 months in the first-line setting. RESULTS: In total, 112 patients were evaluated. Median duration of pazopanib treatment was 22.6 months (IQR 17.8 months). Median PFS was 22.6 months (95%CI= 20.2-25.0). Eighty-three patients (74.1%) had a PFS ≥18 months. Median OS was 32.9 months (95%CI=30.2-35.6). At statistical analysis, only PS score (1+ vs. 0) was significantly associated with PFS (HR=1.76; 95%CI=1.02-3.05; p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Pazopanib therapy may be suitable for all patients with mRCC, and especially in those with PS 0.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199642, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from phase III clinical trial CheckMate 025 have established nivolumab as the standard of care for treatment of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) after VEGF inhibitor failure; however, elderly patients are under-represented in the registration trial and little is known about the activity of nivolumab in this subgroup. The purpose of the Expanded Access Program was to provide nivolumab to patients with mRCC who had progressed despite treatment with other agents that were considered standard of care. METHODS: Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was administered intravenously every 2 weeks to a maximum of 24 months or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The current analysis included all patients from the EAP Italian cohort who had received ≥1 dose of nivolumab. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. RESULTS: A total of 389 patients with advanced RCC were enrolled in the Italian cohort of the EAP and treated with nivolumab. Of these patients, 125 (32%) were at least 70 years of age and 70 (18%) were at least 75 years of age. Efficacy with nivolumab in the elderly patients was similar to that observed in the overall EAP population and in the CheckMate 025 trial. Safety was comparable between the elderly patients and the overall EAP population, and was consistent with what previously reported. CONCLUSION: The final results suggest that elderly patients with pretreated metastatic RCC may benefit from therapy with nivolumab.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Retratamento , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 16(5): 355-359.e1, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International mRCC (metastatic renal cell carcinoma) Database Consortium (IMDC) is the standard classification for mRCC. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of a large cohort of patients with an intermediate or a poor prognosis treated with sunitinib using a different cutoff point for IMDC to improve the classification. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with an intermediate or a poor prognosis according to the IMDC criteria and treated with sunitinib were included in the present study. A new cutoff point was used to categorize the patients. The new score was validated in an independent cohort of patients. RESULTS: A total of 457 patients were included in the present study. Significant differences in overall survival (OS) were highlighted regarding the number of prognostic factors. Three categories were identified according to the presence of 1 (ie, favorable-intermediate group), 2 (ie, real-intermediate group), and > 2 (ie, poor group) factors. The corresponding median OS periods were 32.9, 20.0, and 8.9 months, with significant differences among the groups. The validation cohort included 389 patients. The median OS period for the favorable-intermediate group, real-intermediate group, and poor group was 34.3, 19.4, and 9.0 months, respectively, with confirmed significant differences among the groups. CONCLUSION: Our analysis revealed significant differences among patients with an intermediate prognosis using the IMDC prognostic factors. Further investigations to optimize the use of available and upcoming therapies are required.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/classificação , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/classificação , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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