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2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 844-851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218825

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound is a useful tool for the assessment of patients with both acute and chronic heart failure, but the use of different image acquisition methods, inconsistent reporting of the technique employed and variable quantification of 'B-lines,' have all made it difficult to compare published reports. We therefore need to ensure that future studies utilizing lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure adopt a standardized approach to reporting the quantification of pulmonary congestion. Strategies to improve patient care by use of lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure have been difficult to develop. In the present document, key aspects of standardization are discussed, including equipment used, number of chest zones assessed, the method of quantifying B-lines, the presence and timing of additional investigations (e.g. natriuretic peptides and echocardiography) and the impact of therapy. This consensus report includes a checklist to provide standardization in the preparation, review and analysis of manuscripts. This will serve as a guide for investigators and clinicians and enhance the quality and transparency of lung ultrasound research.

3.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 16(4): 89-97, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147960

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the role of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in acute heart failure (AHF). RECENT FINDINGS: NIV rapidly improves the respiratory distress and reduces the need for intubation and even mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). Therefore, NIV is indicated as first line therapy in ACPE. NIV may also be considered in some cases of cardiogenic shock after stabilization. CPAP is an easier and cheaper technique that is recommended as first-line therapy, particularly in pre-hospital or low-equipped areas. Noninvasive pressure support ventilation is equally effective in these scenarios, and may be preferable in patients with mild fatigue or significant hypercapnia, including those with associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). High flow nasal cannula is an alternative for patients who need prolonged ventilation or those who show poor tolerance to these techniques. NIV should be used as a first-line therapy in all patients with ACPE and should be considered in stable cardiogenic shock and AHF associated to COPD.

4.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 16(4): 81-88, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183779

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To analyze whether the use of morphine, as initial treatment in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), has an impact in clinical outcomes and mortality. A systematic review of the literature was performed, including all the studies comparing clinical outcomes in patients with ACPE who were treated or not with morphine. RECENT FINDINGS: Seven studies were selected, none of which were a randomized trial focused on answering the aim of this systematic review. The studies consisted of clinical trial secondary analysis assessing non-invasive ventilation in ACPE, one open non-randomized trial, two propensity score evaluations from large registries, and three clinical case reviews. Most of the studies showed unfavorable results with the use of morphine in terms of adverse events and mortality, and many of them were statistically significant. Finally, the ongoing MIdazolam versus MOrphine in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (MIMO) trial was specifically designed to compare the results of morphine use versus midazolam. The potential hemodynamic and sedative benefit of the use of morphine for vasodilatation and dyspnea amelioration may be opposed by an increase in mortality, ICU admission, and adverse events. Until there is a randomized clinical trial, the use of morphine for ACPE should be limited.

5.
Am J Ther ; 26(2): e234-e247, 2019 Mar/Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a life-threatening state of tissue hypoperfusion, associated with a very high risk of mortality, despite intensive monitoring and modern treatment modalities. The present review aimed at describing the therapeutic advances in the management of CS. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Many uncertainties about CS management remain in clinical practice, and these relate to the intensity of invasive monitoring, the type and timing of vasoactive therapies, the risk-benefit ratio of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) therapy, and optimal ventilation mode. Furthermore, most of the data are obtained from CS in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), although for non-AMI-CS patients, there are very few evidences for etiological or MCS therapies. DATA SOURCES: The prospective multicentric acute heart failure registries that specifically presented characteristics of patients with CS, distinct to other phenotypes, were included in the present review. Relevant clinical trials investigating therapeutic strategies in post-AMI-CS patients were added as source information. Several trials investigating vasoactive medications and meta-analysis providing information about benefits and risks of MCS devices were reviewed in this study. THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES: Early revascularization remains the most important intervention for CS in settings of AMI, and in patients with multivessel disease, recent trial data recommend revascularization on a "culprit-lesion-only" strategy. Although diverse types of MCS devices improve hemodynamics and organ perfusion in patients with CS, results from almost all randomized trials incorporating clinical end points were inconclusive. However, development of new algorithms for utilization of MCS devices and progresses in technology showed benefit in selected patients. A major advance in the management of CS is development of concept of regional CS centers based on the level of facilities and expertise. The modern systems of care with CS centers used as hubs integrated with emergency medical systems and other referee hospitals have the potential to improve patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Additional research is needed to establish new triage algorithms and to clarify intensity and timing of pharmacological and mechanical therapies.


Assuntos
Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Humanos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Triagem
6.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066619828959, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is the most life-threatening manifestation of acute heart failure. Its complexity and high in-hospital mortality may justify the need for invasive monitoring with a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). METHODS:: Patients with CS included in the CardShock Study, an observational, prospective, multicenter, European registry, were analyzed, aiming to describe the real-world use of PAC, evaluate its impact on 30-day mortality, and the ability of different hemodynamic parameters to predict outcomes. RESULTS:: Pulmonary artery catheter was used in 82 (37.4%) of the 219 patients. Cardiogenic shock patients who managed with a PAC received more frequently treatment with inotropes and vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, and mechanical assist devices ( P < .01). Overall 30-day mortality was 36.5%. Pulmonary artery catheter use did not affect mortality even after propensity score matching analysis (hazard ratio = 1.17 [0.59-2.32], P = .66). Cardiac index, cardiac power index (CPI), and stroke volume index (SVI) showed the highest areas under the curve for 30-day mortality (ranging from 0.752-0.803) and allowed for a significant net reclassification improvement of 0.467 (0.083-1.180), 0.700 (0.185-1.282), 0.683 (0.168-1.141), respectively, when added to the CardShock risk score. CONCLUSIONS:: In our contemporary cohort of CS, over one-third of patients were managed with a PAC. Pulmonary artery catheter use was associated with a more aggressive treatment strategy. Nevertheless, PAC use was not associated with 30-day mortality. Cardiac index, CPI, and SVI were the strongest 30-day mortality predictors on top of the previously validated CardShock risk score.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378288

RESUMO

Hospitalization for acute heart failure (HF) is associated with a substantial morbidity burden and with associated healthcare costs and an increased mortality risk. However, few if any major medical innovations have been witnessed in this area in recent times. Levosimendan is a first-in-class calcium sensitizer and potassium channel opener indicated for the management of acute HF. Experience in several clinical studies has indicated that administration of intravenous levosimendan in intermittent cycles may reduce hospitalization and mortality rates in patients with advanced HF; however, none of those trials were designed or powered to give conclusive insights into that possibility. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of LeoDOR (levosimendan infusions for patients with advanced chronic heart failure), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international, multicentre trial that will explore the efficacy and safety of intermittent levosimendan therapy, in addition to optimized standard therapy, in patients following hospitalization for acute HF. Salient features of LeoDOR include the use of two treatment regimens, in order to evaluate the effects of different schedules and doses of levosimendan during a 12 week treatment phase, and the use of a global rank primary endpoint, in which all patients are ranked across three hierarchical groups ranging from time to death or urgent heart transplantation or implantation of a ventricular assist device to time to rehospitalization and, lastly, time-averaged proportional change in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Secondary endpoints include changes in HF symptoms and functional status at 14 weeks.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295807

RESUMO

Acute heart failure (HF) and in particular, cardiogenic shock are associated with high morbidity and mortality. A therapeutic dilemma is that the use of positive inotropic agents, such as catecholamines or phosphodiesterase-inhibitors, is associated with increased mortality. Newer drugs, such as levosimendan or omecamtiv mecarbil, target sarcomeres to improve systolic function putatively without elevating intracellular Ca2+. Although meta-analyses of smaller trials suggested that levosimendan is associated with a better outcome than dobutamine, larger comparative trials failed to confirm this observation. For omecamtiv mecarbil, Phase II clinical trials suggest a favourable haemodynamic profile in patients with acute and chronic HF, and a Phase III morbidity/mortality trial in patients with chronic HF has recently begun. Here, we review the pathophysiological basis of systolic dysfunction in patients with HF and the mechanisms through which different inotropic agents improve cardiac function. Since adenosine triphosphate and reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria are intimately linked to the processes of excitation-contraction coupling, we also discuss the impact of inotropic agents on mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox regulation. Therefore, this position paper should help identify novel targets for treatments that could not only safely improve systolic and diastolic function acutely, but potentially also myocardial structure and function over a longer-term.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 122(2): 199-205, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778237

RESUMO

Changes in QRS duration and pattern are regarded to reflect severe ischemia in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and ventricular conduction blocks (VCBs) are recognized high-risk markers in both ACS and acute heart failure. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence, temporal evolution, association with clinical and angiographic parameters, and impact on mortality of VCBs in ACS-related cardiogenic shock (CS). Data of 199 patients with ACS-related CS from a prospective multinational cohort were evaluated with electrocardiogram data from baseline and day 3. VCBs including left or right bundle branch block, right bundle branch block and hemiblock, isolated hemiblocks, and unspecified intraventricular conduction delay were assessed. Fifty percent of patients had a VCB at baseline; these patients were older, had poorer left ventricular function and had more often left main disease compared with those without VCB. One-year mortality was over 2-fold in patients with VCB compared with those without VCB (68% vs 32%, p<0.001). All types of VCBs at baseline were associated with increased mortality, and the predictive value of a VCB was independent of baseline variables and coronary angiography findings. Interestingly, 37% of the VCBs were transient, i.e., disappeared before day 3. However, 1-year mortality was much higher in these patients (69%) compared to patients with persistent (38%) or no VCB (15%, p<0.001). Indeed, a transient VCB was a strong independent predictor of 1-year mortality. In conclusion, our findings propose that any VCB in baseline electrocardiogram, even if transient, identifies very early patients at particularly high mortality risk in ACS-related CS.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(7): 1081-1099, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710416

RESUMO

This paper provides a practical clinical application of guideline recommendations relating to the inpatient monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, through the evaluation of various clinical, biomarker, imaging, invasive and non-invasive approaches. Comprehensive inpatient monitoring is crucial to the optimal management of acute heart failure patients. The European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines provide recommendations for the inpatient monitoring of acute heart failure, but the level of evidence underpinning most recommendations is limited. Many tools are available for the in-hospital monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, and each plays a role at various points throughout the patient's treatment course, including the emergency department, intensive care or coronary care unit, and the general ward. Clinical judgment is the preeminent factor guiding application of inpatient monitoring tools, as the various techniques have different patient population targets. When applied appropriately, these techniques enable decision making. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating that implementation of these tools improves patient outcome. Research priorities are identified to address these gaps in evidence. Future research initiatives should aim to identify the optimal in-hospital monitoring strategies that decrease morbidity and prolong survival in patients with acute heart failure.

14.
Eur J Intern Med ; 53: 45-51, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in emergency department (ED) patients with acute heart failure (AHF) on short term outcomes. METHODS: Patients from the EAHFE Registry (a multicenter, observational, multipurpose, cohort-designed database including consecutive AHF patients in 41 Spanish EDs) were grouped based on NIV treatment (NIV+ and NIV-groups). Using propensity score (PS) methodology, we identified two subgroups of patients matched by 38 covariates and compared regarding 30-day survival (primary outcome). Interaction was investigated for age, sex, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AHF precipitated by an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), AHF classified as hypertensive or acute pulmonary edema (APE), and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admission; mechanical ventilation; in-hospital, 3-day and 7-day mortality; and prolonged hospitalization (>7 days). RESULTS: Of 11,152 patients from the EAHFE (age (SD): 80 (10) years; 55.5% women), 718 (6.4%) were NIV+ and had a higher 30-day mortality (HR = 2.229; 95%CI = 1.861-2.670) (p < 0.001). PS matching provided 2 groups of 490 patients each with no significant differences in 30-day mortality (HR = 1.239; 95%CI = 0.905-1.696) (p = 0.182). Interaction analysis suggested a worse effect of NIV on elderly patients (>85 years, p < 0.001), AHF associated with ACS (p = 0.045), and SBP < 100 mmHg (p < 0.001). No significant differences were found in the secondary endpoints except for more prolonged hospitalizations in NIV+ patients (OR = 1.445; 95%CI = 1.122-1.862) (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: The use of NIV to treat AHF in ED is not associated with improved mortality outcomes and should be cautious in old patients and those with ACS and hypotension.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur Heart J ; 39(1): 17-25, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186485

RESUMO

In acute heart failure (AHF) syndromes significant respiratory failure (RF) is essentially seen in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPE) or cardiogenic shock (CS). Non-invasive ventilation (NIV), the application of positive intrathoracic pressure through an interface, has shown to be useful in the treatment of moderate to severe RF in several scenarios. There are two main modalities of NIV: continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and pressure support ventilation (NIPSV) with positive end expiratory pressure. Appropriate equipment and experience is needed for NIPSV, whereas CPAP may be administered without a ventilator, not requiring special training. Both modalities have shown to be effective in ACPE, by a reduction of respiratory distress and the endotracheal intubation rate compared to conventional oxygen therapy, but the impact on mortality is less conclusive. Non-invasive ventilation is also indicated in patients with AHF associated to pulmonary disease and may be considered, after haemodynamic stabilization, in some patients with CS. There are no differences in the outcomes in the studies comparing both techniques, but CPAP is a simpler technique that may be preferred in low-equipped areas like the pre-hospital setting, while NIPSV may be preferable in patients with significant hypercapnia. The new modality 'high-flow nasal cannula' seems promising in cases of AHF with less severe RF. The correct selection of patients and interfaces, early application of the technique, the achievement of a good synchrony between patients and the ventilator avoiding excessive leakage, close monitoring, proactive management, and in some cases mild sedation, may warrant the success of the technique.

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