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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4155, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519912

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection results in an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and poor intrauterine growth although the underlying mechanisms remain undetermined. Little is known about the impact of ZIKV infection during the earliest stages of pregnancy, at pre- and peri-implantation, because most current ZIKV pregnancy studies have focused on post-implantation stages. Here, we demonstrate that trophectoderm cells of pre-implantation human and mouse embryos can be infected with ZIKV, and propagate virus causing neural progenitor cell death. These findings are corroborated by the dose-dependent nature of ZIKV susceptibility of hESC-derived trophectoderm cells. Single blastocyst RNA-seq reveals key transcriptional changes upon ZIKV infection, including nervous system development, prior to commitment to the neural lineage. The pregnancy rate of mice is >50% lower in pre-implantation infection than infection at E4.5, demonstrating that pre-implantation ZIKV infection leads to miscarriage. Cumulatively, these data elucidate a previously unappreciated association of pre- and peri-implantation ZIKV infection and microcephaly.

2.
Transl Res ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520587

RESUMO

Precision medicine has generated diagnoses for many patients with challenging undiagnosed disorders. Some individuals remain without a diagnosis despite comprehensive testing, and this impedes their treatment. This report addresses the role of personalized medicine in identifying effective therapy for an undiagnosed disease. A 22-year-old woman presented with chronic severe recurrent trismus, facial pain, progressive multicentric inflammatory and fibrotic masses, and high C-reactive protein. Sites of disease included the pterygomaxillary region, masseter muscles, mandible, lung, pericardium, intrabdominal cavity, and retroperitoneum. A diagnosis was not established after an extensive assessment, including multiple biopsies. The patient was subsequently evaluated under the Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the National Institutes of Health. Large scale genotyping, proteomic studies, and in vitro and gene expression analyses of fibroblasts obtained from a major disease locus were performed. Germline genetic testing did not identify strong candidate genes; proteomic studies of the patient's serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and gene expression analyses of her cells were consistent with dysregulation of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha pathway. The patient's cultured fibroblasts were incubated with selected drugs, and cell proliferation was inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Treatment of the patient with hydroxychloroquine conferred prolonged beneficial clinical effects, including stabilization of trismus and reduction of corticosteroid dose, C-reactive protein, and size of masses. This case represents an example of precision medicine applied to discover effective treatments for individuals with enigmatic undiagnosed disorders.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4079, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501426

RESUMO

The epitranscriptomics field has undergone an enormous expansion in the last few years; however, a major limitation is the lack of generic methods to map RNA modifications transcriptome-wide. Here, we show that using direct RNA sequencing, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modifications can be detected with high accuracy, in the form of systematic errors and decreased base-calling qualities. Specifically, we find that our algorithm, trained with m6A-modified and unmodified synthetic sequences, can predict m6A RNA modifications with ~90% accuracy. We then extend our findings to yeast data sets, finding that our method can identify m6A RNA modifications in vivo with an accuracy of 87%. Moreover, we further validate our method by showing that these 'errors' are typically not observed in yeast ime4-knockout strains, which lack m6A modifications. Our results open avenues to investigate the biological roles of RNA modifications in their native RNA context.

5.
Sci China Life Sci ; 62(7): 937-946, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124003

RESUMO

RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has greatly facilitated the exploring of transcriptome landscape for diverse organisms. However, transcriptome reconstruction is still challenging due to various limitations of current tools and sequencing technologies. Here, we introduce an efficient tool, QuaPra (Quadratic Programming combined with Apriori), for accurate transcriptome assembly and quantification. QuaPra could detect at least 26.5% more low abundance (0.1-1 FPKM) transcripts with over 2.1% increase of sensitivity and precision on simulated data compared to other currently popular tools. Moreover, around one-quarter more known transcripts were correctly assembled by QuaPra than other assemblers on real sequencing data. QuaPra is freely available at https://doi.org/www.megabionet.org/QuaPra/ .

6.
Anal Chem ; 91(10): 6746-6753, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002238

RESUMO

Recent studies have indicated that circulating noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as miRNAs are stable biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. However, due to low concentrations of circulating ncRNAs in blood, data normalization in plasma/serum ncRNA experiments using next-generation sequencing and quantitative real time RT-qPCR is a challenge. We found that the current normalization methods based on synthetic external spiked-in controls or published endogenous miRNA controls are inappropriate as they are not stably expressed and therefore fail to reliably detect differentially expressed ncRNAs. Using the alternative of individual ncRNAs as biomarkers, we considered a ratio-based normalization method calculated taking the ratio of any two ncRNAs in the same sample and used the resulting ratios as biomarkers. We mathematically verified the method to be independent of spiked-in and internal controls, and more robust than existing reference control based normalization methods to identify differentially expressed ncRNAs as potential biomarkers for human diseases. Thus, the ratio-based method can solve the difficult normalization problem for circuiting ncRNA data to identify reliable biomarkers to meet real clinical practice.

8.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(5): 555-560, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858580

RESUMO

Standardized benchmarking approaches are required to assess the accuracy of variants called from sequence data. Although variant-calling tools and the metrics used to assess their performance continue to improve, important challenges remain. Here, as part of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH), we present a benchmarking framework for variant calling. We provide guidance on how to match variant calls with different representations, define standard performance metrics, and stratify performance by variant type and genome context. We describe limitations of high-confidence calls and regions that can be used as truth sets (for example, single-nucleotide variant concordance of two methods is 99.7% inside versus 76.5% outside high-confidence regions). Our web-based app enables comparison of variant calls against truth sets to obtain a standardized performance report. Our approach has been piloted in the PrecisionFDA variant-calling challenges to identify the best-in-class variant-calling methods within high-confidence regions. Finally, we recommend a set of best practices for using our tools and evaluating the results.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Exoma/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Algoritmos , Genômica/tendências , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Software
9.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(5): 567, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899106

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published online, two pairs of headings were switched with each other in Table 4: "Recall (PCR free)" was switched with "Recall (with PCR)," and "Precision (PCR free)" was switched with "Precision (with PCR)." The error has been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of this article.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 579, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718479

RESUMO

The DNA base modification N6-methyladenine (m6A) is involved in many pathways related to the survival of bacteria and their interactions with hosts. Nanopore sequencing offers a new, portable method to detect base modifications. Here, we show that a neural network can improve m6A detection at trained sequence contexts compared to previously published methods using deviations between measured and expected current values as each adenine travels through a pore. The model, implemented as the mCaller software package, can be extended to detect known or confirm suspected methyltransferase target motifs based on predictions of methylation at untrained contexts. We use PacBio, Oxford Nanopore, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq), and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data to generate and orthogonally validate methylomes for eight microbial reference species. These well-characterized microbial references can serve as controls in the development and evaluation of future methods for the identification of base modifications from single-molecule sequencing data.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adenosina/análise , Algoritmos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Imunoprecipitação , Software
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 821, 2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778059

RESUMO

lncRNAs make up a majority of the human transcriptome and have key regulatory functions. Here we perform unbiased de novo annotation of transcripts expressed during the human humoral immune response to find 30% of the human genome transcribed during this process, yet 58% of these transcripts manifest striking differential expression, indicating an lncRNA phylogenetic relationship among cell types that is more robust than that of coding genes. We provide an atlas of lncRNAs in naive and GC B-cells that indicates their partition into ten functionally categories based on chromatin features, DNase hypersensitivity and transcription factor localization, defining lncRNAs classes such as enhancer-RNAs (eRNA), bivalent-lncRNAs, and CTCF-associated, among others. Specifically, eRNAs are transcribed in 8.6% of regular enhancers and 36.5% of super enhancers, and are associated with coding genes that participate in critical immune regulatory pathways, while plasma cells have uniquely high levels of circular-RNAs accounted for by and reflecting the combinatorial clonal state of the Immunoglobulin loci.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Imunidade Humoral/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Genoma Humano , Humanos , RNA
13.
BMC Microbiol ; 18(1): 175, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypic properties, multiple drug resistance (MDR) gene profiles, and genes related to potential virulence and pathogenic properties of five Enterobacter bugandensis strains isolated from the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out and compared with genomes of three clinical strains. Whole genome sequences of ISS strains were characterized using the hybrid de novo assembly of Nanopore and Illumina reads. In addition to traditional microbial taxonomic approaches, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis was performed to classify the phylogenetic lineage. Agar diffusion discs assay was performed to test antibiotics susceptibility. The draft genomes after assembly and scaffolding were annotated with the Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology and RNAmmer servers for downstream analysis. RESULTS: Molecular phylogeny and whole genome analysis of the ISS strains with all publicly available Enterobacter genomes revealed that ISS strains were E. bugandensis and similar to the type strain EB-247T and two clinical isolates (153_ECLO and MBRL 1077). Comparative genomic analyses of all eight E. bungandensis strains showed, a total of 4733 genes were associated with carbohydrate metabolism (635 genes), amino acid and derivatives (496 genes), protein metabolism (291 genes), cofactors, vitamins, prosthetic groups, pigments (275 genes), membrane transport (247 genes), and RNA metabolism (239 genes). In addition, 112 genes identified in the ISS strains were involved in virulence, disease, and defense. Genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, including the MDR tripartite system were also identified in the ISS strains. A multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) locus or MAR operon encoding MarA, MarB, MarC, and MarR, which regulate more than 60 genes, including upregulation of drug efflux systems that have been reported in Escherichia coli K12, was also observed in the ISS strains. CONCLUSION: Given the MDR results for these ISS Enterobacter genomes and increased chance of pathogenicity (PathogenFinder algorithm with > 79% probability), these species pose important health considerations for future missions. Thorough genomic characterization of the strains isolated from ISS can help to understand the pathogenic potential, and inform future missions, but analyzing them in in-vivo systems is required to discern the influence of microgravity on their pathogenicity.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(35): 8829-8834, 2018 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104368

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation is the most abundant epitranscriptomic modification of eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Previous reports have found m6A on both cellular and viral transcripts and defined its role in regulating numerous biological processes, including viral infection. Here, we show that m6A and its associated machinery regulate the life cycle of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV is a DNA virus that completes its life cycle via an RNA intermediate, termed pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Silencing of enzymes that catalyze the addition of m6A to RNA resulted in increased HBV protein expression, but overall reduced reverse transcription of the pgRNA. We mapped the m6A site in the HBV RNA and found that a conserved m6A consensus motif situated within the epsilon stem loop structure, is the site for m6A modification. The epsilon stem loop is located in the 3' terminus of all HBV mRNAs and at both the 5' and 3' termini of the pgRNA. Mutational analysis of the identified m6A site in the 5' epsilon stem loop of pgRNA revealed that m6A at this site is required for efficient reverse transcription of pgRNA, while m6A methylation of the 3' epsilon stem loop results in destabilization of all HBV transcripts, suggesting that m6A has dual regulatory function for HBV RNA. Overall, this study reveals molecular insights into how m6A regulates HBV gene expression and reverse transcription, leading to an increased level of understanding of the HBV life cycle.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Viral/biossíntese , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Transcrição Reversa/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/biossíntese , Proteínas Virais/genética
15.
Gates Open Res ; 2: 3, 2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630066

RESUMO

The Microbe Directory is a collective research effort to profile and annotate more than 7,500 unique microbial species from the MetaPhlAn2 database that includes bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. By collecting and summarizing data on various microbes' characteristics, the project comprises a database that can be used downstream of large-scale metagenomic taxonomic analyses, allowing one to interpret and explore their taxonomic classifications to have a deeper understanding of the microbial ecosystem they are studying. Such characteristics include, but are not limited to: optimal pH, optimal temperature, Gram stain, biofilm-formation, spore-formation, antimicrobial resistance, and COGEM class risk rating. The database has been manually curated by trained student-researchers from Weill Cornell Medicine and CUNY-Hunter College, and its analysis remains an ongoing effort with open-source capabilities so others can contribute. Available in SQL, JSON, and CSV (i.e. Excel) formats, the Microbe Directory can be queried for the aforementioned parameters by a microorganism's taxonomy. In addition to the raw database, The Microbe Directory has an online counterpart ( https://microbe.directory/) that provides a user-friendly interface for storage, retrieval, and analysis into which other microbial database projects could be incorporated. The Microbe Directory was primarily designed to serve as a resource for researchers conducting metagenomic analyses, but its online web interface should also prove useful to any individual who wishes to learn more about any particular microbe.

17.
Elife ; 72018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360036

RESUMO

Mechanisms regulating mammalian meiotic progression are poorly understood. Here we identify mouse YTHDC2 as a critical component. A screen yielded a sterile mutant, 'ketu', caused by a Ythdc2 missense mutation. Mutant germ cells enter meiosis but proceed prematurely to aberrant metaphase and apoptosis, and display defects in transitioning from spermatogonial to meiotic gene expression programs. ketu phenocopies mutants lacking MEIOC, a YTHDC2 partner. Consistent with roles in post-transcriptional regulation, YTHDC2 is cytoplasmic, has 3'→5' RNA helicase activity in vitro, and has similarity within its YTH domain to an N6-methyladenosine recognition pocket. Orthologs are present throughout metazoans, but are diverged in nematodes and, more dramatically, Drosophilidae, where Bgcn is descended from a Ythdc2 gene duplication. We also uncover similarity between MEIOC and Bam, a Bgcn partner unique to schizophoran flies. We propose that regulation of gene expression by YTHDC2-MEIOC is an evolutionarily ancient strategy for controlling the germline transition into meiosis.

18.
Nature ; 553(7686): 77-81, 2018 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300007

RESUMO

In contrast to infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques, SIV infection of a natural host, sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), is non-pathogenic despite high viraemia. Here we sequenced and assembled the genome of a captive sooty mangabey. We conducted genome-wide comparative analyses of transcript assemblies from C. atys and AIDS-susceptible species, such as humans and macaques, to identify candidates for host genetic factors that influence susceptibility. We identified several immune-related genes in the genome of C. atys that show substantial sequence divergence from macaques or humans. One of these sequence divergences, a C-terminal frameshift in the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) gene of C. atys, is associated with a blunted in vitro response to TLR-4 ligands. In addition, we found a major structural change in exons 3-4 of the immune-regulatory protein intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM-2); expression of this variant leads to reduced cell surface expression of ICAM-2. These data provide a resource for comparative genomic studies of HIV and/or SIV pathogenesis and may help to elucidate the mechanisms by which SIV-infected sooty mangabeys avoid AIDS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/genética , Cercocebus atys/genética , Cercocebus atys/virologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/química , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Cercocebus atys/imunologia , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Variação Genética , Genômica , HIV/patogenicidade , Humanos , Macaca/virologia , Deleção de Sequência , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/química , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 18022, 2017 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269933

RESUMO

We evaluated the performance of the MinION DNA sequencer in-flight on the International Space Station (ISS), and benchmarked its performance off-Earth against the MinION, Illumina MiSeq, and PacBio RS II sequencing platforms in terrestrial laboratories. Samples contained equimolar mixtures of genomic DNA from lambda bacteriophage, Escherichia coli (strain K12, MG1655) and Mus musculus (female BALB/c mouse). Nine sequencing runs were performed aboard the ISS over a 6-month period, yielding a total of 276,882 reads with no apparent decrease in performance over time. From sequence data collected aboard the ISS, we constructed directed assemblies of the ~4.6 Mb E. coli genome, ~48.5 kb lambda genome, and a representative M. musculus sequence (the ~16.3 kb mitochondrial genome), at 100%, 100%, and 96.7% consensus pairwise identity, respectively; de novo assembly of the E. coli genome from raw reads yielded a single contig comprising 99.9% of the genome at 98.6% consensus pairwise identity. Simulated real-time analyses of in-flight sequence data using an automated bioinformatic pipeline and laptop-based genomic assembly demonstrated the feasibility of sequencing analysis and microbial identification aboard the ISS. These findings illustrate the potential for sequencing applications including disease diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and elucidating the molecular basis for how organisms respond to spaceflight.

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