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1.
Small ; : e2205487, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36470595

RESUMO

Metal boride nanostructures have shown significant promise for hydrogen storage applications. However, the synthesis of nanoscale metal boride particles is challenging because of their high surface energy, strong inter- and intraplanar bonding, and difficult-to-control surface termination. Here, it is demonstrated that mechanochemical exfoliation of magnesium diboride in zirconia produces 3-4 nm ultrathin MgB2 nanosheets (multilayers) in high yield. High-pressure hydrogenation of these multilayers at 70 MPa and 330 °C followed by dehydrogenation at 390 °C reveals a hydrogen capacity of 5.1 wt%, which is ≈50 times larger than the capacity of bulk MgB2 under the same conditions. This enhancement is attributed to the creation of defective sites by ball-milling and incomplete Mg surface coverage in MgB2 multilayers, which disrupts the stable boron-boron ring structure. The density functional theory calculations indicate that the balance of Mg on the MgB2 nanosheet surface changes as the material hydrogenates, as it is energetically favorable to trade a small number of Mg vacancies in Mg(BH4 )2 for greater Mg coverage on the MgB2 surface. The exfoliation and creation of ultrathin layers is a promising new direction for 2D metal boride/borohydride research with the potential to achieve high-capacity reversible hydrogen storage at more moderate pressures and temperatures.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 2022 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580490

RESUMO

Deciphering the solution chemistry and speciation of actinides is inherently difficult due to radioactivity, rarity, and cost constraints, especially for transplutonium elements. In this context, the development of new chelating platforms for actinides and associated spectroscopic techniques is particularly important. In this study, we investigate a relatively overlooked class of chelators for actinide binding, namely, polyoxometalates (POMs). We provide the first NMR measurements on americium-POM and curium-POM complexes, using one-dimensional (1D) 31P NMR, variable-temperature NMR, and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) experiments. The proposed POM-NMR approach allows for the study of trivalent f-elements even when only microgram amounts are available and in phosphate-containing solutions where f-elements are typically insoluble. The solution-state speciation of trivalent americium, curium, plus multiple lanthanide ions (La3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Yb3+, and Lu3+), in the presence of the model POM ligand PW11O397- was elucidated and revealed the concurrent formation of two stable complexes, [MIII(PW11O39)(H2O)x]4- and [MIII(PW11O39)2]11-. Interconversion reaction constants, reaction enthalpies, and reaction entropies were derived from the NMR data. The NMR results also provide experimental evidence of the weakly paramagnetic nature of the Am3+ and Cm3+ ions in solution. Furthermore, the study reveals a previously unnoticed periodicity break along the f-element series with the reversal of T1 relaxation times of the 1:1 and 1:2 complexes and the preferential formation of the long T1 species for the early lanthanides versus the short T1 species for the late lanthanides, americium, and curium. Given the broad variety of POM ligands that exist, with many of them containing NMR-active nuclei, the combined POM-NMR approach reported here opens a new avenue to investigate difficult-to-study elements such as heavy actinides and other radionuclides.

3.
Nat Chem ; 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050378

RESUMO

The synthesis and study of radioactive compounds are both inherently limited by their toxicity, cost and isotope scarcity. Traditional methods using small inorganic or organic complexes typically require milligrams of sample-per attempt-which for some isotopes is equivalent to the world's annual supply. Here we demonstrate that polyoxometalates (POMs) enable the facile formation, crystallization, handling and detailed characterization of metal-ligand complexes from microgram quantities owing to their high molecular weight and controllable solubility properties. Three curium-POM complexes were prepared, using just 1-10 µg per synthesis of the rare isotope 248Cm3+, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing an eight-coordinated Cm3+ centre. Moreover, spectrophotometric, fluorescence, NMR and Raman analyses of several f-block element-POM complexes, including 243Am3+ and 248Cm3+, showed otherwise unnoticeable differences between their solution versus solid-state chemistry, and actinide versus lanthanide behaviour. This POM-driven strategy represents a viable path to isolate even rarer complexes, notably with actinium or transcalifornium elements.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt C): 127657, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785437

RESUMO

In situ remediation applications of ammonia (NH3) gas have potential for sequestration of subsurface contamination. Ammonia gas injections initially increase the pore water pH leading to mineral dissolution followed by formation of secondary precipitates as the pH is neutralized. However, there is a lack of understanding of fundamental alteration processes due to NH3 treatment. In these batch studies, phyllosilicate minerals (illite and montmorillonite) were exposed to NH3 gas with subsequent aeration to simulate in situ remediation. Following treatments, solids were characterized using a variety of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis for surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and microscopy methods to investigate physicochemical transformations. Results indicate that, at high pH, the clays are altered as observed by differences in morphology and particle size via microscopy. However, the two clays interact differently with NH3. While montmorillonite interlayers collapsed due to intercalation, illite layers were unaffected as confirmed by FTIR analysis. Further, structural changes in silicate ([SiO4]n-) and aluminol (Al-OH) groups were identified by NMR and FTIR. This research showed that mineral alteration processes occur during and after NH3 gas treatment which may be used to remove radionuclides from the aqueous phase through sorption, co-precipitation, and coating with secondary phyllosilicate alteration products.

5.
ACS Nano ; 15(6): 10163-10174, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029480

RESUMO

A general problem when designing functional nanomaterials for energy storage is the lack of control over the stability and reactivity of metastable phases. Using the high-capacity hydrogen storage candidate LiAlH4 as an exemplar, we demonstrate an alternative approach to the thermodynamic stabilization of metastable metal hydrides by coordination to nitrogen binding sites within the nanopores of N-doped CMK-3 carbon (NCMK-3). The resulting LiAlH4@NCMK-3 material releases H2 at temperatures as low as 126 °C with full decomposition below 240 °C, bypassing the usual Li3AlH6 intermediate observed in bulk. Moreover, >80% of LiAlH4 can be regenerated under 100 MPa H2, a feat previously thought to be impossible. Nitrogen sites are critical to these improvements, as no reversibility is observed with undoped CMK-3. Density functional theory predicts a drastically reduced Al-H bond dissociation energy and supports the observed change in the reaction pathway. The calculations also provide a rationale for the solid-state reversibility, which derives from the combined effects of nanoconfinement, Li adatom formation, and charge redistribution between the metal hydride and the host.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(3): 1626-1636, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471994

RESUMO

Uranium contamination of soils and groundwater in the United States represents a significant health risk and will require multiple remediation approaches. Microbial phosphatase activity coupled to the addition of an organic P source has recently been studied as a remediation strategy that provides an extended release of inorganic P (Pi) into U-contaminated sites, resulting in the precipitation of meta-autunite minerals. Previous laboratory- and field-based biomineralization studies have investigated environments with relatively high U concentrations (>20 µM). However, most contaminated sites have much lower U concentrations (<2 µM). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limit for U in drinking water is 0.126 µM. Reaching this regulatory limit becomes challenging as U concentrations approach autunite solubility. We studied the precipitation of U(VI)-phosphate minerals by an environmental isolate of Caulobacter sp. (strain OR37) from an Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U-contaminated site. Abiotic U(VI) solubility experiments reveal that U(VI)-phosphate minerals do not form in the presence of excess Pi (500 µM) when U(VI) concentrations are <1 µM and pH is <5. When OR37 cells are reacted under the same conditions with Pi or glycerol-2-phosphate, U(VI)-phosphate mineral formation was observed, along with the formation of intracellular polyphosphate granules. These results show that bacteria provide supersaturated microenvironments needed for U(VI)-phosphate mineralization while hydrolyzing organic P sources. This provides a pathway to lower U concentrations to below EPA limits for drinking water.


Assuntos
Caulobacter , Urânio , Biomineralização , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fosfatos , Tennessee , Urânio/análise
7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(49): 25815-25824, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459093

RESUMO

The highly unfavorable thermodynamics of direct aluminum hydrogenation can be overcome by stabilizing alane within a nanoporous bipyridine-functionalized covalent triazine framework (AlH3 @CTF-bipyridine). This material and the counterpart AlH3 @CTF-biphenyl rapidly desorb H2 between 95 and 154 °C, with desorption complete at 250 °C. Sieverts measurements, 27 Al MAS NMR and 27 Al{1 H} REDOR experiments, and computational spectroscopy reveal that AlH3 @CTF-bipyridine dehydrogenation is reversible at 60 °C under 700 bar hydrogen, >10 times lower pressure than that required to hydrogenate bulk aluminum. DFT calculations and EPR measurements support an unconventional mechanism whereby strong AlH3 binding to bipyridine results in single-electron transfer to form AlH2 (AlH3 )n clusters. The resulting size-dependent charge redistribution alters the dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation thermochemistry, suggesting a novel strategy to enable reversibility in high-capacity metal hydrides.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(49): 22185-22193, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818306

RESUMO

Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) is an amorphous solid-state lithium ion conductor displaying exemplary cyclability against lithium metal anodes. There is no definitive explanation for this stability due to the limited understanding of the structure of LiPON. Herein, we provide a structural model of RF-sputtered LiPON. Information about the short-range structure results from 1D and 2D solid-state NMR experiments. These results are compared with first principles chemical shielding calculations of Li-P-O/N crystals and ab initio molecular dynamics-generated amorphous LiPON models to unequivocally identify the glassy structure as primarily isolated phosphate monomers with N incorporated in both apical and as bridging sites in phosphate dimers. Structural results suggest LiPON's stability is a result of its glassy character. Free-standing LiPON films are produced that exhibit a high degree of flexibility, highlighting the unique mechanical properties of glassy materials.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(23): 13888-13897, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702144

RESUMO

Rare earth elements (REEs) are indispensable components of many green technologies and of increasing demand globally. However, refining REEs from raw materials using current technologies is energy intensive and enviromentally damaging. Here, we describe the development of a novel biosorption-based flow-through process for selective REE recovery from electronic wastes. An Escherichia coli strain previously engineered to display lanthanide-binding tags on the cell surface was encapsulated within a permeable polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel at high cell density using an emulsion process. This microbe bead adsorbent contained a homogenous distribution of cells whose surface functional groups remained accessible and effective for selective REE adsorption. The microbe beads were packed into fixed-bed columns, and breakthrough experiments demonstrated effective Nd extraction at a flow velocity of up to 3 m/h at pH 4-6. The microbe bead columns were stable for reuse, retaining 85% of the adsorption capacity after nine consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. A bench-scale breakthrough curve with a NdFeB magnet leachate revealed a two-bed volume increase in breakthrough points for REEs compared to non-REE impurities and 97% REE purity of the adsorbed fraction upon breakthrough. These results demonstrate that the microbe beads are capable of repeatedly separating REEs from non-REE metals in a column system, paving the way for a biomass-based REE recovery system.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos , Metais Terras Raras , Adsorção , Imãs
10.
Chempluschem ; 83(7): 590-596, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950642

RESUMO

The kinetics of ligand exchange between the free oxalate ion, C2 O4 2- , and the bis-oxalato NpV complex, [NpO2 (C2 O4 )2 ]3- , in aqueous solution are reported by using 13 C and 17 O NMR spectroscopy methods. Rates of exchange were measured in the pH regime of 6.5-9.0, at which speciation is shown to be suitably simple. Because the neptunium(V) complex is paramagnetic, the rates of ligand exchange were estimated by following the width of the 13 C and 17 O signals assigned to the free oxalate ion in solution and by applying the Swift-Connick method for measuring rates of exchange. A set of experiments were conducted in which pH and total oxalate concentration were varied, and the linear dependence of the rate on these parameters was demonstrated. Variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy was also performed to measure activation parameters of complexation. At pH<8.0, ΔH≠ =16.9 ±4.9 kJ mol-1 and ΔS≠ =-116.3 ±17.1 kJ mol-1 K-1 , whereas at pH>8.0 there is almost no dependence on temperature, which is interpreted to indicate that hydrolysis is coupled to ligand exchange under these conditions.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 46(16): 5441-5456, 2017 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28394389

RESUMO

Acetamide diethylphosphonate (AcPhos)-functionalized silica has been shown to have a high affinity for U(vi) in pH 2-3 nitric acid. Previous work with AcPhos-functionalized silica has focused on actinide and lanthanide extraction under various conditions, but has shown poor reproducibility in the functionalization process. For this work, four AcPhos-functionalized SBA-15 materials were synthesized and evaluated based on their U(vi) sorption capacity and their stability in nitric acid. Materials synthesized using pyridine as a basic catalyst were shown to form a greater fraction of polymeric structures at the silica surface, which correlated with higher structural integrity upon contact with acidic solutions. Single-pulse 31P and 1H NMR spectra of these materials show evidence of phosphonic acid groups, as well as hydrogen-bonding interactions either between ligands or with the silica surface. Additionally, these materials were found to have significantly higher U(vi) sorption capacities and Keq values than the materials synthesized without pyridine, most likely due to the ion-exchange properties of the phosphonic acid groups. The 31P-31P DQ-DRENAR NMR technique was used to compare the average strength of dipolar coupling interactions between phosphorus atoms for the four materials. Because the strength of dipolar coupling interactions depends on the number and proximity of neighboring spins, this technique provides information about the average density of ligands on the surface. The conventional functionalization procedure yielded materials with the lowest average surface ligand density, while those using extended reaction times and the pyridine base catalyst yielded materials with higher surface ligand densities.

12.
Dalton Trans ; 45(25): 10447-58, 2016 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27265020

RESUMO

The fundamental interaction of U(vi) with diethylphosphatoethyl triethoxysilane functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica is studied by macroscopic batch experiments and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. DPTS-functionalized silica has been shown to extract U(vi) from nitric acid solutions at or above pH 3. Extraction is dependent on pH and ionic strength. Single-pulse (31)P NMR on U(vi) contacted samples revealed that U(vi) only interacts with a fraction of the ligands present on the surface. At pH 4 the U(vi) extraction capacity of the material is limited to 27-37% of the theoretical capacity, based on ligand loading. We combined single pulse (31)P NMR on U(vi)-contacted samples with batch studies to measure a ligand-to-metal ratio of approximately 2 : 1 at pH 3 and 4. Batch studies and cross-polarization NMR measurements reveal that U(vi) binds to deprotonated phosphonate and/or silanol sites. We use (31)P-(31)P DQ-DRENAR NMR studies to compare the average dipolar coupling between phosphorus spins for both U(vi)-complexed and non-complexed ligand environments. These measurements reveal that U(vi) extraction is not limited by inadequate surface distribution of ligands, but rather by low stability of the surface phosphonate complex.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(37): 20591-9, 2015 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26334933

RESUMO

Sequestration of trivalent actinides and lanthanides present in used nuclear fuel and legacy wastes is necessary for appropriate long-term stewardship of these metals, particularly to prevent their release into the environment. Organically modified mesoporous silica is an efficient material for recovery and potential subsequent separation of actinides and lanthanides because of its high surface area, tunable ligand selection, and chemically robust substrate. We have synthesized the first novel hybrid material composed of SBA-15 type mesoporous silica functionalized with diglycolamide ligands (DGA-SBA). Because of the high surface area substrate, the DGA-SBA was found to have the highest Eu capacity reported so far in the literature of all DGA solid-phase extractants. The sorption behavior of europium and americium on DGA-SBA in nitric and hydrochloric acid media was tested in batch contact experiments. DGA-SBA was found to have high sorption of Am and Eu in pH 1, 1 M, and 3 M nitric and hydrochloric acid concentrations, which makes it promising for sequestration of these metals from used nuclear fuel or legacy waste. The kinetics of Eu sorption were found to be two times slower than that for Am in 1 M HNO3. Additionally, the short-term susceptibility of DGA-SBA to degradation in the presence of acid was probed using (29)Si and (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The material was found to be relatively stable under these conditions, with the ligand remaining intact after 24 h of contact with 1 M HNO3, an important consideration in use of the DGA-SBA as an extractant from acidic media.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(12): 7094-100, 2014 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24869420

RESUMO

The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining "effective linear activity coefficients" (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção/análise , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Cálcio/química , Calibragem , Carbonatos/química , Difusão , Modelos Teóricos , Sais/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(3): 1745-52, 2013 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23289811

RESUMO

Defining chemical and mechanical alteration of wellbore cement by CO(2)-rich brines is important for predicting the long-term integrity of wellbores in geologic CO(2) environments. We reacted CO(2)-rich brines along a cement-caprock boundary at 60 °C and pCO(2) = 3 MPa using flow-through experiments. The results show that distinct reaction zones form in response to reactions with the brine over the 8-day experiment. Detailed characterization of the crystalline and amorphous phases, and the solution chemistry show that the zones can be modeled as preferential portlandite dissolution in the depleted layer, concurrent calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) alteration to an amorphous zeolite and Ca-carbonate precipitation in the carbonate layer, and carbonate dissolution in the amorphous layer. Chemical reaction altered the mechanical properties of the core lowering the average Young's moduli in the depleted, carbonate, and amorphous layers to approximately 75, 64, and 34% of the unaltered cement, respectively. The decreased elastic modulus of the altered cement reflects an increase in pore space through mineral dissolution and different moduli of the reaction products.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Materiais de Construção/análise , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Sais/química , Carbono/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanotecnologia , Pós , Soluções , Difração de Raios X
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 48(67): 8428-30, 2012 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22797515

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of a three-dimensional (3D) macroassembly of graphene sheets with electrical conductivity (∼10(2) S m(-1)) and Young's modulus (∼50 MPa) orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported, super-compressive deformation behavior (∼60% failure strain), and surface areas (>1300 m(2) g(-1)) approaching theoretically maximum values.

17.
Chemistry ; 18(34): 10476-9, 2012 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22806772

RESUMO

Beneath the sheets: (31) P NMR data suggests that phosphates are liberated freely in the interlayer of a cobalt-hydroxide water-oxidation catalyst. The cobalt-hydroxide sheets are separated by an interlayer region with water, counterions and phosphate, which help to shuttle protons as the layer develops charge.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(5): 2806-12, 2012 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22316095

RESUMO

Environmental and geochemical systems containing paramagnetic species could benefit by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy due to the sensitivity of the spectral response to small amounts paramagnetic interactions. In this study, we apply commonly used solid-state NMR spectroscopic methods combined with chemometrics analysis to probe sorption behavior of the paramagnetic cations Cu(2+) and Ni(2+)at the amorphous silica surface. We exploit the unique properties of paramagnets to derive meaningful structural information in these systems at low, environmentally relevant cation surface loadings by comparing the NMR response of sorption samples to paramagnetic free samples. These data suggest that a simple sorption model where the cation sorbs as inner sphere complexes at negatively charged, deprotonated silanol sites is appropriate. These results help constrain sorption models that are used to describe metal fate and transport.


Assuntos
Cátions Bivalentes/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metais/química , Elementos de Transição/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Modelos Químicos , Soluções , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Magn Reson Chem ; 47(12): 1062-70, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19821466

RESUMO

Pb-containing hydroxylapatite phases synthesized under aqueous conditions were investigated by X-ray diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to determine the Pb, Ca distribution. 31P and 1H magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR results indicate slight shifts of the isotropic chemical shift with increased Ca content and complex lineshapes at compositions with near equal amounts of Ca and Pb. 31P{207Pb} and 1H{207Pb} rotational-echo double resonance (REDOR) results for intermediate compositions show that resolved spectral features cannot be assigned simply in terms of local Ca, Pb configurations or coexisting phases. 207Pb MAS NMR spectra are easily obtained for these materials and contain well-resolved resonances for crystallographically unique A1 and A2 Pb sites. Splitting of the A1 and A2 207Pb resonances for pure hydroxyl-pyromorphite (Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2) compared to natural pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl) suggests symmetry reduced from hexagonal. We find that 207Pb{1H} CP/MAS NMR is impractical in Pb-rich hydroxylapatites due to fast 207Pb relaxation.

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