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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825225

RESUMO

DATA: No data sharing availability BACKGROUND: In the United States 2018 bradycardia guideline, the current class III recommendation that patients with permanent pacemaker (PPM) indications and high multimorbidity burden may not have meaningful clinical benefit from PPM therapy is based on limited data. METHODS: Observational study (1/1/2008-12/31/2015) of adults ≥ 65 years (N = 16,678) who underwent PPM implantation. Exposure variable: Elixhauser comorbidity number (ECN, 29 well-validated conditions). PRIMARY OUTCOME: ≤ 1-year mortality; secondary outcome: > 1-year mortality. RESULTS: Those who died ≤ 1-year were older, had a lower body mass index (BMI), and higher ECN (P<0.001). Cumulative survival at 1-year was 92.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.9-92.7). One-year survival decreased by increasing ECN - with a difference at 1-year between lowest and highest ECN category of 17.3% [ECN 0-1: 97.1% (95% CI: 96.3-97.7); ECN ≥8: 79.8% (95% CI: 77.9-81.5)]. For those who survived the first year, cumulative survival at 8-years was 51.2% (95% CI = 49.8-52.6) with a difference between ECN 0-1 and ≥8 of 43.4%. Increasing ECN was associated equally with ≤ 1-year [HR 1.28 (95% CI: 1.25 - 1.30)] and > 1-year [HR 1.19 (95% CI: 1.17 - 1.20)] mortality. A predictive model including age, sex, BMI, PPM type, race, and ECN had greater discriminative ability (p<0.0001) than a bedside model (age, sex) for the primary outcome. CONCLUSION: Across the heterogeneity of indications for PPM placement, multimorbidity is increasingly common. The association of multimorbidity to mortality (≤ 1-year, >1-year) should be routinely discussed during the shared decision-making process as an important prognostic geriatric domain variable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688915

RESUMO

Importance: Accurate prediction of adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can guide the triage of care services and shared decision-making, and novel methods hold promise for using existing data to generate additional insights. Objective: To evaluate whether contemporary machine learning methods can facilitate risk prediction by including a larger number of variables and identifying complex relationships between predictors and outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used the American College of Cardiology Chest Pain-MI Registry to identify all AMI hospitalizations between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2016. Data analysis was performed from February 1, 2018, to October 22, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Three machine learning models were developed and validated to predict in-hospital mortality based on patient comorbidities, medical history, presentation characteristics, and initial laboratory values. Models were developed based on extreme gradient descent boosting (XGBoost, an interpretable model), a neural network, and a meta-classifier model. Their accuracy was compared against the current standard developed using a logistic regression model in a validation sample. Results: A total of 755 402 patients (mean [SD] age, 65 [13] years; 495 202 [65.5%] male) were identified during the study period. In independent validation, 2 machine learning models, gradient descent boosting and meta-classifier (combination including inputs from gradient descent boosting and a neural network), marginally improved discrimination compared with logistic regression (C statistic, 0.90 for best performing machine learning model vs 0.89 for logistic regression). Nearly perfect calibration in independent validation data was found in the XGBoost (slope of predicted to observed events, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.04) and the meta-classifier model (slope of predicted-to-observed events, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.02), with more precise classification across the risk spectrum. The XGBoost model reclassified 32 393 of 121 839 individuals (27%) and the meta-classifier model reclassified 30 836 of 121 839 individuals (25%) deemed at moderate to high risk for death in logistic regression as low risk, which were more consistent with the observed event rates. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study using a large national registry, none of the tested machine learning models were associated with substantive improvement in the discrimination of in-hospital mortality after AMI, limiting their clinical utility. However, compared with logistic regression, XGBoost and meta-classifier models, but not the neural network, offered improved resolution of risk for high-risk individuals.

3.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(3): e006570, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among Medicare value-based payment programs for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program uses International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes to identify the program denominator, while the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Advanced program uses diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). The extent to which these programs target similar patients, whether they target the intended population (type 1 myocardial infarction), and whether outcomes are comparable between cohorts is not known. METHODS: In a retrospective study of 2176 patients hospitalized in an integrated health system, a cohort of patients assigned a principal ICD-10 diagnosis of AMI and a cohort of patients assigned an AMI DRG were compared according to patient-level agreement and outcomes such as mortality and readmission. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred thirty-five patients were included in the ICD-10 cohort compared with 662 patients in the DRG cohort. Only 421 patients were included in both AMI cohorts (19.3% agreement). DRG cohort patients were older (70 versus 65 years, P<0.001), more often female (48% versus 30%, P<0.001), and had higher rates of heart failure (52% versus 33%, P<0.001) and kidney disease (42% versus 25%, P<0.001). Comparing outcomes, the DRG cohort had significantly higher unadjusted rates of 30-day mortality (6.6% versus 2.5%, P<0.001), 1-year mortality (21% versus 8%, P<0.001), and 90-day readmission (26% versus 19%, P=0.006) than the ICD-10 cohort. Two observations help explain these differences: 61% of ICD-10 cohort patients were assigned procedural DRGs for revascularization instead of an AMI DRG, and type 1 myocardial infarction patients made up a smaller proportion of the DRG cohort (34%) than the ICD-10 cohort (78%). CONCLUSIONS: The method used to identify denominators for value-based payment programs has important implications for the patient characteristics and outcomes of the populations. As national and local quality initiatives mature, an emphasis on ICD-10 codes to define AMI cohorts would better represent type 1 myocardial infarction patients.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037748, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616664

RESUMO

Importance: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices, including intravascular microaxial left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs), are used in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock despite limited evidence of their clinical benefit. Objective: To examine trends in the use of MCS devices among patients who underwent PCI for AMI with cardiogenic shock, hospital-level use variation, and factors associated with use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used the CathPCI and Chest Pain-MI Registries of the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry. Patients who underwent PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock between October 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017, were identified from both registries. Data were analyzed from October 2018 to August 2020. Exposures: Therapies to provide hemodynamic support were categorized as intravascular microaxial LVAD, IABP, TandemHeart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LVAD, other devices, combined IABP and intravascular microaxial LVAD, combined IABP and other device (defined as TandemHeart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LVAD, or another MCS device), or medical therapy only. Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of MCS devices overall and specific MCS devices, including intravascular microaxial LVAD, at both patient and hospital levels and variables associated with use. Results: Among the 28 304 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.6) years and 18 968 were men (67.0%). The overall MCS device use was constant from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the fourth quarter of 2017, although use of intravascular microaxial LVADs significantly increased (from 4.1% to 9.8%; P < .001), whereas use of IABPs significantly decreased (from 34.8% to 30.0%; P < .001). A significant hospital-level variation in MCS device use was found. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) proportion of patients who received MCS devices was 42% (30%-54%), and the median proportion of patients who received intravascular microaxial LVADs was 1% (0%-10%). In multivariable analyses, cardiac arrest at first medical contact or during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.58-2.09) and severe left main and/or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.20-1.54) were patient characteristics that were associated with higher odds of receiving intravascular microaxial LVADs only compared with IABPs only. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, among patients who underwent PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock, overall use of MCS devices was constant, and a 2.5-fold increase in intravascular microaxial LVAD use was found along with a corresponding decrease in IABP use and a significant hospital-level variation in MCS device use. These trends were observed despite limited clinical trial evidence of improved outcomes associated with device use.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550362

RESUMO

AIMS: Quality indicators (QIs) are tools to improve the delivery of evidence-base medicine. In 2017, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Association for Acute Cardiovascular Care (ACVC) developed a set of QIs for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which have been evaluated at national and international levels and across different populations. However, an update of these QIs is needed in light of the accumulated experience and the changes in the supporting evidence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ESC methodology for the QI development was used to update the 2017 ACVC QIs. We identified key domains of AMI care, conducted a literature review, developed a list of candidate QIs, and used a modified Delphi method to select the final set of indicators. The same seven domains of AMI care identified by the 2017 Study Group were retained for this update. For each domain, main and secondary QIs were developed reflecting the essential and complementary aspects of care, respectively. Overall, 26 QIs are proposed in this document, compared to 20 in the 2017 set. New QIs are proposed in this document (e.g. the centre use of high-sensitivity troponin), some were retained or modified (e.g. the in-hospital risk assessment), and others were retired in accordance with the changes in evidence [e.g. the proportion of patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) treated with fondaparinux] and the feasibility assessments (e.g. the proportion of patients with NSTEMI whom risk assessment is performed using the GRACE and CRUSADE risk scores). CONCLUSION: Updated QIs for the management of AMI were developed according to contemporary knowledge and accumulated experience. These QIs may be applied to evaluate and improve the quality of AMI care.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CMS reimbursement guidelines for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) include mandated shared decision making (SDM), but without any manner of assessing the quality of decisions made. We developed and tested a scale meant to assess patients' knowledge of and preferences specific to ICDs. Such a tool would assess these constructs in the clinical environment, targeting resources and support for patients considering a primary prevention ICD. METHODS: Development of the ICD decision quality (ICD-DQ) scale included (1) item creation, (2) content validation using surveys of patients (n = 23) and clinicians (n = 31), and (3) examination of validity and reliability using a survey of patients who previously received an ICD (n = 295, response rate = 72%). RESULTS: The final scale consists of 12 knowledge and 8 preference items. With respect to content validity, clinician and patient respondents agreed on the importance of 19 of 24 candidate knowledge items (79%), and 9 of 11 treatment preference items (81%). Knowledge items exhibited moderate internal validity (α = 0.62, 1 factor), strong test-retest reliability (mean % correct at first administration = 59%, 62% at follow-up, P > .1) and discriminant validity (59% correct for patients, 93% among cardiologists). Short versions of the ICD-DQ were developed for clinical settings, the scores from both of which correlated with the long version in this cohort (11-item (r = 0.90) and a 5-item (r = 0.75)). CONCLUSIONS: The ICD-DQ fills a critical gap in measuring the quality of patients' ICD decisions. They may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of patient decision aids or the quality of SDM in clinical practice.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2035470, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496796

RESUMO

Importance: Frequent right ventricular (RV) pacing can cause and exacerbate heart failure. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be associated with improved outcomes among patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction who need frequent RV pacing, but the patterns of use of CRT vs dual chamber (DC) devices and the associated outcomes among these patients in clinical practice is not known. Objective: To assess outcomes, variability in use of device type, and trends in use of device type over time among patients undergoing implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation who were likely to require frequent RV pacing but who did not have a class I indication for CRT. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) ICD Registry. A total of 3100 Medicare beneficiaries undergoing first-time implantation of CRT defibrillator (CRT-D) or DC-ICD from 2010 to 2016 who had a class I or II guideline ventricular bradycardia pacing indication but not a class I indication for CRT were included. Data were analyzed from August 2018 to October 2019. Exposures: Implantation of a CRT-D or DC-ICD. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and complications were ascertained from Medicare claims data. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and Fine-Gray models were used to evaluate 1-year mortality and heart failure hospitalization, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate 30-day and 90-day complications. All models accounted for clustering. The median odds ratio (MOR) was used to assess variability and represents the odds that a randomly selected patient receiving CRT-D at a hospital with high implant rates would receive CRT-D if they had been treated at a hospital with low CRT-D implant rates. Results: A total of 3100 individuals were included. The mean (SD) age was 76.3 (6.4) years, and 2500 (80.6%) were men. The 1698 patients (54.7%) receiving CRT-D were more likely than those receiving DC-ICD to have third-degree atrioventricular block (828 [48.8%] vs 432 [30.8%]; P < .001), nonischemic cardiomyopathy (508 [29.9%] vs 255 [18.2%]; P < .001), and prior heart failure hospitalizations (703 [41.4%] vs 421 [30.0%]; P < .001). Following adjustment, CRT-D was associated with lower 1-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.57-0.87; P = .001) and heart failure hospitalization (subdistribution HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97; P = .02) and no difference in complications compared with DC-ICD. Hospital variation in use of CRT was present (MOR, 2.00), and the use of CRT in this cohort was higher over time (654 of 1351 [48.4%] in 2010 vs 362 of 594 [60.9%] in 2016; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of older patients in contemporary practice undergoing ICD implantation with a bradycardia pacing indication but without a class I indication for CRT, CRT-D was associated with better outcomes compared with DC devices. Variability in use of device type was observed, and the rate of CRT implantation increased over time.


Assuntos
Bradicardia/terapia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Idoso , Bradicardia/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade
9.
Am Heart J ; 235: 113-124, 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding avoidance strategies (BASs) are increasingly adopted for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) due to bleeding complications. However, their association with bleeding events outside of Western countries remains unclear. In collaboration with the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) CathPCI registry, we aimed to assess the time trend and impact of BAS utilization among Japanese patients. METHODS: Our study included 19,656 consecutive PCI patients registered over 10 years. These patients were divided into 4-time frame groups (T1: 2008-2011, T2: 2012-2013, T3: 2014-2015, and T4: 2016-2018). BAS was defined as the use of transradial approach or vascular closure device (VCD) use after transfemoral approach (TFA). Model performance of the NCDR CathPCI bleeding model was evaluated. The degree of bleeding reduction associated with BAS adoption was estimated via multilevel mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The NCDR CathPCI bleeding risk score demonstrated good discrimination in the Japanese population (C-statistics 0.79-0.81). The BAS adoption rate increased from 43% (T1) to 91% (T4), whereas the crude CathPCI-defined bleeding rate decreased from 10% (T1) to 7% (T4). Adjusted odds ratios for bleeding events were 0.25 (95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.45, P< .001) for those undergoing TFA with VCD in T4 and 0.26 (95% confidence interval 0.20-0.35, P< .001) for transradial approach in T4 compared to patients that received TFA without VCD in T1. CONCLUSIONS: BAS use over the studied time frames was associated with lower risk of bleeding complications among Japanese. Nonetheless, observed bleeding rates remained higher compared to the US population.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e018877, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506684

RESUMO

Background Quality of care incentives and reimbursements for cardiovascular testing differ between insurance providers. We hypothesized that there are differences in the use of guideline-concordant testing between Medicaid versus commercial insurance patients <65 years, and between Medicare Advantage versus Medicare fee-for-service patients ≥65 years. Methods and Results Using data from the Colorado All-Payer Claims Database from 2015 to 2018, we identified patients eligible to receive a high-value test recommended by guidelines: assessment of left ventricular function among patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction or incident heart failure, or a low-value test that provides minimal patient benefit: stress testing prior to low-risk surgery or routine stress testing within 2 years of percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Among 145 616 eligible patients, 37% had fee-for-service Medicare, 18% Medicare Advantage, 22% Medicaid, and 23% commercial insurance. Using multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for patient characteristics, Medicaid patients were less likely to receive high-value testing for acute myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR], 0.84 [0.73-0.98]; P=0.03) and heart failure (OR, 0.59 [0.51-0.70]; P<0.01) compared with commercially insured patients. Medicare Advantage patients were more likely to receive high-value testing for acute myocardial infarction (OR, 1.35 [1.15-1.59]; P<0.01) and less likely to receive low-value testing after percutaneous coronary intervention/ coronary artery bypass graft (OR, 0.63 [0.55-0.72]; P<0.01) compared with Medicare fee-for-service patients. Conclusions Guideline-concordant testing was less likely to occur among patients with Medicaid compared with commercial insurance, and more likely to occur among patients with Medicare Advantage compared with fee-for-service Medicare. Insurance plan features may provide valuable targets to improve guideline-concordant testing.

12.
JAMA ; 324(17): 1755-1764, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141208

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about the association between industry payments and medical device selection. Objective: To examine the association between payments from device manufacturers to physicians and device selection for patients undergoing first-time implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, patients who received a first-time ICD or CRT-D device from any of the 4 major manufacturers (January 1, 2016-December 31, 2018) were identified. The data from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry was linked with the Open Payments Program's payment data. Patients were categorized into 4 groups (A, B, C, and D) corresponding to the manufacturer from which the physician who performed the implantation received the largest payment. For each patient group, the proportion of patients who received a device from the manufacturer that provided the largest payment to the physician who performed implantation was determined. Within each group, the absolute difference in proportional use of devices between the manufacturer that made the highest payment and the proportion of devices from the same manufacturer in the entire study cohort (expected prevalence) was calculated. Exposures: Manufacturers' payments to physicians who performed an ICD or CRT-D implantation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of the study was the manufacturer of the device used for the implantation. Results: Over a 3-year period, 145 900 patients (median age, 65 years; 29.6% women) received ICD or CRT-D devices from the 4 manufacturers implanted by 4435 physicians at 1763 facilities. Among these physicians, 4152 (94%) received payments from device manufacturers ranging from $2 to $323 559 with a median payment of $1211 (interquartile range, $390-$3702). Between 38.5% and 54.7% of patients received devices from the manufacturers that had provided physicians with the largest payments. Patients were substantially more likely to receive devices made by the manufacturer that provided the largest payment to the physician who performed implantation than they were from each other individual manufacturer. The absolute differences in proportional use from the expected prevalence were 22.4% (95% CI, 21.9%-22.9%) for manufacturer A; 14.5% (95% CI, 14.0%-15.0%) for manufacturer B; 18.8% (95% CI, 18.2%-19.4%) for manufacturer C; and 30.6% (95% CI, 30.0%-31.2%) for manufacturer D. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, a large proportion of ICD or CRT-D implantations were performed by physicians who received payments from device manufacturers. Patients were more likely to receive ICD or CRT-D devices from the manufacturer that provided the highest total payment to the physician who performed an ICD or CRT-D implantation than each other manufacturer individually.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/economia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/economia , Renda , Indústria Manufatureira/economia , Médicos/economia , Idoso , Dispositivos de Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira/classificação , Sistema de Registros
13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(21): 2492-2516, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213729

RESUMO

The STS-ACC TVT Registry (Society of Thoracic Surgeons-American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry) from 2011 to 2019 has collected data on 276,316 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) at sites in all U.S. states. Volumes have increased every year, exceeding surgical aortic valve replacement in 2019 (72,991 vs. 57,626), and it is now performed in all U.S. states. TAVR now extends from extreme- to low-risk patients. This is the first presentation on 8,395 low-risk patients treated in 2019. In 2019, for the entire cohort, femoral access increased to 95.3%, hospital stay was 2 days, and 90.3% were discharged home. Since 2011, the 30-day mortality rate has decreased (7.2% to 2.5%), stroke has started to decrease (2.75% to 2.3%), but pacemaker need is unchanged (10.9% to 10.8%). Alive with acceptable patient-reported outcomes is achieved in 8 of 10 patients at 1 year. The Registry is a national resource to improve care and analyze TAVR's evolution. Real-world outcomes, site performance, and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 will be subsequently studied. (STS/ACC Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry [TVT Registry]; NCT01737528).

14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213826

RESUMO

The STS-ACC TVT Registry (Society of Thoracic Surgeons-American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry) from 2011 to 2019 has collected data on 276,316 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) at sites in all U.S. states. Volumes have increased every year, exceeding surgical aortic valve replacement in 2019 (72,991 vs. 57,626), and it is now performed in all U.S. states. TAVR now extends from extreme- to low-risk patients. This is the first presentation on 8,395 low-risk patients treated in 2019. In 2019, for the entire cohort, femoral access increased to 95.3%, hospital stay was 2 days, and 90.3% were discharged home. Since 2011, the 30-day mortality rate has decreased (7.2% to 2.5%), stroke has started to decrease (2.75% to 2.3%), but pacemaker need is unchanged (10.9% to 10.8%). Alive with acceptable patient-reported outcomes is achieved in 8 of 10 patients at 1 year. The Registry is a national resource to improve care and analyze TAVR's evolution. Real-world outcomes, site performance, and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 will be subsequently studied. (STS/ACC Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry [TVT Registry]; NCT01737528).

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(20): e016980, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045889

RESUMO

Background The likelihood of undergoing reoperative coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is important for older patients who are considering first-time CABG. Trends in the reoperative CABG for these patients are unknown. Methods and Results We used the Medicare fee-for-service inpatient claims data of adults undergoing isolated first-time CABG between 1998 and 2017. The primary outcome was time to first reoperative CABG within 5 years of discharge from the index surgery, treating death as a competing risk. We fitted a Cox regression to model the likelihood of reoperative CABG as a function of patient baseline characteristics. There were 1 666 875 unique patients undergoing first-time isolated CABG and surviving to hospital discharge. The median (interquartile range) age of patients did not change significantly over time (from 74 [69-78] in 1998 to 73 [69-78] in 2017); the proportion of women decreased from 34.8% to 26.1%. The 5-year rate of reoperative CABG declined from 0.77% (95% CI, 0.72%-0.82%) in 1998 to 0.23% (95% CI, 0.19%-0.28%) in 2013. The annual proportional decline in the 5-year rate of reoperative CABG overall was 6.6% (95% CI, 6.0%-7.1%) nationwide, which did not differ across subgroups, except the non-white non-black race group that had an annual decline of 8.5% (95% CI, 6.2%-10.7%). Conclusions Over a recent 20-year period, the Medicare fee-for-service patients experienced a significant decline in the rate of reoperative CABG. In this cohort of older adults, the rate of declining differed across demographic subgroups.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2021182, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095248

RESUMO

Importance: Variations across regions for managing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in China are little understood. Objective: To evaluate geographic variation and its change with time in treatment process and outcomes for patients with AMI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events-Retrospective AMI project in 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2015 in 153 randomly selected hospitals across China. Patients were hospitalized for AMI. Data were analyzed from October 1 to October 31, 2019. Exposures: Hospitalization in 3 geographic regions (Eastern, Central, and Western) stratified according to China's official definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Process of care measures included reperfusion therapies, aspirin, clopidogrel, ß-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. Therapy use was analyzed among patients who were clinically eligible without contraindications (considered as ideal candidates for treatments). Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and 5-day mortality. Mixed models were used to assess the regional disparities and time-region interactions in those measures, adjusting for patient characteristics. Results: In 153 hospitals across China, 27 046 patient hospitalizations for AMI were sampled. There was a significant difference across regions in process of care and the odds ratio (OR) of delivering any 1 of the 6 treatments to an ideal patient was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91; P < .001) for the lowest region compared with the highest region. The variation between the 2 higher regions narrowed (time-by-Eastern region interaction: OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; P < .001). The region with the highest in-hospital mortality had 1.46 times greater in-hospital mortality (95% CI, 1.07-2.00; P < .001) than the lowest region and the region with the highest 5-day mortality had 1.52 times greater 5-day mortality (95% CI, 1.09-2.11; P = .04) than the lowest region. The geographic variation in mortality did not change over time. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, significant geographic variations in process of care and outcomes were found to persist in China; further targeted and region-based approaches to AMI management are warranted.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(11): 1328-1340, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adoption of the results of large-scale randomized controlled trials in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may differ internationally, yet few studies have described the potential variations in PCI practice patterns. OBJECTIVES: Using representative national registries, we compared temporal trends in procedural volume, patient characteristics, pre-procedural testing, procedural characteristics, and quality metrics in the United States and Japan. METHODS: The National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI was used to describe care in the United States, and the J-PCI was used to assess practice patterns in Japan (numbers of participating hospitals: 1,752 in the United States and 1,108 in Japan). Both registries were summarized between 2013 and 2017. RESULTS: PCI volume increased by 15.8% in the United States from 550,872 in 2013 to 637,650 in 2017, primarily because of an increase in nonelective PCIs (p for trend <0.001). In Japan, the volume of PCIs increased by 36%, from 181,750 in 2013 to 247,274 in 2017, primarily because of an increase in elective PCIs (p for trend <0.001). The proportion of PCI cases for elective conditions was >2-fold greater in Japan (72.7%) than in the United States (33.8%; p < 0.001). Overall, the ratio of nonelective PCI (vs. elective PCI; 27.3% vs. 66.2%; p < 0.001) and the performance of noninvasive stress testing in patients with stable disease (15.2% vs. 55.3%; p < 0.001) was lower in Japan than in the United States. Computed tomography angiography was more commonly used in Japan (22.3% vs. 2.0%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Elective PCI is more than twice as common in Japan as in the United States in contemporary practice. Computed tomography angiography is much more frequently used pre-procedurally in Japan than in the United States.

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